References

Adami, C. (2004). Information theory in molecular biology. Phys Life Rev 1, 3-22.

Adami, C., Cerf, N. J. (2000). Physical complexity of symbolic sequences. Physica D (Amsterdam) 37, 62-69.

Anet, F.A. (2004). The place of metabolism in the origin of life. Curr Opin Chem Biol 8, 654-659.

Babendure, J.R., Adams, S.R., Tsien, R.Y. (2003). Aptamers switch on fluorescence of triphenylmethane dyes. J Am Chem Soc 125, 14716-14717.

Barrick, J.E., Corbino, K.A., Winkler, W.C., Nahvi, A., Mandal, M., Collins, J., Lee, M., Roth, A., Sudarsan, N., Jona, I., Wickiser, J.K., Breaker, R.R. (2004). New RNA motifs suggest an expanded scope for riboswitches in bacterial genetic control. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101, 6421-6426.

Bartel, D.P., Szostak, J.W. (1993). Isolation of a new ribozymes from a large pool of random sequences. Science 261, 1411-1418.

Battersby, T.R., Ang, D.N., Burgstaller, P., Jurczyk, S.C., Bowser, M.T., Buchanan, D.D., Kennedy, R.T., Benner, S.A. (1999). Quantitative analysis of receptors for ade-nosine nucleotides obtained via in vitro selection from a library incorporating a ca-tionic nucleotide analog. J Am Chem Soc 121, 9781-9789.

Been, M.D., Cech, T.R. (1988). RNA as an RNA polymerase: net elongation of an RNA primer catalyzed by the Tetrahymena ribo-zyme. Science 238, 1412-1416.

Benner, S.A. (2003). Synthetic biology: Act natural. Nature 421, 118.

Benner, S.A. (2004). Understanding nucleic acids using synthetic chemistry. Acc Chem Res 37, 784-797.

Benner, S.A., Burgstaller, P., Battersby, T.R., Jurczyk, S (1999). Did the RNA world exploit an expanded genetic alphabet? In: The RNA World, 2nd edn, Gesteland, R.F., Cech, T.R., Atkins, J.F., eds. New York: Cold Spring Harbor Press, pp. 163-181.

Bergman, N.H., Johnston, W.K., Bartel, D.P. (2000). Kinetic framework for ligation by an efficient RNA ligase ribozyme. Biochemistry 39, 3115-3123.

Bernath, K., Hai, M., Mastrobattista, E., Griffiths, A.D., Magdassi, S., Tawfik, D.S. (2004). In vitro compartmentalization by double emulsions: sorting and gene enrichment by fluorescence activated cell sorting. Anal Biochem 325, 151-157.

Bertschinger, J., Neri, D. (2004). Covalent DNA display as a novel tool for directed evolution of proteins in vitro. Protein Eng Des Sel 17, 699-707.

Bock, L.C., Griffin, L.C., Latham, J.A., Vermaas, E.H., Toole, J.J. (1992). Selection of single-stranded DNA molecules that bind and inhibit human thrombin. Nature 355, 564-566.

Breaker, R.R., Banerji, A., Joyce, G.F. (1994). Continuous in vitro evolution of bacter-iophage RNA polymerase promoters. Biochemistry 33, 11980-11986.

Breslow, R. (2001). Biomimetic selectivity. Chem Rec 1, 3-11.

Brown, R.S., Hingerty, B.E., Dewan, J.C., Klug, A. (1983). Pb(II)-catalysed cleavage of the sugar-phosphate backbone of yeast tRNAPhe - implications for lead toxicity and self-splicing RNA. Nature 303, 543-546.

Burgstaller, P., Famulok, M. (1994). Isolation of RNA aptamers for biological cofactors by in vitro selection. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 33, 1084-1087.

Burke, D.H., Gold, L. (1997). RNA aptamers to the adenosine moiety of S-adenosyl methionine: structural inferences from variations on a theme and the reproducibility of SELEX. Nucleic Acids Res 25, 2020-2024.

