How to Mix Essential Oils

Learn How To Use Essential Oils

These aromatherapy eBooks are good for beginners and folks who just wanna make stuff. They cover some basic essential oil education, but they focus most on recipes and blending. They're written to help you play and experiment and learn how to use essential oils in your every day life. Learn how to make more than 40 natural home remedies & recipes using Lavender, Lemon, Oregano, Peppermint & Tea Tree. Over 70 Instant Tips to get started right away. Read more...

Learn How To Use Essential Oils Summary

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I usually find books written on this category hard to understand and full of jargon. But the writer was capable of presenting advanced techniques in an extremely easy to understand language.

In addition to being effective and its great ease of use, this eBook makes worth every penny of its price.

Historical Background To Aromatherapy

The advent of aromatherapy has been attributed to both the Ancient Egyptians and Chinese over 4500 years ago, as scented plants and their products were used in religious practices, as medicines, perfumes, and embalming agents (Manniche, 1989, 1999), and to bring out greater sexuality (Schumann Antelme and Rossini, 2001). But essential oils as such were unlikely to have been used. In Ancient Egypt, crude plant extracts of frankincense, myrrh, or galbanum, and so on were used in an oily vegetable or animal fat that was massaged onto the bodies of workers building the pyramids or the rich proletariat after their baths (Manniche, 1999). These contained essential oils, water-soluble

Massage Using Essential Oils

The most popular method of using aromatherapy is through massage. The first written records referring to massage date back to its practice in China more than 4000 years and in Egypt. Hippocrates, the father of modern medicine, wrote, the physician must be experienced in many things, but most assuredly in rubbing. Ren -Maurice Gattefoss , credited as being the founding father of modern aromatherapy, never made a connection between essential oils and massage. It was Marguerite Maury who advocated the external use of essential oils combined with carrier oils (Maury, 1989). She used carefully selected essential oils for cleansing the skin, including that in acne, using a unique blend of oils for each client created specifically for the person's temperament and health situation. Maury's main focus was on rejuvenation she was convinced that aromas could be used to slow down the aging process if the correct oils were chosen. In recent experiments on animals, it has been shown that the oral...

Aromatherapy Blending Of Essential Oils

There are numerous suggestions for the use of particular essential oils for treating specific illnesses in books on aromatherapy. However, when collated, each essential oil can treat each illness (Vickers, 1996 compare also individual essential oil monographs in Lis-Balchin, 2006). A few drops of the essential oil or oils chosen are always mixed with a carrier oil before being applied to the skin for an aromatherapy massage. The exact dilution of the essential oils in the carrier oil is often controversial and can be anything from 0.5 to 20 and more. Either 5, 10, or 20 mL of carrier oil is first poured into a (usually brown) bottle with a stoppered dropper. The essential oil is then added dropwise into the carrier oil, either as a single essential oil or as a mixture of 2-3 different essential oils, and then stoppered. Volumes of essential oils used for dilutions vary widely in different aromatherapies and the fact that even the size of a dropper varies raised the question of...

Therapeutic Claims For The Application Of Essential Oils

There are a wide range of properties ascribed to each essential oil in aromatherapy books, without any scientific proof of effectiveness (Vickers, 1996 Lis-Balchin, 2006). The following are a few examples. No botanical names are, however, given in the lists, even when there are several possible species. No indication is provided as to why these particular essential oils are used and how they are supposed to affect the condition. Taking the case of diabetes, where there is a lack of the hormone insulin, it is impossible to say how massage with any given essential oil could cure the condition, without giving the hormone itself in juvenile-type diabetes or some blood glucose-decreasing drugs in late-onset diabetes. Unfortunately, constant repetition of a given statement often lends it credence at least to the layperson, who does not require scientific evidence of its validity.

Essential Oils Used In Treating Diseases In Animals

There is scarce scientific information on the use of essential oils in treating diseases in animals. Generally, the oils used in treating diseases in humans are also recommended for animals. A study evaluated the effect of dietary oregano etheric oils as nonspecific immunostimulating agents in growth-retarded, low-weight growing-finishing pigs. A group of pigs were fed with commercial fattening diet supplemented with 3000 ppm oregano additive (Oregpig , Pecs, Hungary), composed of dried leaf and flower of Origanum vulgare, enriched with 500 g kg cold-pressed essential oils of the leaf and flower of Origanum vulgare, and containing 60 g carvacrol and 55 g thymol kg. Dietary oregano improved growth in growth-retarded growing-finishing pigs and had nonspecific immunostimulatory effects on porcine immune cells (Walter and Bilkei, 2004). Essential oils have been found effective in honeybee diseases (Ozkirim, 2006 Ozkirim et al., 2007). In this review, we tried to give you an insight into...

Essential Oils Used In Animal Feed

Essential oils can be used in feed as appetite stimulant, stimulant of saliva production, gastric and pancreatic juices production enhancer, and antimicrobial and antioxidant to improve broiler performance. Antimicrobial effects of essential oils are well documented. Essential oils due to their potent nature should be used as low as possible levels in animal nutrition. Otherwise, they can lead to feed intake reduction, gastrointestinal (GIT) microflora disturbance, or accumulation in animal tissues and products. Odor and taste of essential oils may contribute to feed refusal however, encapsulation of essential oils could solve this problem (Gauthier, 2005). Generally, Gram-positive bacteria are considered more sensitive to essential oils than Gramnegative bacteria because of their less complex membrane structure (Lis-Balchin, 2003). A recent review compiled information on botanicals including essential oils used in ruminant health and productivity (Rochfort et al., 2008)....

Aromatherapy Aromatology and Aromachology

Aromatherapy can now be divided into three sciences aromatherapy, aromatology, and aromachology. Aromatherapy is defined by the SSI as the therapeutic effects of aromas on physical conditions (such as menstrual disorders, digestive problems, etc.) as well as psychological conditions (such as chronic depression). The odor being composed of a mixture of fat-soluble chemicals may thus have an effect on the brain via inhalation, skin absorption, or even directly via the nose. Aromatology is concerned with the internal use of oils (SSI). This is similar to the use of aromatherapy in most of Europe, excluding the United Kingdom it includes the effect of the chemicals in the essential oils via oral intake, or via the anus, vagina, or any other possible opening by medically qualified doctors or at least herbalists, using essential oils as internal medicines. There is a vast difference between aromatherapy in the United Kingdom and that in continental Europe (aromatology) the former is...

Scientifically Accepted Benefits of Essential Oils versus the Lack of Evidence for Aromatherapy

There is virtually no scientific evidence, as yet, regarding the direct action of essential oils, applied through massage on the skin, on specific internal organs rather than through the odor pathway leading into the mid-brain's limbic system and then through the normal sympathetic and parasympathetic pathways. This is despite some evidence that certain components of essential oils can be absorbed either through the skin or lungs (Buchbauer et al., 1992 Jager et al., 1992 Fuchs et al., 1997). Many fragrances have been shown to have an effect on mood and, in general, pleasant odors generate happy memories, more positive feelings, and a general sense of well-being (Knasko et al., 1990 Knasko, 1992 Warren and Warrenburg, 1993) just like perfumes. Many essential oil vapors have been shown to depress contingent negative variation (CNV) brain waves in human volunteers and these are considered to be sedative (Torii et al., 1988). Others increase CNV and are considered stimulants (Kubota et...

Psychopharmacology Of Essential Oils

EOs are generally products of rather complex compositions used contemporaneously in aromatherapy, and for centuries as aromatic medicinal plant species in traditional systems of medicine. Aromatic formulas are used for the treatment of a variety of illnesses, including those that affect the CNS (Almeida et al., 2004). Volatile compounds presenting sedative or stimulatory properties have been and continue to be identified in EOs from aromatic medicinal species spread across different families and genera. The majority of these substances have small structures with less than 12 carbons and present low polarity chemical functions, being therefore quite volatile. Since most natural EOs are formed by complex mixtures, their bioactivity(ies) are obviously dependent on the contribution of their various components. Therefore, studies failing to characterize at least the main components of the EO studied are not discussed in this chapter. Linalool (3) is a monoterpene commonly found as a major...

