Combined Diffraction and Spectroscopic Techniques

GLOSSARY

Auger effect Rearrangement of atomic electrons, leading to the emission of further photoelectrons, that follows the ejection of a primary atomic electron.

Collimator Series of flat, high X-ray absorbing metal plates, used to limit the vertical divergence of a beam of X rays.

Crystal lattice Unique arrangement of atoms in a specific element or compound determined by the number, size, and bonding configuration of the atoms.

Crystallite orientation Tendency for individual crystallites in a powder sample to lay in a preferred direction because of their external shapes.

Energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry Method for elemental analysis based on the separation of X-ray according to their energies, by use of a lithium-drifted silicon proportional detector.

JCPDS Powder Date File Standard library of approximately 46,000 single-phase diffraction patterns, used in qualitative powder diffractometry.

Mass absorption coefficient (or mass attenuation coefficient) Quantity with the units of square centimeters per gram, representing the absorption of a specific combination of elements for one fixed wavelength.

Photoelectric absorption Loss of energy of a primary X-ray photon following interaction with one or more atomic orbital electrons.

Wavelength-dispersive X-ray spectrometry Method for qualitative and quantitative elemental analysis using the wavelengths of characteristic X-ray emission lines, in which a single diffracting crystal is used to separate the wavelengths from the sample.

X-Ray powder diffraction Technique for phase identification based on measurement of structure sensitive diffracted X-ray lines.

X-RAY ANALYSIS is the identification and characterization of materials through the use of X rays and includes the two techniques of spectrometry and diffractometry. X-Ray fluorescence spectrometry is a means of qualitatively and quantitatively determining elements by measurement of the wavelengths and intensities of characteristic emission wavelengths. The technique is applicable to all but the elements of very low atomic number, with sensitivities down to the low part per million level. X-Ray powder diffractometry uses diffraction data obtained by study of structure-dependent scattering phenomena. The shapes and positions of diffraction peaks can be used to establish a wide range of physical properties, including stress, texture, crystallinity, and particle size, but the main application is for phase identification. A large data base of pure single-phase materials is available so that rapid empirical file-searching techniques can be employed for measuring phases (compounds).

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