Calderone, C.T., Liu, D.R. (2004). Nucleic-acid-templated synthesis as a model system for ancient translation. Curr Opin Chem Biol 8, 645-653.

Cane, D.E., Walsh, C.T. (1999). The parallel and convergent universes of polyketide synthases and nonribosomal peptide synthetases. Chem Biol 6, R319-325.

Carothers, J.M., Oestreich, S.C., Davis, J.H., Szostak, J.W. (2004). Informational complexity and functional activity of RNA structures. J Am Chem Soc 126, 5130-5135.

Cech, T.R. (1986). A model for the RNA-cata-lyzed replication of RNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 83, 4360-4363.

Cech, T.R. (2002). Ribozymes, the first 20 years. Biochem Soc Trans 30, 1162-1166.

Chapple, K.E., Bartel, D.P., Unrau, P.J. (2003). Combinatorial minimization and secondary structure determination of a nucleotide synthase ribozyme. RNA 9, 1208-1220.

Chaput, J.C., Szostak, J.W (2003). TNA synthesis by DNA polymerases. J Am Chem Soc 125, 9274-9275.

Chaput, J.C., Ichida, J.K., Szostak, J.W. (2003). DNA polymerase-mediated DNA synthesis on a TNA template. J Am Chem Soc 125, 856-857.

Check, E. (2002). Venter aims for maximum impact with minimal genome. Nature 420, 350.

Chelliserrykattil, J., Ellington, A.D. (2004). Evolution of a T7 RNA polymerase variant that transcribes 2'-O-methyl RNA. Nat Bio-technol 22, 1155-1160.

Chen, I.A., Roberts, R.W., Szostak, J.W. (2004). The emergence of competition between model protocells. Science 305, 1474-1476.

Cohen, H.M., Tawfik, D.S., Griffiths, A.D. (2004). Altering the sequence specificity of HaeIII methyltransferase by directed evolution using in vitro compartmentalization. Protein Eng Des Sel 17, 3-11.

Coomber, D.W. (2002). Panning of antibody phage-display libraries. Standard protocols. Methods Mol Biol 178, 133-145.

Cordova, A. (2004). The direct catalytic asymmetric mannich reaction. Acc Chem Res 37, 102-112.

Davis, J.D., Szostak, J.W. (2002). Isolation of high-affinity GTP aptamers from partially-structured RNA libraries. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 99, 11616-11621.

Dieckmann, T., Suzuki, E., Nakamura, G.K., Feigon, J. (1996). Solution structure of an ATP-binding RNA aptamer reveals a novel fold. RNA 2, 628-640.

Doudna, J.A., Cech, T.R. (2002). The chemical repertoire of natural ribozymes. Nature 418, 222-228.

Doudna, J.A., Szostak, J.W. (1989). RNA-cata-lysed synthesis of complementary-strand RNA. Nature 339, 519-522.

Eaton, B.E., Gold, L., Zichi, D.A. (1995) Let's get specific: the relationship between specificity and affinity. Chem Biol 2, 633-638.

Ekland, E.H., Bartel, D.P. (1995). The secondary structure and sequence optimization of an RNA ligase ribozyme. Nucleic Acids Res 23, 3231-3238.

Ekland, E.H., Bartel, D.P. (1996). RNA-cata-lysed RNA polymerization using nucleoside triphosphates. Nature 382, 373-376.

Ekland, E.H., Szostak, J.W., and Bartel, D.P. (1995). Structurally complex and highly active RNA ligases derive from random RNA sequences. Science 269, 364-370.

Eliceiri, G.L. (1999). Small nucleolar RNAs. Cell Mol Life Sci 56, 22-31.

Ellington, A.D., Szostak, J.W. (1990). In vitro selection of RNA molecules that bind specific ligands. Nature 346, 818-822.

