Alternative Medicine Ebooks
What Is Complementary and Alternative Medicine Integrating Complementary and Alternative Medicine into Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use in the 1990s Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use in the 21st Century Energy Medicine Frontier Science of Complementary and Alternative Medicine collaborating across the spectrum of healing practices and health professionals Work is already underway with initiatives such as TransforMed and P4. In addition, the field of family medicine has taken the lead and is currently pioneering work bringing complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and integrative medicine into residency training and clinical care (Benn et al., 2009). Complementary and alternative medicine is based on multiple healing traditions practiced long before conventional Western medicine. Emerging from diverse cultural traditions worldwide, these approaches to health and healing offer the wisdom of their unique perspective on the human condition. Many traditional...
The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies by patients has become commonplace. Discussions about the current or past use of CAM modalities is important for developing a clear understanding of the patient's beliefs and preferences and for avoiding potentially harmful interactions.
Historically, medical pluralism has long existed in the United States (Kaptchuk and Eisenberg, 2001a). Over the past few decades, alternative medicine has become a more recognized entity within conventional medicine. Because of the public's growing use of CAM, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) created an Office of Alternative Medicine (OAM) in 1992, with the intention of bringing its scientific expertise to more adequately explore unconventional medical practices (NCCAM, 2000). Because of Americans' ongoing and increasing use of CAM, the OAM was expanded to the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) in 1998, guided by the following mission statement (2000) We are dedicated to exploring complementary and alternative healing practices in the context of rigorous science, training researchers, and disseminating authoritative information to the public and professional communities. After a decade of work in the field, NCCAM has become a leading resource for...
Choosing an acceptable definition of EBM is difficult since there are so many definitions available'7'. This is partly because EBM has evolved so much since 1992, and partly because various healthcare professions have modified its definition to suit particular fields. Thus, there are definitions for evidence-based surgery'8', evidence-based nursing'9', evidence-based pediatrics'10', evidence-based psychiatry'11', evidence-based healthcare'12' and even evidence-based alternative medicine'13', to state a few. Our search for the best definition led to the conclusion that there are too many definitions, so what the heck, here's our own
The current main stream of medicine is the scientific variety. Other forms of health care outside the main stream fall into the category of complementary or alternative medicine. In the modern sense, alternative complementary medicine includes not only the herbal streams, but any other form of medicine that is unrelated to the modern scientific stream. When the American Medical Association did a survey in the USA aimed at the revelation of the popularities and users of alternative medicine, 17 modalities were targeted.6 These included the following 10. Folk remedies
Studies have shown that the frequency of use of complementary or alternative medical therapy in the United States is far greater than previously reported. These therapies include relaxation techniques, imagery, chiropractic, massage, spiritual healing, herbal medicine, acupuncture, homeopathy, folk remedies, and prayer, to name a few. It has been estimated that 42 of the American population uses at least one of these and other alternative healing methods to satisfy their medical needs. The most common users of complementary and alternative therapy are the more affluent people, women, those better educated, individuals born after 1950, and those who are concerned about emotional stress and the environment. The most common therapies were relaxation techniques (18 ), massage (12 ), herbal medicine (10 ), and megavitamin therapy (9 ). The perceived efficacy of these therapies ranged from 76 (hypnosis) to 98 (energy healing). The number of visits to providers of this health care is greater...
Barnes PM, Powell-Griner E, McFann K, et al Complementary and alternative medicine use among adults United States, 2002. CDC Advance Data 343 1, 2004. Chenot JF, Becker A, Leonhardt C, et al Use of complementary alternative medicine for low back pain consulting in general practice A cohort study. BMC Complement Altern Med 7(1) 42, 2007. Eisenberg DM, Davis RB, Ettner SL, et al Trends in alternative medicine use in the United States, 1990-1997 Results of a follow-up national survey. JAMA 280 1569, 1998. Ernst E The role of complementary and alternative medicine. BMJ 321 1133, 2000. Gray CM, Tan AW, Pronk NP, et al Complementary and alternative medicine use among health plan members A cross-sectional survey. Eff Clin Pract 5 17, 2002. Hager M (ed) Education of Health Professionals in Complementary Alternative Medicine. New York, Josiah Macy, Jr. Foundation, 2001. J Altern Complement Med 5 47, 1999. Marcus DM How should alternative medicine be taught to medical students and physicians...
