The kidneys are the functional unit of the urinary system. Within the kidneys, millions of nephrons maintain body water, salt, and pH balance and eliminate solutes from the blood. The kidneys accomplish these functions by filtering blood plasma into urine, which is eliminated from the body via the ureters, bladder, and urethra. The kidneys are a pair of bean-shaped organs located adjacent to the vertebrae at the T12-L2 vertebral level. The right kidney is slightly lower than the left rib because of the presence of the liver. The ureter, bladder, and kidney are all retroperitoneally positioned. Perirenal fat surrounds and thus cushions the kidneys (Figure 11-5).

Vascular supply. Renal arteries supply blood to the kidney; renal veins drain blood from the kidneys.

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51 Tips for Dealing with Kidney Stones

51 Tips for Dealing with Kidney Stones

Do you have kidney stones? Do you think you do, but aren’t sure? Do you get them often, and need some preventative advice? 51 Tips for Dealing with Kidney Stones can help.

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