Internal Usage Of Essential Oils By Aromatherapists

Oral intake of essential oils is not true aromatherapy as the odor has virtually no effect past the mouth and the effect of the chemical components takes over as odors cannot influence the internal organs (Lis-Balchin, 1998a). Therapy with essential oils is dealt with in another chapter. Most aro-matherapists consider that essential oils should only be prescribed by primary care practitioners such as medical doctors or medical herbalists who have intimate knowledge of essential oil toxicology (Tisserand and Balacs, 1995). In the United Kingdom, such clinical aromatherapy is rare, unlike on the continent. Maladies treated include arthritis, bronchitis, rheumatism, chilblains, eczema, high blood pressure, and venereal diseases. In clinical aromatherapy, there is a real risk of overdosage due to variable droppers on bottles, which can differ by as much as 200 (Lis-Balchin, 2006) this may be the cause of asphyxiation of a baby, as already shown by peppermint oil (Bunyan, 1998). It is...

Physiological And Psychological Responses To Essential Oils And psychophysiology

Stimulant oils included jasmine, patchouli, ylang ylang, basil, and rosemary active components included fenchone, 1,8-cineole, isoborneol, and orange terpenes (Lis-Balchin, 2006). There was considerable similarity in the sedative and stimulant effects of some essential oils studied physiologically (e.g., their effect on smooth muscle of the guinea pig in vitro) and in various psychological assessments, mostly on humans (Lis-Balchin, 2006). Various nonscientific studies have been published in perfumery journals on the treatment of psychiatric patients by psychoaromatherapy in the 1920s (Gatti and Cajola, 1923a, 1923b, 1929 Tisserand, 1997) but there was virtually no information on their exact illnesses. Sedative essential oils or essences were identified as chamomile, melissa, neroli, petitgrain, opoponax, asafoetida, and valerian. Stimulants were angelica, cardamom, lemon, fennel, cinnamon, clove, and ylang ylang. Many aromatherapists have also written books on the effect of essential...

The Guide And Example For The Safety Evaluation Of Essential Oils

In Step 1, essential oils are prioritized according to their presence or absence as components of commonly consumed foods. Many essential oils are isolated from plants that are commonly consumed as a food. Little or no safety concerns should exist for the intentional addition of the essential oil to the diet, particularly if intake of the oil from consumption of traditional foods (garlic) substantially exceeds intake as an intentionally added flavoring substance (garlic oil). In many ways, the first step applies the concept of long history of safe use to essential oils. That is, if exposure to the essential oil occurs predominantly from consumption of a normal diet a conclusion of safety is straightforward. Step 1 of the guide clearly places essential oils that are consumed as part of a traditional diet on a lower level of concern than those oils derived from plants that are either not part of the traditional diet or whose intake is not predominantly from the diet. The first step also...

Introduction To Aromatherapy Concepts

The original concept of modern aromatherapy was based on the assumption that the volatile, fat-soluble essential oil was equivalent in bioactivity to that of the whole plant when inhaled or massaged onto the skin. Information about the medicinal and other properties of the plants was taken from old English herbals (e.g., Culpeper, 1653), combined with some more esoteric nuances involving the planets and astrology (Tisserand, 1977). This notion is clearly flawed. As an example, a whole orange differs from just the essential oil (extracted from the rind alone) as the water-soluble vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, nicotinic acid, and vitamins C and A) are excluded, as are calcium, iron, proteins, carbohydrates, and water. Substantial differences in bioactivity are found in different fractions of plants, for example, the essential oils of Pelargonium species produced a consistent relaxation of the smooth muscle of the guinea pig in vitro, whereas the water-soluble extracts did not...

Use Of Essential Oils Mainly As Chemical Agents And Not For Their Odor

Six drops of pure lavender oil included in the bath water for 10 days following childbirth was assessed against synthetic lavender oil and a placebo (distilled water containing an unknown GRAS additive) for perineal discomfort (Cornwell and Dale, 1995). No significant differences between groups were found for discomfort, but lower scores in discomfort means for days 3 and 5 for the lavender group were seen. This was very unsatisfactory as a scientific study, mainly because essential oils do not mix with water and there was no proof whether the lavender oil itself was pure. Alopecia areata was treated in a randomized trial using aromatherapy carried out over 7 months. The test group massaged a mixture of 2 drops of Thymus vulgaris, 3 drops Lavandula angustifolia, 3 drops of Rosmarinus officinalis, and 2 drops of Cedrus atlantica in 3 mL of jojoba and 20 mL grapeseed oil into the scalp for 2 min minimum every night. The control group massaged the carrier oils alone (Hay et al., 1998)....

Terpenes terpenoids and essential oils

Terpenes are important constituents of essential oils, having a chemical structure consisting of repeated isoprene (C5H8) units. They are classified into monoterpenes (C10), sesquiterpenes (C15), and diterpenes (C20) based on whether they are made up of two, three, or four isoprene units respectively. Based on the number ofcyclic rings in the structure, terpenes can also be classified as acyclic, monocyclic, and bicyclic. The essential oils of eucalyptus, chenopodium, and ylang ylang effectively enhanced the penetration of 5-fluorouracil, with eucalyptus oil increasing the permeability coefficient by 34-fold (Williams and Barry, 1989b). Pretreatment of human epidermis with the terpene 1,8-cineole was found to increase the permeability coefficient of 5-fluorouracil by around 100-fold (Williams and Barry, 1991). In contrast, a moderate enhancement of 10- to 40-fold was observed with the model lipophilic drug estradiol across human skin with the same terpene (Williams and Barry, 1991).

Clinical Studies Of Aromatherapy

Very few scientific clinical studies on the effectiveness of aromatherapy have been published to date. Perhaps the main reason is that until recently scientists were not involved and people engaging in aromatherapy clinical studies had accepted the aromatherapy doctrine in its entirety, precluding any possibility of a nonbiased study. This has been evident in the design and execution of the studies the main criterion has usually been the use of massage with essential oils and not the effect of the odorant itself. The latter is considered by most aromatherapists as irrelevant to clinical aromatherapy, which implies that it is simply the systemic action of essential oils absorbed through the skin that exerts an effect on specific organs or tissues. Odorant action is considered to be just aro-machology, despite its enormous psychological and physiological impact (Lis-Balchin, 2006). In some studies, attempts are even made to bypass the odorant effect entirely by making the subjects wear...

Aromatherapy Practice

Aromatherapists usually treat their clients (patients) after an initial full consultation, which usually involves taking down a full medical case history. The aromatherapist then decides what treatment to give, which usually involves massage with three essential oils, often one each chosen from those with top, middle, and base perfumery notes, which balances the mixture. Sometimes only specific essential oils for the disease are used. Most aromatherapists arrange to see the client 3-5 times and the mixture will often be changed on the next visit, if not on each visit, in order to treat all the possible symptoms presented by the client (holistically), or simply as a substitute when no improvement was initially obtained. Treatment may involve other alternative medicine procedures, including chakras. Many aromatherapists offer to treat any illness, as they are convinced that essential oils have great powers. They embark on the treatment of endometriosis, infertility, asthma, diabetes,...

Methods of Application of Aromatherapy Treatment

Various methods are used to apply the treatment in aromatherapy. The most usual methods are the following A warm bath with drops of essential oil added. This results in the slow volatilization of the essential oil, and the odor is inhaled via the mouth and nose. Any effect is not likely to be through the absorption of the essential oil through the skin as stated in aromatherapy books, as the essential oil does not mix with water. Droplets either form on the surface of the water, often coalescing, or else the essential oil sticks to the side of the bath. Pouring in an essential oil mixed with milk serves no useful purpose as the essential oil still does not mix with water, and the premixing of the essential oil in a carrier oil, as for massage, just results in a nasty oily scum around the bath. A bowl of hot water with drops of essential oil, often used for soaking feet or used as a bidet. Again the essential oil does not mix with the water. This is, however, a useful method for...

Safety Issue In Aromatherapy

Many aromatherapists and laymen consider natural essential oils to be completely safe. This is based on the misconception that all herbs are safe because they are natural, which is a fallacy. The toxicity of essential oils can also be entirely different to that of the herb, not only because of their high concentration, but also because of their ability to pass across membranes very efficiently due to their lipophilicity. Some aromatherapists erroneously believe that aromatherapy is self-correcting, unlike conventional therapy with medicines, and if errors are made in aromatherapy, they may be resolved through discontinuation of the wrongful application of the oil (e.g., Schnaubelt, 1999). Many essential oils are inherently toxic at very low concentrations due to very toxic components these are not normally used in aromatherapy. Many essential oils that are considered to be nontoxic can have a toxic effect on some people this can be influenced by previous sensitization to a given...