The White House Commission on Complementary and Alternative Medicine Policy (WHCCAMP) 2002 report was the culmination of 18 months of in-depth work of a committee of 20 appointed commissioners. Their task was to provide the president, through the secretary of Health and Human Services, with a report containing legislative and administrative recommendations that would ensure a public policy that maximized the potential benefits of CAM to all. Specifically, the commission addressed the coordination of research to increase knowledge about CAM products the education and training of health care practitioners in CAM the provision of reliable and useful information about CAM practices and products to health care professionals and guidance regarding appropriate access to and delivery of CAM. Table 11-4 lists the 10 guiding principles the commission endorsed for their process of making recommendations. The final report lists 29 recommendations and more than 100 action steps as a blueprint for...
Alternative medicine has more than a century of astute clinical observation of the musculoskeletal system. It is worth the effort of trying to integrate this into medical and biomechanical research. Osteopathy, chiropractic, and physical therapy each use different terms and emphasize different features, but they share many underlying ideas about back pain. The key concept is of a painful musculoskeletal dysfunction, which may occur in tissues that are structurally normal. It is a primary dysfunction arising in response to abnormal forces imposed on or generated within the musculoskeletal system. Normal function of the locomotor system includes
Alternative medicine is only one of a number of new topics in the NCS-R that were not covered in the baseline NCS. Another one of special importance is violence. Violence is an issue of increasing concern that is being assessed in the NCS-R in several ways. For one, we are evaluating the possibility that, as with the ICD and DSM criteria for depression among children and adolescents, irritability should be considered an alternative to dysphoria or anhedonia in evaluating the prevalence of depressive disorders among adults. Second, we are evaluating anger attacks in parallel with panic attacks in an assessment of intermittent explosive disorder. Third, we are assessing hostility as a personality characteristic and the use of violence (in interpersonal relationships as well as in broader interactions) as a strategy for resolving disagreements. We are also collecting data on the recent prevalences of carrying weapons and being involved in physical fights.
The scope of faith healing reflects the medical knowledge of the time. In the Middle Ages, for example, kings were believed to be capable of curing tuberculosis, then called scrofula. Today, tuberculosis can be prevented and treated by conventional medicine, and faith healers no longer attempt to cure it. As with other forms of alternative medicine, faith healing tends to offer hope for conditions that conventional medicine cannot cure or treat effectively at that point in time.
Bubley, Glenn J., with Conkling, Winifred. What Your Doctor May Not Tell You About Prostate Cancer The Breakthrough Information and Treatments That Can Help Save Your Life. New York Warner Books, 2005. This book was written by a Boston oncologist whose practice includes many patients with recurrent prostate cancer. For such men it is a useful book, since it contains excellent chapters on experimental treatments and clinical trials. The chapters on natural remedies (herbs, vitamins, and minerals), dietary factors, and support groups are also recommended. The author summarizes traditional treatments in an unbiased but somewhat sketchy manner. The weakest element is the histrionic title the book is, in fact, much better than its cover would suggest.
For cervical myelopathy secondary to OPLL, modalities that have been applied for myelopathy due to spondylosis and disc herniation have been adopted for the most part. When strictly classifying modalities for OPLL, the treatment is either conservative or surgical the former includes (1) a cervical orthosis and halter or skull traction that aims to avoid the effects of dynamic factors (2) corticosteroids for spinal cord edema (3) nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for pain control (4) bisphosphonates to prevent progression of the ossification and (5) alternative medicine for pain control. The latter consists of spinal cord decompression by an anterior or posterior procedure and spinal stabilization.