Ellington, A.D., Szostak, J.W. (1992). Selection in vitro of single-stranded DNA molecules that fold into specific ligand binding structures. Nature 355,850-852.

Eschenmoser, A. (1999). Chemical etiology of nucleic acid structure. Science 284, 21182124.

Eschenmoser, A. (2004). The TNA-family of nucleic acid systems: properties and prospects. Orig Life Evol Biosph 34, 277-306.

Frankel, A., Li S., Starck, S.R., Roberts, R.W (2003). Unnatural RNA display libraries. Curr Opin Struct Biol 13, 506-512.

Gardiner, K., Pace, N.R. (1980). RNase P of Bacillus subtilis has a RNA component. J Biol Chem 255, 7507-7509.

Gartner, Z.J., Tse, B.N., Grubina, R., Doyon, J.B., Snyder, T.M., Liu, D.R. (2004). DNA-templated organic synthesis and selection of a library of macrocycles. Science 305, 1601-1605.

Geyer, C.R., Battersby, T.R., Benner, S.A. (2003). Nucleobase pairing in expanded Watson-Crick-like genetic information systems. Structure (Camb) 11, 1485-1498.

Ghadessy, F.J., Ong, J.L., Holliger, P. (2001). Directed evolution of polymerase function by compartmentalized self-replication. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98, 4552-4557.

Ghadessy, F.J., Ramsay, N., Boudsocq, F., Loakes, D., Brown, A., Iwai, S., Vaisman, A., Woodgate, R., Holliger, P. (2004). Generic expansion of the substrate spectrum of a DNA polymerase by directed evolution. Nat Biotechnol 22, 755-759.

Gilbert, W (1986). The RNA World. Nature 319, 618.

Glasner, M.E., Bergman, N.H., Bartel, D.P. (2002). Metal ion requirements for structure and catalysis of an RNA ligase ribozyme. Biochemistry 41, 8103-8112.

Godfrey-Smith, P. (2002). On genetic information and genetic coding. In: The Scope of Logic, Methodology, and the Philosophy of Science, Vol. II. P. Gardenfors, J. Wolenski, K. Kajania-Placek, eds. Dordrecht: Kluwer, pp. 387-400.

Green, R., Ellington, A.D., Szostak, J.W (1990). In vitro genetic analysis of the Tetrahymena self-splicing intron. Nature 347, 406-408.

Griffiths, A.D., Tawfik, D.S. (2000). Man-made enzymes - from design to in vitro com-partmentalisation. Curr Opin Biotechnol 11, 338-353.

Griffiths, A.D., Tawfik, D.S. (2003). Directed evolution of an extremely fast phospho-triesterase by in vitro compartmentalization. EMBO J 22, 24-35.

Guerrier-Takada, C., Gardiner, K., Marsh, T., Pace, N., Altman, S. (1983). The RNA moiety of ribonuclease P is the catalytic subunit of the enzyme. Cell 35, 849-857.

Halpin, D.R., Harbury, P.B. (2004). DNA display II. Genetic manipulation of combinatorial chemistry libraries for small-molecule evolution. PLoS Biol 2, E174.

Halpin, D.R., Lee, J.A., Wrenn, S.J., Harbury, P.B. (2004). DNA display III. Solid-phase organic synthesis on unprotected DNA. PLoS Biol 2, E175.

Hanczyc, M. M., Dorit, R. L. (2000). Replic-ability and recurrence in the experimental evolution of a group I ribozyme. Mol Biol Evol 17, 1050-1060.

Hanczyc, M.M., Szostak, J.W. (2004). Replicating vesicles as models of primitive cell growth and division. Curr Opin Chem Biol 8, 660-664.

Hanczyc, M.M., Fujikawa, S.M., Szostak, J.W (2003). Experimental models of primitive cellular compartments: encapsulation, growth, and division. Science 302, 618-622.