Definitions Of Aromatherapy

Aromatherapy is defined as the use of aromatic plant extracts and essential oils in massage and other treatment (Concise Oxford Dictionary, 1995). However, there is no mention of massage or the absorption of essential oils through the skin and their effect on the target organ (which is the mainframe of aromatherapy in the United Kingdom and the United States) in Aromatherapie (Gattefosse, 1937 1993). This was where the term aromatherapy was coined after all, by the father of aromatherapy but was actually based on the odor of essential oils and perfumes and their antimicrobial, physiological, and cosmetological properties (Gattefosse, 1928, 1952, 1937 1993). Pure essential oils were of no concern to Gattefosse. Recently, definitions have begun to encompass the effects of aromatherapy on the mind as well as on the body (Lawless, 1994 Worwood, 1996, 1998 Hirsch, 1998).

Selected Toxicities of Common Essential Oils and Their Components

Limonene and Linalool are found in a multitude of the commonest aromatherapy oils. The internet has made it possible for a trusting, although often ill-informed, public to purchase a wide range of dubious plant extracts and essential oils. Even illegal essential oils can now be obtained. Furthermore, unqualified people can offer potentially dangerous advice, such as internal usage or the use of undiluted essential oils on the skin for mummification, or in order to rid the body of toxic waste. The latter can result in excruciating pain from the burns produced and the subsequent loss of layers of skin. There is a recipe for suntan oil, including bergamot, carrot seed, and lemon essential oils (all phototoxic) in an aromatherapy book (Fischer-Rizzi, 1990). The author then advises that bergamot oil is added to suntan lotion to get the bonus of the substance called furocumarin, which lessens the skin's sensitivity to the sun while it helps one to tan quickly. This could cause severe burns....

Aromatherapy

The ancient use of plants, not essential oils, can be found in fragments of Egyptian herbals. The names of various plants, their habitats, characteristics, and the purposes for which they were used are included in the following Veterinary papyrus (ca. 2000 B.c.), Gynaecological papyrus (ca. 2000 B.c.), Papyrus Edwin Smith (an army surgeon's manual, ca. 1600 B.c.), Papyrus Ebers (includes remedies for health, beauty, and the home, ca. 1600 B.c.), Papyrus Hearst (with prescriptions and spells, ca. 1400 B.c.), and Demotic medical papyri (second century B.c. to first century a.d.). Magic was often used as part of the treatment and gave the patient the expectation of a cure and thus provided a placebo effect (Pinch, 1994). The term placing the hand appears frequently in a large number of medical papyri this probably alludes to the manual examination in order to reach a diagnosis but could also imply cure by the laying on of hands, or even both (Nunn, 1997). This could be the basis of...

Identification Of Source Materials

As illustrated by the previous paragraph, one of the crucial points of using plants as sources for essential oils is their heterogeneity. A first prerequisite for reproducible compositions is therefore an unambiguous botanical identification and characterization of the starting material. The first approach is the classical taxonomical identification of plant materials based on macro- and micromorphologi-cal features of the plant. The identification is followed by phytochemical analysis that may contribute to species identification as well as to the determination of the quality of the essential oil. This approach is now complemented by DNA-based identification.

Basic Biosynthetic Pathways

Secondary metabolites are those that occur in some species and not others and they are usually classified into terpenoids, shikimates, polyketides, and alkaloids. The most important as far as essential oils are concerned are the terpenoids and the shikimates are the second. There are a number of polyketides of importance in essential oils but very few alkaloids. Terpenoids, shikimates, and polyketides will therefore be the main focus of this chapter.

Classical Analytical Techniques

The thorough study of essential oils is based on the relationship between their physical and chemical properties, and is completed by the assessment of organoleptic qualities. The earliest analytical methods applied in the investigation of an essential oil were commonly focused on quality aspects, concerning mainly two properties, namely identity and purity 17 .

General Considerations On Essential Oil Analysis

In the past, a vast number of investigations have been carried out on essential oils, and many of these natural ingredients have been investigated following the introduction of GC-MS, which marked a real turning point in the study of volatile molecules. Es-GC also represented a landmark in the detection of adulterations, and in the cases where the latter technique could fail, gas chroma-tography correlated to isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-IRMS) by means of a combustion interface has proved to be a valuable method to evaluate the genuineness of natural product components. In addition, the introduction of GC-O was a breakthrough in analytical aroma research, enabling the differentiation of a multitude of volatiles in odor-active and non-odor-active, according to their existing concentrations in a matrix. The investigation of the nonvolatile fraction of essential oils, by means of LC and its related hyphenated techniques, contributed greatly toward the progress of the knowledge on...

Eva Heuberger 1011 Introduction

A number of attempts have been made to unravel the effects of natural essential oils (EOs) and fragrances on the human central nervous system (CNS). Among these attempts two major lines of research have been followed to identify psychoactive, particularly stimulating and sedative, effects of fragrances. On the one hand, researchers have investigated the influence of EOs and fragrances on brain potentials, which are indicative of the arousal state of the human organism by means of

Scented Plants used as Incense in Ancient Egypt

Anointing also involves incense (Unterman, 1991). Queen Elizabeth II underwent the ritual in 1953 at her coronation, with a composition of oils originated by Charles I essential oils of roses, orange blossom, jasmine petals, sesame seeds, and cinnamon combined with gum benzoin, musk, civet, and ambergris were used (Ellis, 1960). Similarly, musk, sandalwood, and other fragrances were used by the Hindus to wash the effigies of their gods, and this custom was continued by the early Christians. This probably accounts for the divine odor frequently reported when the tombs of early Christians were opened (Atchley and Cuthbert, 1909). The Christian Church was slow to adopt the use of incense until medieval times, when it was used for funerals (Genders, 1972). The reformation reversed the process as it was considered to be of pagan origin but it still survives in the Roman Catholic Church. Aromatic substances were also widely used in magic (Pinch, 1994).

Use Of Pure Or Synthetic Components

Does it really matter whether the essential oil is pure or a synthetic mixture as long as the odor is the same The perfumers certainly do not see any difference, and even prefer the synthetics as they remain constant. Many of the so-called pure essential oils used today are, however, adulterated (Which Report, 2001 Lis-Balchin et al., 1996, 1998). There is often a difference in the proportion of different enantiomers of individual components that often have different odors and different biological properties (Lis-Balchin, 2002a, 2002b). This was not, however, appreciated by Gattefosse (1937 1993), who worked with perfumes and not with the pure plant essential oils (Formulaires de Parfumerie Gattefosse, 1906). He studied the antimicrobial and wound-healing properties of essential oils on soldiers during World War I (Arnould-Taylor, 1981). He later worked in hospitals on the use of perfumes and essential oils as antiseptics and other (unstated) applications, and also in dermatology,...

Toxicity in Young Children A Special Case

Many aromatherapy books give dangerous advice on the treatment of babies and children, for example, 5-10 drops of chamomile oil three times a day in a little warmed milk given to their babies to treat colic with no indication as to which of the three commercially available chamomile oils is to be used and because, depending on the dropper size, the dose could easily approach the oral LD50 for the English and German chamomile oils, this could result in a fatality. Peppermint, often mentioned, could possibly be given by mothers in the form of oil, and has been known to kill a 1-week-old baby (Evening Standard, 1998). Dosages given in terms of drops can vary widely according to the size of the dropper in an essential oil. Many cosmetics designed for use by children contain fragrance allergens (Rastogi et al., 1999). In Denmark, samples of children's cosmetics were found to contain geraniol, hydroxycitronellol, isoeugenol, and cinnamic alcohol (Rastogi et al., 1999). Children are more...

Past Clinical Studies

In contrast to more recent studies, past clinical trials were often very defective in design and also outcomes. In a recent review, Cooke and Ernst (2000) included only those aromatherapy trials that were randomized and included human patients they excluded those with no control group or if only local effects (e.g., antiseptic effects of tea tree oil) or preclinical studies on healthy volunteers occurred. The six trials included massage with or without aromatherapy (Buckle, 1993 Stevenson, 1994 Corner et al., 1995 Dunn et al., 1995 Wilkinson, 1995 Wilkinson et al., 1999) and were based on their relaxation outcomes. The authors concluded that the effects of aromatherapy were probably not strong enough for it to be considered for the treatment of anxiety or for any other indication. Psychological effects, which include inhalation of essential oils and behavioral changes, were already discussed.

