Innervation Of The Kidneys And The Proximal Part Of The Ureters

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The autonomic innervation of the kidneys and proximal ureters is as follows:

Sympathetic innervation. Preganglionic neurons course through the lesser, least, and lumbar splanchnic nerves.They synapse in the aorticorenal and superior mesenteric ganglia, where postganglionic neurons course in a renal plexus to the kidneys.

Parasympathetic innervation. Preganglionic parasympa-thetic neurons originate in the brainstem and course in the vagus nerve to enter the abdomen. The vagus nerve branches to become the posterior vagal trunk, which enters the celiac plexus. The neurons join the renal plexus and synapse in the wall of the kidney.

V Kidney stones (renal calculi) are accumulations of crystals that are condensed from the urine. The size of a stone, or calculi, is not as much of a concern as is its shape (smooth or spiked) or site of lodging. Stones that form in the renal pelvis are not problematic. However, if (and when) the stone moves into the ureter, the stone may serve as a dam and prevent or partially prevent the flow of urine.

The kidney continues to produce urine, which backs up behind the stone and may cause the kidney to swell.

The pressure buildup causes much of the pain associated with kidney stones.

However, the pressure also helps to push the stone along until it enters the bladder.

Depending on the level of the location of the stone, which will vary as pressure moves it along, pain will most likely be referred from the lumbar region or to the hypogastric region to the groin.

The pain is referred to the cutaneous areas supplied by the same spinal cord segments that supply the ureter (i.e., lesser splanchnic, T10-T11; least splanchnic, T12; lumbar splanchnic nerves, L1-L2). The urethra has a larger lumen than the ureter, and therefore, the symptoms are usually relieved at this point. ▼

Middle suprarenal a Abdominal aorta

Inferior vena cava

Right kidney

Superior mesenteric a

Perirenal fat

Right testicular vessels

Common iliac a

Sacral plexus

Ductus deferens

Inferior phrenic a. and v.

suprarenal a.

Adrenal gland: Cortex Medulla

Middle suprarenal a Abdominal aorta

Inferior phrenic a. and v.

Inferior vena cava

Right kidney

Perirenal fat

Right testicular vessels

Common iliac a

Sacral plexus

Ductus deferens

Ureter Nerves

Figure 11-5: Kidneys, adrenals, and ureters.

Suprarenal v. Inferior suprarenal a. Renal a. and v. Left kidney Left testicular v.

Ureter

Left testicular vessels

Psoas major m. Iliacus m.

Superior gluteal a. Internal iliac a. and v.

External iliac a. and v. Ureter (pelvic part)

Figure 11-5: Kidneys, adrenals, and ureters.

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Innervation Kidney

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  • Susanna Tompuri
    What innervates the ureters from kidneys?
    20 days ago

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