Held, D.M., Greathouse, S.T., Agrawal, A., Burke, D.H. (2003). Evolutionary landscapes for the acquisition of new ligand recognition by RNA aptamers. J Mol Evol 57, 299-308.

Hermann, T., Patel, D.J. (2000). Adaptive recognition by nucleic acid aptamers. Science 287, 820-825.

Hesselberth, J.R., Robertson, M.P., Knudsen, S.M., Ellington, A.D. (2003). Simultaneous detection of diverse analytes with an apta-zyme ligase array. Anal Biochem 312, 106112.

Huang, Z., Szostak, J.W. (2003). Evolution of aptamers with a new specificity and new secondary structures from an ATP aptamer. RNA 9, 1456-1463.

Huizenga, D.E., Szostak, J.W. (1995). A DNA aptamer that binds adenosine and ATP. Biochemistry 34, 656-665.

Ichida, J.K., Zou, K., Horhota, A., Yu, B., McLaughlin, L.W., Szostak, J.W. (2005). An in vitro selection system for TNA. J Am Chem Soc 127, 2802-2803.

Jenison, R. D., Gill, S. C., Pardi, A., Polisky, B. (1994). High-resolution molecular discrimination by RNA. Science 263, 1425-1429.

Jiang, F., Kumar, R.A, Jones, R.A., Patel, D.J. (1996). Structural basis of RNA folding and recognition in an AMP-RNA aptamer complex. Nature 382, 183-186.

Johnston, W.K., Unrau, P.J., Lawrence, M.S., Glasner, M.E., Bartel, D.P. (2001). RNA-catalyzed RNA polymerization: accurate and general RNA-templated primer extension. Science 292, 1319-1325.

Joyce, G.F. (1989). Amplification, mutation, and selection of catalytic RNA. Gene 82, 83-87.

Joyce, G.F. (2002). The antiquity of RNA-based evolution. Nature 418, 214-221.

Joyce, G.F., Inoue, T., Orgel, L.E. (1984). Non-enzymatic template-directed synthesis on RNA random copolymers. Poly(C, U) templates. J Mol Biol 176, 279-306.

Joyce, G.F., Schwartz, A.W., Miller, S., Orgel, L.E. (1987). The case for an ancestral genetic system involving simple analogues of the nucleotides. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 84, 4398-4402.

Kaempfer, R. (2003). RNA sensors: novel regulators of gene expression. EMBO Rep 4, 1043-1047.

Kanan, M.W, Rozenman, M.M., Sakurai, K., Snyder, T.M., Liu, D.R. (2004). Reaction discovery enabled by DNA-templated synthesis and in vitro selection. Nature 431, 545-549.

Kauffman, S. (1986). Autocatalytic sets of proteins. J Theor Biol 119, 1-24.

Keefe, A.D., Szostak, J.W (2001). Functional proteins from a random-sequence library. Nature 410, 715-718.

Knight, R., Yarus, M. (2003). Finding specific RNA motifs: function in a zeptomole world? RNA 9, 218-230.

Breaker, R.R. (1999). Allosteric selection of ribozymes that respond to the second messengers cGMP and cAMP. Nat Struct Biol 6, 1062-1071.

Kruger, K., Grabowski, P.J., Zaug, A.J., Sands, J., Gottschling, D.E., Cech, T.R. (1982). Self-splicing RNA: autoexcision and autocycli-zation of the ribosomal RNA intervening sequence of Tetrahymena. Cell 31, 147-157.

Lauhon, C.T., Szostak, J.W. (1995). RNA apta-mers that bind flavin and nicotinamide redox cofactors. J Am Chem Soc 117, 12461257.

Lawrence, M.S., Bartel, D.P. (2003). Proces-sivity of ribozyme-catalyzed RNA polymerization. Biochemistry 42, 8748-8755.

Lehman, N., Joyce, G.F. (1993). Evolution in vitro: analysis of a lineage of ribozymes. Curr Biol 3, 723-34.