Production And Consumption

This brief and certainly incomplete look into the history of industrial usage of essential oils as flavor and fragrance ingredients shows that the real industrial scale of flavor and fragrance industry There are no reliable data on the scale of consumption of essential oils in specific products. On the basis of different sources, it can be estimated that the world market for the flavors and fragrances has a value of 10-12 billion euro, being equally shared by each group of products. It is very difficult to estimate the usage of essential oils in each of the groups. More oils are used in flavors than in fragrances which today are mainly based on aroma chemicals, especially in large volume compounds used in detergents and household products. Table 16.2 presents estimated data on world consumption of major essential oils (each used over 500 tons per annum).

Controlled Release Of Volatiles

The main interest of volatiles encapsulation is the possibility to extend the biological effect of the compounds. For essential oils, we want to prolong the activity by lowering the evaporation of the volatile compounds. During the last 10 years, there are not many publications on this topic in the scientific literature but there are quite a number of patents that describe the various ways of prolonging the effect of volatiles (Porzio, 2008 Sair and Sair, 1980a Sair, 1980b Zasypkin and Porzio, 2004 Fulger and Popplewell, 1997, 1998 Mclver, 2005). One reason for this fact is that the prolonging of the effect of volatile compounds is regarded as so close to practical applications and therefore the area of industrial research where the results will be bonded in patent applications. However, there are signs that this idea is changing. In order to lower the volatility, thus prolonging the effect of essential oils and terpenes, we have to look into another area of scientific research. In...

Average Size of Formulation Units in nm Sizes below 150 nm may be Invisible to the Naked

Since the introduction of the encapsulation of volatiles (essential oils lower terpenes), the number of applications has multiplied. Encapsulation of volatiles gives us a more predictable and long-lasting effect of the products. The areas of applications are large and the industry of essential oils and terpenes foresee many prospects for microencapsulated products. Application markets of encapsulated essential oils and terpenes are In the area of essential oils and lower terpenes, simple encapsulation procedures from the area of drug delivery are applied. The essential oils or single active constituents are mixed with a hydro-philic polymer and spray-dried using a commercial spray-drier. Depending on whether we have an emulsion or a solution of the volatile fraction in the polymer, we obtain monolithic particles or a normal microcapsule. Many different emulsifiers are used to solubilize the essential oils totally or partly, prior to the encapsulation procedure. This can result in a...

Use Of Hydrophilic Polymers

In product development, one tends to use cheap derivatives of starches or other low-grade quality polymers. Early studies with protein-based polymers such as gelatine, gelatine derivatives, soy proteins, and milk-derived proteins gave reasonable technical quality of the products. However, even if these materials show stable emulsification properties with essential oils, they have some unwanted side effects in products. We have seen that a more careful control of the polymer used can result in real high-tech products, where the predictability of the release of the volatiles can be assured like a programmed release of drug molecules in drug delivery devices. The polymer quality to be used will, of course, depend on the intention of the final product. In the cosmetic industry, where one is looking for an essential oil product, free-flowing and dry, to mix with a semisolid or a solid matrix, the use of simple starch derivatives will be very good. For other applications, where the release...

Controlled Release Of Volatiles From Nonvolatile Precursors

The limited effect of volatiles for olfactive perception has led to the development of encapsulated volatiles and also to the development of covalent-bonded fragrance molecules to matrices. In this way, molecules release their fragrance components by the cleavage of the covalent bond. Mild reaction conditions met in practical life initiated by light, pH, hydrolysis, temperature, oxygen, and enzymes may release the flavors. The production of profragrances is a very active field for the industry and has led to numerous patents. The plants producing essential oils have invented means by which the volatiles are produced, stored, and released into the atmosphere at predestined times related to the environmental factors. The making of a profragrance involves mimicking these natural procedures into flavor products. However, we are simplifying the process by using only one parameter in this release process, that is, the splitting of a covalent bond. In theory, the making of a long-lasting...

Cyclodextrin Complexation Of Volatiles

Cyclodextrin molecules are modified carbohydrates that have been used for many years to modify the solubility properties of drug molecules by complexation. The cyclodextrin can also be applied to volatiles to protect them against the environmental hazards and thus prolong the shelf life of these compounds. Cyclodextrin complexation will also modify the volatility of the essential oils and prolong the bioactivity. The cyclodextrins will give a molecular encapsulation by the complexation reaction with volatile molecules. The complexation of the volatiles with cyclodextrin may improve the heat stability, improve the stability toward oxygen, and improve the stability against light (Szente, 1988). A significant lowering of the volatility has been observed for the complexation with essential oils (Risch and Reineccius, 1988). The complexation of essential oils by the use of cyclodextrins will also result in increased heat stability. This is in contrast with the stability of volatiles that...

Aroma Shake with Herbs

Preparation Pour the buttermilk and soy milk in a blender and process for a few minutes until combined. Add the carrot juice, then emulsify the essential oils with the maple syrup and stir it into the mixture. Fill into iced tall glasses and serve chilled. A decorative idea is to dive the top of the glasses into lemon juice and then into the finely chopped parsley, before filling in the shake.

Homemade Fresh Berry Jelly

Preparation Take the clean fruits and boil them in the water. Stir the binding agent into the small amount of cold water, then add it to the warm fruits and let them boil for another 3-5 min before you lower the heat, then leave the mixture to cool. Emulsify the essential oils intermixture with the maple honey then stir it into the jelly. Serve cool with fresh berries or a spoonful of whipped cream with mint leaves.

Chamomile Zloty Lan Analysis

Bessiere, 2004. Aromatic plants of tropical Africa XLIX Chemical composition of essential oils of the leaf and rhizome of Aframomum giganteum K. Schum from Gabun. Flavour Fragr. J., 19 205-209. Bradu, B.L., S.N. Sobti, P. Pushpangadan, K.M. Khosla, B.L. Rao, and S.C. Gupta, 1989. Development of superior alternate source of clove oil from 'Clocimum' (Ocimum gratissimum Linn.). Proc. 11th Int. Congr. of Essential Oils, Fragrances and Flavours, Vol. 3, pp. 97-103. Figueiredo, A.C., J.G. Barroso, L.G. Pedro, and J.J.C. Scheffer, 1997. Physiological aspects of essential oil production. In Essential Oils Basic and Applied Research, Ch. Franz, A. Math , and G. Buchbauer (eds), pp. 95-107. Carol Stream Allured Publishing. Fischer, U., Ch. Franz, R. Lopez, E. P ll, 1996. Variability of the essential oils of Lippia graveolens HBK from Guatemala. In Essential Oils Basic and Applied Research, Ch. Franz, A. Math , and A. G. Buchbauer (eds), pp. 266-269. Carol...

First Systematic Investigations

The first systematic investigations of constituents from essential oils may be attributed to the French chemist M. J. Dumas (1800-1884) who analyzed some hydrocarbons and oxygen as well as sulfur-and nitrogen-containing constituents. He published his results in 1833. The French researcher M. Berthelot (1859) characterized several natural substances and their rearrangement products by optical rotation. However, the most important investigations have been performed by O. Wallach, an assistant of Kekule. He realized that several terpenes described under different names according to their botanical sources were often, in fact, chemically identical. He, therefore, tried to isolate the individual oil constituents and to study their basic properties. He employed together with his highly qualified coworkers Hesse, Gildemeister, Betram, Walbaum, Wienhaus, and others fractional distillation to separate essential oils and performed reactions with inorganic reagents to characterize the obtained...

Hazard Classification And Labeling Of Flavors And Fragrances

This section describes the rules for hazard classification and labeling of F& F substances and preparations, including natural raw materials, such as extracts and essential oils, containing hazardous constituents, according to the EU regulations. Based on measurement results for a number of natural raw materials (e.g., extracts and essential oils) with HC contents between 10 and 90+ and on similar measurements of some F& F compounds, a dedicated Working Group of the F& F Industry has come to the conclusion that in practice, substances and preparations containing more than 10 of HC(s) fall within the criteria for viscosity and surface tension. To determine the HC content of substances (supplier information, analysis) and preparations (including extracts and essential oils) (calculation) and to classify as Xn R65 if more than 10 HC is present. That nonclassification should only be possible if viscosity and or surface tension measurement results are available for a specific...

