Scapula

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The scapula, or shoulder blade, is a large, flat triangular bone with three angles (lateral, superior, and inferior), three borders (superior, lateral, and medial), two surfaces (costal and posterior), and three processes (acromion, spine, and coracoid) (Figure 29-1D and E). The following landmarks are found on the scapula:

Subscapular fossa. Located anteriorly and characterized by a shallow, concave fossa. Because the subscapular fossa glides upon the ribs, it is also known as the costal surface. Acromion. A relatively large projection of the anterolateral surface of the spine; the acromion arches over the gleno-humeral joint and articulates with the clavicle.

Spine. Very prominent and palpable; the spine subdivides the posterior surface of the scapula into a small supraspinous fossa and a larger infraspinous fossa. Supraspinous fossa. Located on the posterior surface of the scapula and superior to the spine of the scapula.

Infraspinous fossa. Located on the posterior surface of the scapula and inferior to the spine of the scapula. Suprascapular notch. A small notch medial to the root of the coracoid process where the suprascapular nerve, artery, and vein course.

Glenoid cavity (fossa). A shallow cavity that articulates with the head of the humerus to form the glenohumeral joint.

Supraglenoid tubercle. Located superior to the glenoid cavity and serves as the attachment for the long head of the biceps brachii muscle.

Infraglenoid tubercle. Located inferior to the glenoid cavity and serves as the attachment for the long head of the triceps brachii muscle.

Coracoid process. A prominent and palpable hook-like structure inferior to the clavicle. The coracoid process serves as an attachment for the pectoralis minor, coracobrachialis, and short head of the biceps brachii muscles.

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