Lehman, N., Donne, M.D., West, M., Dewey, T.G. (2000). The genotypic landscape during in vitro evolution of a catalytic RNA: implications for phenotypic buffering. J Mol Evol 50, 481-490.

Li, Y., Sen, D. (1997). Toward an efficient DNAzyme. Biochemistry 36, 5589-5599.

Lilley, D.M. (2003). The origins of RNA catalysis in ribozymes. Trends Biochem Sci 28, 495-501.

Liu, H., Gao, J., Lynch, S.R., Saito, Y.D., May-nard, L., Kool, E.T. (2003). A four-base paired genetic helix with expanded size. Science 302, 868-871.

Lorsch, J.R., Szostak, J.W. (1996). Chance and necessity in the selection of nucleic acid catalysts. Acc Chem Res 29, 103-110.

Luisi, P.L. (2002). Toward the engineering of minimal living cells. Anat Rec 268, 208214.

Mandal, M., Breaker, R.R. (2004). Adenine ri-boswitches and gene activation by disruption of a transcription terminator. Nat Struct Mol Biol 11, 29-35.

Martin, W., Russell, M.J. (2003). On the origins of cells: a hypothesis for the evolutionary transitions from abiotic geochemistry to chemoautotrophic prokaryotes, and from prokaryotes to nucleated cells. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 358, 59-83.

Maynard Smith, J. (1970). Natural selection and the concept of a protein space. Nature 225, 563-564.

McAdams, H.H., Arkin, A. (1999). Its a noisy business! Genetic regulation at the nanomolar scale. Trends Genet 15, 65-69.

McKay, C.P. (2004). What is life - and how do we search for it in other worlds? PLoS Biol 2, e302.

Mojzsis, S.J., Krishnamurthy, R., Arrhenius, G. (1999). Before RNA and after: Geophysical and geochemical constraints on molecular evolution. In: The RNAWorld, 2nd edn, Gesteland, R.F., Cech, T.R., Atkins, J.F., eds. New York: Cold Spring Harbor Press, pp. 1-47.

Monnard, P.A. (2003). Liposome-entrapped polymerases as models for microscale/ nanoscale bioreactors. J Membr Biol 191, 87-97.

Monnard, P.A., Deamer, D.W. (2002). Membrane self-assembly processes: Steps toward the first cellular life. Anat Rec 268, 196-207.

Okumoto, Y., Tanabe, Y., Sugimoto, N. (2003). Factors that contribute to efficient catalytic activity of a small Ca2+-dependent deoxyri-bozyme in relation to its RNA cleavage function. Biochemistry 42, 2158-2165.

Orgel, L.E. (1986). RNA catalysis and the origins of life. J Theor Biol 123, 127-149.

Pallan, P.S., Wilds, C.J., Wawrzak, Z., Krish-namurthy, R., Eschenmoser, A., Egli, M. (2003). Why does TNA cross-pair more strongly with RNA than with DNA? an answer from X-ray analysis. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 42, 5893-5895.

Pan, T., Uhlenbeck, O.C. (1992). In vitro selection of RNAs that undergo autolytic cleavage with Pb2+. Biochemistry 31, 38873895.

Paul, N., Joyce, G.F. (2002). Inaugural article: a self-replicating ligase ribozyme. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 99, 12733-12740.

Reader, J.S., Joyce, G.F. (2002). A ribozyme composed of only two different nucleotides. Nature 420, 841-844.

Reidys, C., Forst, C. V, Schuster, P. (2001). Replication and mutation on neutral networks. Bull Math Biol 63, 57-94.

Ricardo, A., Carrigan, M.A., Olcott, A.N., Benner, S.A. (2004). Borate minerals stabilize ribose. Science 303, 196.

Riley, C.A., Lehman, N. (2003). Expanded divalent metal-ion tolerance of evolved ligase ribozymes. Biochimie 85, 683 -689.

