Other Phenotypes in the Adrenergic Receptor Knockouts

Initial work has begun to explore other a1-AR physiological effects, primarily involving metabolism and behavior, as summarized in Table 5. The D KO had a very interesting increase in daily food and water intake, which might in part have been related to chronic hypotension (17). The B KO had a variety of abnormalities of glucose metabolism, including insulin resistance, increased plasma leptin, increased percentage body fat (with no change in body weight), and glucose intolerance and obesity...

Role of pAdrenergic Receptors in the Regulation of Fat Metabolism

The sympathetic nervous system can regulate body temperature through PARs in adipose tissue. Pharmacological treatment with P-AR-selective agonists showed that all three P-ARs may play a role in sympathetically driven thermo-genesis however, the relative importance of each is unknown. Stimulating Pi-, P2-, and P3-ARs all lead to activation of Gsa and protein kinase A (PKA) and subsequent stimulation of lipolysis in white adipocytes and thermogenesis in brown adipocytes (48). The P3-AR is...

Localization Based on In Situ or Autoradiography a2Adrenergic Receptors 31 Brain

In early studies, localization of a2-ARs in the rat brain with 3H idazoxan binding sites closely paralleled that of 3H clonidine sites and corresponded to areas of noradrenergic innervation. The a2-ARs, labeled with 3H idazoxan, were found mainly in laminae II, III, and X, with moderate densities in lamina IX of the cerebral cortex (5). Densest 3H idazoxan labeling appeared over anterior olfactory nuclei, fundus striatum, septum, thalamus, hypothalamus, amygdala, entorhinal cortex, central...

Adrenergic Receptors in the Urogenital Tract

The expression pattern of adrenergic receptors and their subtypes within the urogenital tract varies greatly among the individual tissues. The human kidney expresses few aradrenergic receptors (and these are primarily on renal arteries and of the a1A subtype 29), but a large number of -adrenergic receptors, particularly the -subtype, are involved in the regulation of vascular resistance, inhibition of renin release, and modulation of tubular function (60). Hence, blood pressure lowering by...