By 1999, prostate cancer researchers had begun testing PC-SPES and reporting that it did indeed lower the PSA and shrink the prostate. Michael Milken's Prostate Cancer Foundation gave Chen a grant of 150,000 and provided an additional 500,000 for researchers to test it. The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, part of the National Institutes of Health, also provided funds. Some of the researchers who were involved in testing PC-SPES were, like Sophie Chen, on the faculty of New York Medical College and from her received ''small amounts of company stock.''11
Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies are most frequently administered in combination with traditional therapeutic interventions for back pain. 2. The medical evidence to support specific complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatments for back pain may be unavailable, insufficient, or conflicting depending on the specific intervention that is evaluated. 2. Atchison JW, Taub NS, Cotter AC, et al. Complementary and alternative medicine treatments for low back pain. In Lox DM, editor. Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Low Back Pain. Philadelphia Hanley & Belfus 1999. p. 561-86.
We must always remember that there are two separate systems of health care for back pain in the US. Conventional medicine and alternative medicine are completely independent and competing. Conventional medicine offers a wide range of specialties. But alternative medicine also offers a wide range of choices, of which chiropractic is simply the largest and most powerful. There are fundamental differences in philosophy and practice between the different health care systems, even though they share some therapies in common.
Aromatherapists usually treat their clients (patients) after an initial full consultation, which usually involves taking down a full medical case history. The aromatherapist then decides what treatment to give, which usually involves massage with three essential oils, often one each chosen from those with top, middle, and base perfumery notes, which balances the mixture. Sometimes only specific essential oils for the disease are used. Most aromatherapists arrange to see the client 3-5 times and the mixture will often be changed on the next visit, if not on each visit, in order to treat all the possible symptoms presented by the client (holistically), or simply as a substitute when no improvement was initially obtained. Treatment may involve other alternative medicine procedures, including chakras.
Families sometimes practice traditional folk remedies with their children, such as cupping, coining, and moxibustion. Each of these practices leaves markings on the child's skin, which may be interpreted as child abuse. In cupping, a flammable object is ignited and placed into a cup. After the flames have extinguished, the cup is inverted and placed onto the child's skin. As the warm air within the cup cools, a vacuum is produced. This remedy leaves circular suction markings. Coining is done by rubbing a coin up and down the child's back, just lateral to the spine. This results in petechiae and chronic skin changes on the back. Coining and cupping should not be painful to the child and neither should be reported as child abuse. In moxibustion, a flammable object, such as a thread, is ignited on or near the child's skin. Moxibustion may cause superficial burns. Whether moxibustion is reported as child abuse would depend on the physical findings and the judgment of the physician.
If the pain still does not resolve, the patient should be provided with reassurance. If not already performed, imaging studies are appropriate. MRI should be interpreted cautiously and correlated with clinical findings. If serious spinal pathology requiring referral to a spine specialist is not identified, supportive treatment is continued. Determine the severity of pain perception and how it interferes physically, psychosocially, and psycho-emotionally with function. Treatment options at this point include active physical therapy, medication, manipulation, and alternative medicine techniques such as acupuncture or yoga.
Figure 11-4 shows the disease or condition for which adults and children are most likely to seek CAM. The 2002 survey also addressed the important question Why do people use CAM Previous studies revealed general issues of the overuse of technology and a reductionist approach to care, managed-care time constraints limiting visits and eroding the physician-patient relationship, and the explosion of Internet-based information on CAM. Astin (1998) found that along with being more educated and reporting poor health status, most alternative medicine users were not dissatisfied with conventional medicine, but rather found these health care alternatives to be more congruent with their own values, beliefs, and philosophic orientations toward health and life. Only 4.4 reported relying primarily on CAM therapies for their health care. A subsequent study of patients using both CAM and conventional care also found that use of CAM did not primarily reflect dissatisfaction with conventional care...
Interest in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for health disorders has been growing steadily in the last several decades. As a result, a greater number of alternative or complementary agents are being tested in more methodologically rigorous ways, allowing greater scientific assessment of such treatments. Survey evidence suggests that as many as 40 to 60 of patients may be taking CAM therapies, although patients often do not disclose such use to their physicians (Elkins et al., 2005). In addition, because production of alternative agents is unregulated, variability in product strength, dosing, and purity is common, which in turn likely affects the predictability of their outcomes. Given the widespread use of CAM agents and patients' apparent reluctance to spontaneously disclose such use to their providers, it is incumbent on physicians to inquire about such use.