Roberts, R.W., Szostak, J.W. (1997). RNA-pep-tide fusions for the in vitro selection of peptides and proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 94, 12297-12302.

Robertson, D.L., Joyce, G.F. (1990). Selection in vitro of an RNA enzyme that specifically cleaves single-stranded DNA. Nature 344, 467-468.

Robertson, M.P., Ellington, A.D. (1997). Ri-bozymes: red in tooth and claw. Curr Biol 7, R376-R379.

Robertson, M.P., Knudsen, S.M., Ellington, A.D. (2004). In vitro selection of ribozymes dependent on peptides for activity. RNA 10, 114-127.

Rogers, J., Joyce, G.F. (1999). A ribozyme that lacks cytidine. Nature 402, 323-325.

Rosenbaum, D.M., and Liu, D.R. (2003). Efficient and Sequence-Specific DNA-Tem-plated Polymerization of Peptide Nucleic Acid Aldehydes. J Am Chem Soc 125, 13924-13925.

Roth, A., Breaker, R.R. (1998). An amino acid as a cofactor for a catalytic polynucleotide. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 95, 6027-6031.

Ruiz-Mirazo, K., Pereto, J., Moreno, A. (2004). A universal definition of life: autonomy and open-ended evolution. Orig Life Evol Biosph 34, 323-346.

Sabeti, P.C., Unrau, P.J., Bartel, D.P. (1997). Accessing rare activities from random RNA sequences: the importance of the length of molecules in the starting pool. Chem Biol 4, 767-774.

Saffhill, R., Schneider-Bernloehr, H., Orgel, L.E., Spiegelman, S. (1970). In vitro selection of bacteriophage Q-beta ribonucleic acid variants resistant to ethidium bromide. J Mol Biol 51, 531-539.

Salehi-Ashtiani, K., Szostak, J.W. (2001). In vitro evolution suggests multiple origins for the hammerhead ribozyme. Nature 414, 82-84.

Sassanfar, M., Szostak, J.W (1993). An RNA motif that binds ATP. Nature 364, 550-553.

Sazani, P.L., Larralde, R., Szostak, J.W. (2004). A small aptamer with strong and specific recognition of the triphosphate of ATP. J Am Chem Soc 126, 8370.

Schneider, F.W. (1985). Periodic perturbations of chemical oscillators: experiments. Annu Rev Phys Chem 36, 347-378.

Schneider, T. D., Stormo, G. D., Gold, L., and Ehrenfeucht, A. (1986). Information content of binding sites on nucleotide sequences. J Mol Biol 188, 415-431.

Schoning, K., Scholz, P., Guntha, S., Wu, X., Krishnamurthy, R., Eschenmoser, A. (2000). Chemical etiology of nucleic acid structure: the alpha-threofuranosyl-(3'p2') oligonucleotide system. Science 290, 1347-1351.

Schultes, E.A., Bartel, D.P. (2000). One sequence, two ribozymes: implications for the emergence of new ribozyme folds. Science 289, 448-452.

Seelig, B., Jaschke, A. (1999). A small catalytic RNA motif with Diels-Alderase activity. Chem Biol 6, 167-76.

Seetharaman, S., Zivarts, M., Sudarsan, N., Breaker, R.R. (2001). Immobilized RNA switches for the analysis of complex chemical and biological mixtures. Nat Biotechnol 19, 336-341.

Sepp, A., Tawfik, D.S., Griffiths, A.D. (2002). Microbead display by in vitro compartmen-talisation: selection for binding using flow cytometry. FEBS Lett 532, 455-458.

Sidorov, A.V., Grasby, J.A., Williams, DM. (2004). Sequence-specific cleavage of RNA in the absence of divalent metal ions by a DNAzyme incorporating imidazolyl and amino functionalities. Nucleic Acids Res 32, 1591-1601.