Notion Of Bucco-dental Superinfections

11.4.4.3 Activity of Essential Oils For many, the term aromatherapy originally became associated with the concept of the holistic use of essential oils to promote health and well-being. As time has progressed and the psychophysiological effects of essential oils have been explored further, their uses to reduce anxiety and aid sedation have also become associated with the term. This is especially so since the therapy has moved into the field of nursing, where such activities are of obvious benefit to patients in a hospital environment. More importantly, the practice of aromatherapy (in English-speaking countries) is firmly linked to the inhalation of small doses of essential oils and their application to the skin in high dilution as part of an aromatherapy massage. This chapter is concerned with the medical use of essential oils, given to the patient by all routes of administration to treat specific conditions and in comparably concentrated amounts. Studies that use essential oils in...

Research During The Last Half Century

The vast majority of essential oils are produced from plant material in which they occur by different kinds of distillation or by cold pressing in the case of the peel oils from citrus fruits. In water- or hydrodistillation, the chopped plant material is submerged and in direct contact with boiling water. In steam distillation, the steam is produced in a boiler separate of the still and blown through a pipe into the bottom of the still, where the plant material rests on a perforated tray or in a basket for quick removal after exhaustive extraction. In addition to the aforementioned distillation at atmospheric pressure, high-pressure steam distillation is most often applied in European and American field stills and the applied increased temperature significantly reduces the time of distillation. The high-pressure steam-type distillation is often applied for peppermint, spearmint, lavandin, and the like. The condensed distillate, consisting of a mixture of water and oil, is usually...

Pediculicidal Activity

The activity of essential oils against the human head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis, has been investigated in a number of reports. Numerous essential oils have been found to exhibit Despite the availability of positive in vitro results, only one trial involving application to humans has been documented a mixture of anise and ylang ylang essential oils in coconut extract (Paranix ) was applied once to five children. Viable lice were not found after 7 days (Scanni and Bonifazi, 2006). Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS), also known as canker sores, are the most common oral mucosal lesions and although the process is sometimes self-limiting, the ulcer activity is mostly continuous and some forms may last for 20 years. Predisposing agents include bacteria and fungi, stress, mouth trauma, certain medications, and food allergies. Two essential oils both endemic to Iran have been investigated for treatment of this condition Zataria multiflora, a thyme-like plant containing thymol,...

Modern Analytical Techniques

Most of the methods applied in the analysis of essential oils rely on chromatographic procedures, which enable component separation and identification. However, additional confirmatory evidence is required for reliable identification, avoiding equivocated characterizations. 6.3.1 Use of GC and Linear Retention Indices in Essential Oils Analysis The analysis of essential oils by means of GC began in the 1950s, when professor Liberti 31 started analyzing citrus essential oils only a few years after James and Martin first described gas-liquid chromatography (GLC), commonly referred to as GC 32 , a milestone in the evolution of instrumental chromatographic methods. At present, essential oil GC analyses are more frequently performed on capillary columns, which, after their introduction, rapidly replaced packed GC columns. In general, packed columns support larger sample size ranges, from 10 to 20 mL, and thus the dynamic range of the analysis can be enhanced. Trace-level components can be...

Stabilization Of Essential Oil Constituents

The encapsulation of essential oils in a hydrophilic polymer may stabilize the constituents of the oil but a better technique for this purpose will often be to use cyclodextrins in the encapsulation process. The use of cyclodextrins will lead to a complexation of the single compounds, which will again stabilize the complexed molecule. Complex formation with cyclodextrins is often used in drug delivery to promote solubility of lipophilic compounds however, in the case of volatiles containing compounds that may oxidize, the complex formation will definitely prolong the shelf life of the finished product. A good review of the flavor encapsulation advantages is given by Risch and Reineccius (1988). The most important aspect of essential oil encapsulation in a hydrophilic polymer is that the volatility is lowered. Lowering the volatility will result in longer shelf life of products and a better stability of the finished product in this respect.

Middle Ages Use of Aromatics and Quacks

Culpeper's simple or distilled waters and oils (equivalent to the present hydrosols) were prepared by the distillation of herbs in water in a pewter still, and then fractionating them to separate out the essential or chymical oil from the scented plants. The plant waters were the weakest of the herbal preparations and were not regarded as being beneficial. Individual plants such as rose or elderflower were used to make the corresponding waters, or else mixtures of herbs were used to make compound waters (Culpeper, 1826 1981 Tobyn, 1997). Essential oils of single herbs were regarded by Culpeper as too strong to be taken alone, due to their vehement heat and burning, but had to be mixed with other medicinal preparations. Two or three drops were used in this way at a time. Culpeper mentioned the oils of wormwood, hyssop, marjoram, the mints, oregano, pennyroyal, rosemary, rue, sage, thyme, chamomile, lavender, orange, and lemon. Spike lavender, not Lavandula angustifolia, is used in...

Increase in Allergic Contact Dermatitis in Recent Years

A study of 1600 adults in 1987 showed that 12 reacted adversely to cosmetics and toiletries, 4.3 of which were used for their odor (i.e., they contained high levels of fragrances). Respiratory problems worsened with prolonged fragrance exposure (e.g., at cosmetic perfumery counters) and even in churches. In another study, 32 of the women tested had adverse reactions and 80 of these had positive skin tests for fragrances (deGroot and Frosch, 1987). Problems with essential oils have also been increasing. For example, contact dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) caused by tea tree oil has been reported, which was previously considered to be safe (Carson and Riley, 1995). It is unclear whether eucalyptol was responsible for the allergenic response (Southwell, 1997) out of seven patients sensitized to tea tree oil, six reacted to limonene, five to a-terpinene and aromadendrene, two to terpinen-4-ol, and one to p-cymene and a-phellandrene (Knight and Hausen, 1994). Japan...

Acyclic Monoterpenoid

Simple hydrolysis of geranyl pyrophosphate gives geraniol, (E)-3,7-dimethylocta-2,6-dienol (63). This is often accompanied in nature by its geometric isomer, nerol (90). Synthetic material is usually a mixture of the two isomers and when interconversion is possible, the equilibrium mixture comprises about 60 geraniol (63) and 40 nerol (90). The name geraniol is often used to describe a mixture of geraniol and nerol. When specifying the geometry of these alcohols it is better to use the modern (E) (Z) nomenclature as the terms cis and trans are somewhat ambiguous in this case and earlier literature is not consistent in their use. Both isomers occur in a wide range of essential oils, geraniol (63) being particularly widespread. The oil of Monarda fistulosa contains over 90 geraniol (63) and the level in palmarosa is over 80 . Geranium contains about 50 and citronella and lemongrass each contain about 30 . The richest natural sources of nerol include rose, palmarosa, citronella, and...

Contingent Negative Variation

The contingent negative variation (CNV) is a slow, negative event-related brain potential, which is generated when an imperative stimulus is preceded by a warning stimulus and reflects expectancy and preparation (Walter et al., 1964). The amplitude of the CNV is correlated to attention and arousal (Tecce, 1972). Since changes of the magnitude and latency of CNV components have long been associated with the effects of psychoactive drugs (Kopell et al., 1974 Ashton et al., 1977), measurement of the CNV has also been used to evaluate psychostimulant and sedating effects of EOs and fragrances. In a pioneering investigation, Torii et al. (1988) measured CNV magnitude changes evoked by a variety of EOs, such as jasmine, lavender, and rose oil, in male subjects. CNV was recorded at the frontal, central, and parietal sites after the presentation of an odorous or blank stimulus in the context of a cued reaction time paradigm. In addition, physiological markers of arousal, that is, skin...

Critique of Selected Clinical Trials

The following clinical studies attempted to show that aromatherapy was more efficient than massage alone but they showed mainly negative results however, in some cases, the authors clearly emphasized some very small positive results and this was then accepted and the report was welcomed in aromatherapy journals as a positive trial that supported aromatherapy. Massage, aromatherapy massage, or a period of rest in 122 patients in an intensive care unit (ICU) (Dunn et al., 1995) showed no difference between massage with or without lavender oil and no treatment in the physiological parameters and all psychological parameters showed no effects throughout, bar a significantly greater improvement in mood and in anxiety levels between the rest group and essential oil massage group after the first session. The trial had a large number of changeable parameters it involved patients in the ICU for about 5 days (age range 2-92 years), who received 1-3 therapy sessions in 24 h given by six...