Alternative medicine covers a broad spectrum of therapies, ranging from special diets, vitamin and mineral supplements, and herbal therapies to hyperthermia, ultrasound, light therapy, gene therapy, magnets, acupuncture, moxibustion, yoga, massage therapy, relaxation exercises, and prayer. There is some evidence that specific dietary factors may be useful in preventing or slowing the growth of prostate cancer these factors, along with vitamins and minerals, are discussed in Chapter 13. The present chapter will focus on herbal therapies as well as other experimental therapies being studied for the possible treatment of newly diagnosed prostate cancer. Drugs and other experimental treatments for recurrent prostate cancer are examined in Chapter 11.
During inpatient care, the physician explores the small personal matters that mean much to patients. These issues include interference with sleep. For example, do medications or blood draws taken too early in the morning or late in the evening awaken the patient Is insomnia associated with anxiety or depression, a noisy roommate, and pain at rest or with certain movements Sleep deprivation may thwart rehabilitation efforts by preventing the consolidation of skills learning and experience-dependent gains in the performance of motor and perceptual procedural memory tasks.12 Other daily discussions may center on the regularity of bowel movements, symptoms that point to a urinary tract infection, phlebitis or aspiration, as well as caloric and fluid intake, short-term therapy goals, how the patient and family are coping with unexpected burdens, and plans for discharge and outpatient care. The physician also reinforces the therapeutic approaches made by the team at its weekly conferences....
An oriental home remedy for diarrhea is to place powdered cloves and cinnamon bark in the child's navel and cover with an adhesive bandage. Keep in place for one to two hours, making sure the skin is not irritated. Repeat for a day or two. If this has not helped, call your healthcare practitioner.
Use of complementary and alternative medicine is common among children who are in active treatment or are survivors of cancer. Small clinical trials have supported the utility of acupuncture or ginger for nausea and vomiting, or hypnosis and guided imagery for pain or anxiety (Ladas et al. 2006). Although some interventions have been found to be safe and effective when used in conjunction with cancer treatment protocols, others present interaction risks. Therefore, open communication must be maintained regarding any additional treatment modalities pursued by the child or teen and family (Quimby 2007).
Research suggests that various factors related to the accessibility of study results are associated with effect sizes in trials. For example, in a series of trials in the field of complementary and alternative medicine, Pittler and colleagues examined the relationship between trial outcome, methodological quality and sample size with characteristics of the journals of publication of these trials (Pittler 2000). They found that trials published in low or non-impact factor journals were more likely to report significant results than those published in high-impact mainstream medical journals and that the quality of the trials was also associated with the journal of publication. Similarly, some studies suggest that trials published in English language journals are more likely to show strong significant effects than those published in non-English language journals (Egger 1997b), however this has not been shown consistently (Moher 2000, Jtini 2002, Pham 2005) see Section 10.2.2.4.
Magic was often used as part of the treatment and gave the patient the expectation of a cure and thus provided a placebo effect (Pinch, 1994). The term placing the hand appears frequently in a large number of medical papyri this probably alludes to the manual examination in order to reach a diagnosis but could also imply cure by the laying on of hands, or even both (Nunn, 1997). This could be the basis of modern massage (with or without aromatherapy). It is certainly the basis of many alternative medicine practices at present (Lis-Balchin, 1997).
The study of adult nutrition tends to focus on prevention and treatment of chronic diseases. There is new interest in optimizing nutrition during this stage to enhance the older adult's quality of life. The public has demonstrated a strong interest in this process with the use of nutrition and nutritional products as an alternative medicine source. Some of these developments, such as antioxidant vitamins, plant-based estrogens, and other functional foods, have not had the desired outcomes (i.e., longer life, enhanced functional status). The Dietary Reference Intakes (National Academy of Sciences, 2005) has addressed this concept of enhanced nutrient intakes through supplements and other products by introducing a new category called tolerable upper intake levels (see Terminology). Many values in this category of nutrient levels are still being researched.