Silverman, S.K. (2004). Deoxyribozymes: DNA catalysts for bioorganic chemistry. Org Biomol Chem 2, 2701-2706.

Simoneit, B.R. (2002). Molecular indicators (biomarkers) of past life. Anat Rec 268, 186-195.

Smith, H.O., Hutchison, C.A., Pfannkoch, C., Venter, C.J. (2003). Generating a synthetic genome by whole genome assembly: X174 bacteriophage from synthetic oligonucleo-tides. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100, 1544015445.

Steitz, T.A., Moore, P.B. (2003). RNA, the first macromolecular catalyst: the ribosome is a ribozyme. Trends Biochem Sci 28, 411-418.

Stemmer, W.P. (1994). Rapid evolution of a protein in vitro by DNA shuffling. Nature 370, 389-391.

Stubbe, J. (2000). Ribonucleotide reductases: the link between an RNA and a DNA world? Curr Opin Struct Biol 10, 731-736.

Szostak, J.W. (1988). Structure and activity of ribozymes. In: Redesigning the Molecules of Life. S.A. Benner, ed. Heidelberg: SpringerVerlag, pp. 87-114.

Szostak, J.W. (2003). Functional information: molecular messages. Nature 423, 689.

Szostak, J.W., Bartel, D.P., Luisi, L. (2001). Synthesizing life. Nature 409, 387-390.

Tawfik, D.S., Griffiths, A.D. (1998). Man-made cell-like compartments for molecular evolution. Nat Biotechnol 16, 652-656.

Thompson, K.M., Syrett, H.A., Knudsen, S.M., Ellington, A.D. (2002). Group I apta-zymes as genetic regulatory switches. BMC Biotechnol 2, 21.

Tsukiji, S., Pattnaik, S.B., Suga, H. (2004). Reduction of an aldehyde by a NADH/Zn2+-dependent redox active ribozyme. J Am Chem Soc 126, 5044-5045.

Tuerk, C., Gold, L. (1990). Systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment. Science 249, 505-510.

Unrau, P.J., Bartel, D.P. (1998). RNA-catalysed nucleotide synthesis. Nature 395, 260-263.

Urbach, J.M. (2000). Factors that affect the outcome of in vitro selection. Harvard University doctoral thesis.

Vaish, N.K., Larralde, R., Fraley, A.W., Szostak, J.W., McLaughlin, L.W. (2003). A novel, modification-dependent ATP-binding apta-mer selected from an RNA library incorporating a cationic functionality. Biochemistry 42, 8842-8851.

van Hest, J.C., Tirrell, D.A. (2001). Protein-based materials, toward a new level of structural control. Chem Commun (Camb) 19, 1897-1904.

Waugh, D.S., Green, C.J., Pace, N.R. (1989). The design and catalytic properties of a simplified ribonuclease P RNA. Science 244, 1569-1571.

Wilson, D.S., Szostak, J.W. (1999). In vitro selection of functional nucleic acids. Annu Rev Biochem 68, 611-647.

Wright, M.C., Joyce, G.F. (1997). Continuous in vitro evolution of catalytic function. Science 276, 614-617.

Westhof,E., Famulok, M. (1996). Structural basis of ligand discrimination by two related RNA aptamers resolved by NMR spectroscopy. Science 272, 1343-1347.

Zarrinpar, A., Park, S-H., Lim, W.A. (2003). Optimization of specificity in a cellular protein interaction network by negative selection. Nature 426, 676-680.

Zhao, H., Arnold, F.H. (1997). Optimization of DNA shuffling for high fidelity recombination. Nucleic Acids Res 25, 1307-1308.

Zinnen, S.P., Domenico, K., Wilson, M., Dickinson, B.A., Beaudry, A., Mokler, V., Daniher, A.T., Burgin, A., Beigelman, L. (2002). Selection, design, and characterization of a new potentially therapeutic ribo-zyme. RNA 8, 214-228.

0 0

Post a comment