Basic Principles Of The Aromavital Cuisine

Natural aromas, from blossoms, herbs, seeds, and spices, extracted in artificial pure essential oils, delicately accompany the elaborate cuisine. They are not supposed to supersede fresh herbs, rather complementing them. If, however, herbs are not available, natural essences are delightfully suited to add nuances. They are giving impetus to and are flexible assistants for preparing last-minute menus. One should use this rich source to compile a first-aid assortment of condiments or even a mobile spice rack. 18.1.2 Quality Criteria and Specifics that have to be Adhered to, while Handling Essential Oils for Food Preparation The regional legal regulations of the food chemical codex or the local food legislation might differ and if one is going to use essential oils professionally, one has to be firm with them, but still there are certain basics that deserve attention and lead to a safe and healthy way of practicing this subtle culinary art. For cooking, solely 100 pure essential oils...

Conclusion

This chapter has shown that a number of items concerning the plant raw material have to be taken into consideration when producing essential oils. A quality management has to be established tracing back to the authenticity of the starting material and ensuring that all known influences on the quality are taken into account and documented in an appropriate way. This is necessary to meet the increasing requirements of international standards and regulations. The review also shows that a high number of data and information exist, but sometimes without expected relevance due to the fact that the repeatability of the results is not given by a weak experimental design, an incorrect description of the plant material used, or an inappropriate sampling. On the other side, this opens the chance for many more research work in the field of essential oil-bearing plants.

Discussion

The in vitro most antimicrobially active essential oils regularly (or normally) contain substances as main components, which are themselves known to exhibit pronounced antimicrobial properties. These are cinnamic aldehyde (cinnamon bark and cassia oil) and the phenolic compounds eugenol (clove and cinnamon leaf oil) and thymol (thyme oil) (Pauli, 2001). All these essential oils reveal a broadband spectrum of activity in various in vitro test systems (agar diffusion, dilution, and vapor phase) due to their considerable water solubility and volatility. The evaluated antimicrobial inhibitory data of the essential oils obtained in agar dilution tests (ADT), serial dilution tests (DIL), and vapor phase (VP) tests are summarized in Table 12.81. A few essential oils exhibit limited activities and act against a class of microorganism, for example, anise and bitter fennel oil specifically inhibit the growth of filamentous fungi (Table 12.81), or act well against microbial species belonging to...

Photosensitizers

Berlocque dermatitis is frequently caused by bergamot or other citrus oil applications on the skin (often due to their inclusion in eau de Cologne) followed by exposure to UV light. This effect is caused by psolarens or furanocoumarins (Klarmann, 1958). Citrus essential oils labeled FCF have no photo-toxic effect, but are suspected carcinogens (Young et al., 1990). Other phototoxic essential oils include yarrow and angelica, neroli, petitgrain, cedarwood, rosemary, cassia, calamus, cade, eucalyptus (species not stated), orange, anise, bay, bitter almond, ylang ylang, carrot seed, and linaloe (the latter probably due to linalool, which, like citronellol, has a sensitizing methylene group exposed) (Guin, 1995). Photosensitizer oils include cumin, rue, dill, sandalwood, lemon (oil and expressed), lime (oil and expressed), opoponax, and verbena (the latter being frequently adulterated) (Klarmann, 1958). Even celery soup eaten before UV irradiation has been known to cause severe sunburn...

Fragrances

The main reason for the expansion of the essential oils industry and the growing demand for products was the development of the food, soap, and cosmetics industries. Today's multinational companies, the main users of fragrances and flavors, have evolved directly from the developments during the mid-nineteenth century.

Flavors

Over the same time period, another group of users of essential oils entered the markets. In 1790, the term soda water for carbon dioxide saturated water as a new drink appeared for the first time in the United States and in 1810, the first U.S. patent was issued for the manufacture of imitations of natural gaseous mineral waters. Only 9 years later the soda fountain was patented by Samuel Fahnestock. In 1833, carbonated lemonade flavored with lemon juice and citric acid was on sale in England. In 1835, the first bottled soda water appeared in the United States. It is, however, interesting that the first flavored sparkling drink Ginger Ale was created in Ireland in 1851. The milestones in flavored soft drinks Dr Pepper was advertised as the king of beverages, free from caffeine (which was added to it later on), was flavored with black cherry artificial flavor, and was first sold in the Old Corner Drug Store owned by Wade Morrison. Its market success and position as one of the most...

Conclusions

It can be concluded that the industrial use of essential oils is a very promising area and that regular growth shall be observed in future. Much research work will be undertaken both on the safety of existing products and on development of new oil-bearing plants that are used locally in different regions of the world both as healing agents and as food flavorings. Both directions are equally important. Global exchange of tastes and customs shall not lead to unification by Coca-Cola or McDonalds. With all the positive aspects of these products, there are many local specialties that can become world property, like basil-oregano-flavored pizza, curry dishes, spicy kebab, or the universal and always fashionable Eau de Cologne. With the growth of the usage of the commonly known essential oils, new ones coming from exotic flowers of the Amazon jungle or from Indian Ayurveda books can add new benefits to the flavor and fragrance industry.

Alginate

Alginates are naturally occurring polycarbohydrates consisting of the monomers a-L-glucuronic acid (G) and P-D-mannuronic acid (M). The relative amounts of these two building blocks will influence the total chemistry of the polymer. The linear polymer is water soluble due to its polarity. Today the alginate can be produced by the bacteria that allow us to control the composition of the monomers (G M ratio). The chemical composition of the alginate is dependent on the origin of the raw material. The marine species display seasonal differences in the composition and different parts of the plant produce different alginates. Alginates may undergo epimerization to obtain the preferred chemical composition. This composition (G M ratio) will determine the diffusion rate through the swollen alginate gel, which surrounds the encapsulated essential oils (Elias, 1997 Amsden, 1998a, 1998b Ogston, 1973). An important structure parameter is also the distribution of the car-boxyl groups along the...

Concluding Remarks

The encapsulation complexation of essential oils, volatiles, or single oil constituents will result in a remarkable lowering of the volatility, stabilize the constituents, improve the shelf life of finished products, and prolong the biological activity. The control of these parameters will depend on the nature of the volatiles to be encapsulated. Most of the literature on the encapsulation of volatiles is found in the patent literature. Techniques described in the literature allow the user of essential oils to choose the polymer matrix in which to encapsulate an essential oil according to the use of the finished product. The effect of controlled delivery of flavor and fragrance molecules opens up large areas of applications, which previously were limited due to the volatility of the essential oils and their constituents. The encapsulation or lowering the volatility of compounds like essential oil ingredients will allow for more relevant studies of the biological effects of volatile...

Storage

Essential oils are very sensible to the disposure of light, air and temperature therefore they should be stored adequately. In this way, long-lasting essential oils keep their aroma as well as their ingredients and might even develop their bouquet. Foods or processed foods with essential oils may not be stored in tin boxes. Very important essential oils should be kept away from children. The internal use of essential oils has to be practiced carefully. This subtle art is an amazing tool, but swallowed in too huge amounts, they are bad for one's health. One should never add the pure concentrate of essential oils to foods it should not be forgotten that 1 drop is often comparable to a huge amount of plant material. Therefore, they ought to be always thinned and the dilution should be used teaspoon by teaspoon. Essential oils are not water soluble therefore, emulsifiers are necessary to spread their aroma, they are for example On the basis of these emulsifiers and a mixture of essential...

Syrup Mint Orange

Preparation Whip the cream then add the basic essential oils to it. Meanwhile boil the vegetable stock then stir in the cream. Ladle into soup bowls to serve and garnish each with a little bit whipped cream and fresh mint leaves. Preparation Heat the pumpkin seed oil in a saucepan. Add the onion and carrots and cook over moderate heat until it softens. Stir in the pumpkin pieces and cook until the pumpkin is soft. Process the mixture in a blender and pour it to the pan. Stir in the vegetable stock and cream and season with the essential oils, salt, and sherry. Ladle into warm soup bowls and garnish each with some fresh coriander leaves.