Although the mechanisms proposed for alternative biological cancer cures differ across therapies, most are based on explanations of human physiology and disease that are inconsistent with or unsupported by conventional science. Colon therapy, for example, is based on the idea that high-fat, Western diets lead to an accumulation of a thick, glue-like substance in the colon, which in turn produces disease-causing toxins. The belief in disease-causing toxic material in the body is common in alternative medicine. The idea is not supported by scientific evidence of how the body works, and no mainstream science or research supports the idea.
The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, and the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, both components of the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH), are now sponsoring the Trial to Assess Chelation Therapy. This is the first large, multicenter study to determine the safety and efficacy of EDTA chelation therapy for people with coronary artery disease. As of this writing, the study has completed enrollment. Participants will continue to be followed through 2011, and the results will be analyzed in 2012. These large numbers alone point to the urgent need for further scientific investigation. For that reason and because coronary artery disease is a leading cause of death among men and women in the United States and in other developed countries, research scientists from the U.S. National Institutes of Health Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, and the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute saw a public health need and together designed a...
Simple lifestyle changes have shown to benefit hormonal levels, yet effective treatments, proper lifestyle changes, and surgical options should be further explored. Since antioxidants have been shown to reduce ROS levels, thereby minimizing damage via OS, and have become a hot topic in possibly treatming infertility, this natural remedy should be further explored as a potential treatment for obesity-related male infertility. Additionally, standard and accurate measurements to qualify an individual as obese should be established to confirm the links made to infertility and the health problems that accompany the condition. Nevertheless, the continuing rise and prevalence of both obesity and declining semen quality all over the world, both of which are associated to ROS, call for additional research and a greater awareness to obesity as a potential etiology of male infertility.
Complementary and Alternative Medicine Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is a term used to encompass a variety of therapies (e.g., acupuncture, chiropractic, botanical and nonbotanical dietary supplements, and homeopathy). Painful conditions are among the most common reasons individuals seek relief from CAM. In a recent survey, neck pain, joint pain, arthritis, and headache were among the top ten reasons for use of CAM, and low back pain ranked the number one reason for CAM therapies. Of the CAM therapies, chiropractic and acupuncture are the most accepted and utilized modalities. A variety of dietary supplements have been suggested for painful conditions such as -adenosylmethion-ine (SAM-e), ginger, fish oil, feverfew, y-linoleic acid, glucosamine, and chondroitin.
The concept that indigenous conditions must be considered was increasingly incorporated into medical as well as agricultural writings. China's influence on medical philosophy remained strong, but interest in the study and exploitation of Korea's own traditional folk remedies stimulated the development of independent medical scholarship as may be seen in the Hyang-yak kugup pang (Emergency Remedies of Folk Medicine 1236).
Stasis dermatitis can range from mild to severe. In all stages, reddish brown discoloration is caused by staining from hemosiderin that has leaked out of red blood cells in the overtaxed dermal capillaries. Pedal edema and scaling are also present in various degrees, and one leg can be more affected than the other. ACD is often superimposed on stasis dermatitis and can mislead the physician into suspecting cel-lulitis because of a sudden reddening, weeping, or induration of the area. Because of the impaired skin barrier and frequent use of OTC products and home remedies, neomycin, lanolin, iodine, fragrances, and preservatives are common triggers for ACD in these patients.
Recent individual studies to investigate the benefit of massage for certain complaints have given variable results. Many are positive, although the standard of the studies has, in general, been poor (Vickers, 1996). The most successful applications of massage or aromatherapy massage have been in cancer care, and about a third of patients with cancer use complementary alternative medicine during their illness (Ernst and Cassileth, 1998). Massage is commonly provided within UK cancer services (Kohn, 1999), and although only anecdotal and qualitative evidence is available, it is considered by patients to be beneficial. Only a few small-scale studies among patients with cancer have identified short-term benefits from a course of massage, mainly in terms of reduced anxiety (Corner et al., 1995 Kite et al., 1998 Wilkinson et al., 1999). These studies have been criticized by scientists however, as they were either nonrandomized, had inadequate control groups or were observational in design...
Organic Healing Properties
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