Prawns Bergamot

Preparation Prepare and wash the prawns as usual. Slice the onions and garlic, chop the parsley finely and cut the scallions into quarters. Take a teaspoon of lemon juice and emulsify the essential oils in it and mix in the rest of the ingredients. Let the prawns soak in the marinade and keep it in the fridge for 1 h. Then separate the prawns from the marinade filter the marinade and keep the parts separately. Fry the prawns inside of the liquid parts of the marinade, then add the rest.

Oils Against Pests

Essential oils of Zingiber officinale and Rosmarinus officinalis were found to be ovicidal and repellent, respectively, toward three mosquito species (Prajapati et al., 2005). Root oil of Angelica sinensis and ligustilide was found to be mosquito repellent (Wedge et al., 2009).

Labeling

Since a couple of years ago, the European Association of the Flavour and Fragrance Industry in Europe (EFFA) has been publishing a Code of Practice (CoP, 2008) with recommendations regarding a proper classification and labeling of aromatic chemicals and essential oils. This CoP is complementing the information of IFRA and IOFI. It is continuously updated by experts of the industry and the trade by the Hazard Communication Working Group (HCWG) and furnishes for the disposal of people all over the world occupied in handling essential oils and aromatic chemicals an up-to-date recommendation for a proper classification and labeling of hazardous fragrance and flavor raw materials (Protzen, 1989). For approximately. 1200 aromatic chemicals used in the flavor and fragrance industry and 220 commercially used essential oils as well as information on 60 natural extracts like absolutes and resinoids, the CoP contains a guideline detailing information on Before the Council Directive 79 831 EEC...

Changing Trends

Until the second half of the nineteenth century, formulas of perfumes and flavors (although much less data are available on flavoring products in history) were based on essential oils and some other naturals (musk, civet, amber, resins, pomades, tinctures, extracts, etc.). Now, some 150 years later, old formulations are being taken out of historical books and are advertised as the back to nature trend. Perfumery handbooks published until the early twentieth century listed essential oils, and none or only one or two aroma chemicals (or isolates from essential oils). A very good illustration of the changes that affected the formulation of perfumes in the twentieth century is a comparison of rose fragrance as recorded in perfumery handbooks. Dr Heinrich Hirzel in his Die Toiletten Chemie (1892, p. 384) gave the following formula for high-quality white rose perfume In the mid-twentieth century, perfumers were educated to consider chemicals as the most convenient, stable, and useful...

Terpenoids

The terpenoids are, by far, the most important group of natural products as far as essential oils are concerned. Some authors, particularly in older literature, refer to them as terpenes but this term is nowadays restricted to the monoterpenoid hydrocarbons. They are defined as substances composed of isoprene (2-methylbutadiene) units. Isoprene (62) is not often found in essential oils and is not actually an intermediate in biosynthesis, but the 2-methylbutane skeleton is easily discernable in terpenoids. Figure 5.12 shows the structures of some terpenoids. In the case of geraniol (63), one end of one isoprene unit is joined to the end of another making a linear structure (2,6-dimethyloctane). In guaiol (64), there are three isoprene units joined together to make a molecule with two rings. It is easy to envisage how the three units were first joined together into a chain and then formation of bonds from one point in the chain to another produced the two rings. Similarly, two isoprene...

Ear Mites

Two essential oils derived from Lavandula angustifolia and Lavandula x intermedia were investigated for any antiparasitic activity against the human protozoal pathogens Giardia duodenalis and Trichomonas vaginalis and the fish pathogen Hexamita inflata, all of which have significant infection and economic impacts. The study has demonstrated that low ( 1 ) concentrations of Lavandula angustifolia and Lavandula x intermedia oil can completely eliminate Trichomonas vaginalis, Giardia duodenalis, and Hexamita inflata in vitro. At 0.1 concentration, Lavandula angustifolia oil was found to be slightly more effective than Lavandula x intermedia oil against Giardia duodenalis and Hexamita inflata (Moon et al., 2006). The antiparasitic properties of essential oils from Artemisia absinthium, Artemisia annua, and Artemisia scoparia were tested on intestinal parasites, Hymenolepis nana, Lambli intestinalis, Syphacia obvelata, and Trichocephalus muris Trichuris muris . Infested white mice were...

Functional Dyspepsia

Several essential oils have been used in the treatment of functional (nonulcer) dyspepsia. All of the published trials have concerned the commercial preparation known as Enteroplant , an enteric-coated capsule containing 90 mg of Mentha x piperita, and 50 mg of Carum carvi essential oils. The combination of peppermint and caraway essential oils has been shown to act locally in the gut as an antispasmodic (Micklefield et al., 2000, 2003) and to have a relaxing effect on the gallbladder (Goerg and Spilker, 2003). The antispasmodic effect of peppermint is well documented and that of caraway essential oil has also been demonstrated (Reiter and Brandt, 1985). The latter alone has also been shown to inhibit gallbladder contractions in healthy volunteers, increasing gallbladder volume by 90 (Goerg and Spilker, 1996).

The History

The history of production of essential oils dates back to ca. 3500 bc when the oldest known water distillation equipment for essential oils was employed, and may be seen today in the Texila museum in Pakistan. Ancient India, China, and Egypt were the locations where essential oils were produced and widely used as medicaments, flavors, and fragrances. Perfumes came to Europe most probably from the East at the time of the crusades, and perfumery was accorded a professional status by the approval of a French guild of perfumers in Grasse by King Philippe August in 1190. For centuries, Grasse remained the center of world perfumery and was also the home of the first ever officially registered essential oils-producing company Antoine Chiris in 1768. (It is worth noting that not much later, in 1798, the first American essential oil company Dodge and Olcott Inc. was established in New York.) The use of essential oils as food ingredients has a history dating back to ancient times. There are...

Hugo Bovill

Essential Oils Palm Map

The essential oil industry is highly complex and fragmented. There are at least 100 different producing countries, as can be seen from the map Essential Oils of the World (Figure 20.1). Many of these producing countries have been active in these materials for many decades. They are often involved in essential oils due to historical colonization, for example, clove oil from Madagascar has traditionally been purchased via France, nutmeg from Indonesia through Holland, and West Indian and Chinese products through Hong Kong and the United Kingdom. The main markets for essential oils are the United States (New Jersey), Germany, the United Kingdom, Japan, and France (Paris and Grasse). Within each producing country, there is often a long supply chain starting with the small peasant artisanal producer, producing just a few kilos, who then sells it to a collector who visits different producers and purchases the different lots that are then bulked together to form an export lot, which is then...

Medical Examinations

A small study examined a variety of aromatherapy treatments to 25 patients suffering from nausea in a hospice and palliative care facility. Patients were offered the essential oils of Foeniculum vul-gare var. dulce, Chaemomelum nobile, and Mentha x piperita, either singly or in blends, depending on individual preferences. Delivery methods included abdominal compress or massage, personal air spritzer or scentball diffuser. Only 32 of patients reported no response to the treatments and they had all just finished heavy courses of chemotherapy. Using a visual-numeric analogue scale, the remainder of patients experienced an improvement in their nausea symptoms when using the aromatherapy interventions. All patients were also taking antiemetic drugs and so the essential oils were regarded as successful complements to standard medications (Gilligan, 2005). Another experiment used essential oils to prevent PONV, but they were applied after surgery if the patient complained of nausea. An...

Sfegc Sfcgc

In the following years, several additional techniques were developed and applied to essential oils analysis, including high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) different kinds of counter-current chromatography (CCC) supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) including multidimensional coupling techniques, C-13 NMR, near infrared (NIR), and Raman spectroscopy and a multitude of so-called hyphenated techniques, which means on-line couplings of chromatographic separation devices to spectrometers, yielding valuable structural information of the individual separated components made their identification feasible. TLC was one of the first chromatographic techniques and has been used for many years for the analysis of essential oils. This method provided valuable information compared to simple measurements of chemical and physical values and has therefore been adopted as a standard laboratory method for characterization of essential oils in numerous pharmacopoeias. Fundamentals of TLC have...

Ntroduction

One of the first systematic in vitro examinations of the antimicrobial activity of essential oils dates back to the late nineteenth century when Buchholtz studied the growth inhibitory properties of caraway oil, thyme oil, phenol, and thymol on bacteria having been cultivated in a tabac decoction. In this examination, thymol turned out to be 10-fold stronger than phenol (Buchholtz, 1875), which was in use as surgical antiseptic at that time (Ashhurst, 1927). The German pharmacopoeia Deutsches Arzneibuch 6 (DAB 6) issued in 1926 and later supplements (1947, 1959) listed together 26 essential oils, and by this it has become obvious that essential oils have a long history in pharmaceutical practice due to their pharmacological activities. The European Pharmacopoeia 6th edition issued in 2007 lists 28 essential oils. Among them are 20 oils already present in DAB 6 (anise, bitter fennel, caraway, cassia, cinnamon bark, citronella, clove, coriander, eucalyptus, juniper, lavender, lemon,...

Massage Techniques

Massage usually involves the use of a lubricating oil to help the practitioner's hands glide more evenly over the body. The addition of perfumed essential oils further adds to its potential to relax. It is not known exactly how massage works, although many theories abound (Vickers, 1996 Ernst et al., 2001). The mechanical action of the hands on cutaneous and subcutaneous structures enhances circulation of blood and lymph, resulting in increased supply of oxygen and removal of waste products or mediators of pain (Goats, 1994). Certain massage techniques have been shown to increase the threshold for pain (Dhondt et al., 1999). Also, most importantly from the standpoint of aromatherapy, a massage can relax the mind and reduce anxiety, which could positively affect the perception of pain (Vickers, 1996 Ernst, 2003a). Many studies have been carried out, most of which are unsatisfactory. It appears that placebo-controlled, double-blind trials may not be possible, yet few randomized clinical...

General Considerations

What is CAM Complementary medicine, such as aromatherapy, is used in conjunction with conventional medicine for example, to lessen a patient's postoperative discomfort. Alternative medicine, such as some herbal medicines, is used instead of conventional medicine to treat cancer. Alternative therapies include, but are not limited to, the following disciplines folk medicine, herbal medicine, diet fads, homeopathy, faith healing, new age healing, chiropractic, acupuncture, naturopathy, reflexology, massage, and music therapy. Integrative medicine combines conventional medical and CAM therapies for which there is some scientific evidence of safety and effectiveness, regardless of their origin.

Radiochemical Techniques

This technique is useful in the fields of drugs, phy-tochemistry, food additives, and other natural and synthetic organic compounds. Many organic constituents of drug-containing plants were detected by this technique. Examples are constituents of essential oils, purines (e.g., caffeine), narcotics from drugs or tobacco, marijuana constituents, mescaline from Mexican narcotic fungi, organic contituents of fossil fuels, and oil-shales.

Coupled TLC Techniques

There are a number of ways in which TLC can be combined to advantage with GLC. The spots obtained from TLC may be eluted, concentrated, and then subjected to GLC analysis. This method has been used in the analyses of lipids, steroids, alcohols, fatty acids, esters, glycerides, hydrocarbons, essential oils, and many other natural and synthetic organic compounds. Methyl esters of fatty acids are first separated on silver-nitrate-impregnated silica gel

What Practitioners Say It Does

Aromatherapy has three main functions. The first is stress reduction, which is achieved primarily through the personal use of aromatic oils in one's workplace or home, or by combining aromatherapy with other stress reduction activities, such as soaking in a hot bath treated with scented oil or receiving a massage accompanied by aromatherapy. The second function is preventive. According to some advocates, aromatherapy can balance and increase the well-being of both body and mind, thus decreasing the likelihood that disease will develop. The third function is therapeutic. Aromatherapy is used to treat physical and mental ailments. Lavender, for example, is used to treat anxiety, mild depression, and insomnia. Conditions that practitioners believe to be aided by aromatherapy include acne, anxiety, cold and flu, skin disorders, headaches, indigestion, premenstrual syndrome, muscle tension, and pain. Some aromatherapy advocates use body applications (massages and liniments) to treat...

Beliefs on Which It Is Based

Aromatherapy rests on two central principles, one well known to science and the other as yet unproven. The first is that aromatherapy is based on the sense of smell, which is extremely acute in humans and other animals. Very small amounts of a scent trigger the sense of smell by activating receptors in the nasal cavity. These receptors are neurons, or nerve cells, which translate the odor into nerve impulses, enabling them to travel instantly to the olfactory bulb, which is part of the limbic system, the area of the brain that scientists have identified with memory and emotion. The sense of smell has been studied extensively for its role in communication and memory. The second, but unproven, belief on which aromatherapy is based is that essential oils, through the sense of smell or by absorption through the skin, can affect the body's health.

Research Evidence to Date

However, although smell and the olfactory system have multiple functions, there is no scientific evidence indicating that aromatherapy can aid in preventing or alleviating disease. The medical literature contains no research on the effects of aromatherapy as a medical treatment. Like other complementary methods, aromatherapy may reduce stress, enhance pleasure, and improve quality of life for those to whom it appeals. However, no evidence in the medical literature supports claims by proponents that aromatherapy can help prevent or heal disease. Evidence is lacking even in the case of minor and self-limiting conditions, such as headaches and colds, that advocates say can be alleviated or abbreviated by aromatherapy. Used as a strictly complementary technique, however, aromatherapy is a pleasant addition to baths and massages. Scented candles or aroma sprays, for those who enjoy the fragrance, contribute to a sense of relaxation and help create a calming atmosphere. A few caveats The...

Alternative Therapies And Wound Management

Massage reflexology aromatherapy therapeutic touch Aromatherapy involves the use of essential oils which are applied to the skin. A variety of oils can be used, depending on the effect required. Unfortunately, there are a number of inconsistencies found in the literature with a variety of contradictory properties being given to the same oil (Vickers, 1997). A recent study by Kite et al. (1998) suggests that aromatherapy is effective in reducing anxiety and stress. They assessed 58 cancer patients using a HAD score before and after six sessions of aromatherapy. They found a significant reduction in anxiety and depression at the end of the course of treatment.

Organogels

Surfactants, alcohols, azone, N-methylpyrrolidone, urea, sulfoxides, essential oils, terpenes, terpenoids, and glycols (Williams and Barry, 2004). The most common organogels employed for topical and transdermal delivery of actives are lecithin organogels. The components of these organogels are known to efficiently partition with the skin and enhance the permeation of many drugs (Willimann et al., 1992 Bhatnagar and Vyas, 1994 Aboofazeli et al., 2002 Shaikh et al., 2006). The skin penetration enhancement effect observed was due to the lecithin as well as certain solvents like isopropyl myristate and ethyl oleate (Dreher et al., 1997 Agrawal et al., 2004). Owing to their amphiphilic nature, the lecithin organogels are able to solubilize and entrap permeants with diverse physicochemical nature (Scartazzini and Luisi, 1988). A leveling in subcutaneous tumor growth was reported on transdermal application of lecithin organogels containing tetrabenzamidine in mice (Nastruzzi and Gambari,...

Natural supplements

Increasingly, clients are showing a preference for products that they perceive to be 'natural', such as fish oils, garlic and chondroitin. Some of these products are proving extremely useful as a treatment or adjunct to certain conditions. However, clients should be advised to exercise caution as the fact that they do not fall within the definition of veterinary medicines and may be freely available does not necessarily mean that they cannot cause harm if incorrectly administered. It is not unusual for a client to use the same product (and dose ) that they take themselves - remember that not all products safe for use in humans are equally safe for animals. In addition, instruct the client of the correct methods of handling these products as they may be easily absorbed, ingested or inhaled. This is particularly true of essential oils, which can have serious effects if incorrectly handled and administered.

J 1H NMR Polarimetry

Determination of the enantiomeric composition of natural semiochemicals by *H NMR spectroscopy using a chiral lanthanide shift reagent is a rapid, accurate, and ion-destructive technique. It is also a quantitative method for detection of adulteration of essential oils and oleoresins by synthetic racemic chemicals.

Part Five Overview

Most of the therapies in this part are relatively new, having been organized only several decades ago. Music therapy formally began in the 1950s, and a professional organization for dance therapy was established only in 1966. At the same time, most of these approaches spring from roots that extend back to the beginning of civilization. Visual arts, dance, humor, aromatherapy, chanting, and music have been intrinsic components of human culture for thousands of years.

Aromatherapy Aura

Aromatherapy Aura

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