Your Perfect Right

Your Perfect Right

Always wondered if you could use assertiveness and equality in your relationships and in your life? Here are some great information on how to be more assertive! Do you want to improve your career and the amount of money that you bring home? Do you want to break all the sales records in your office? Do you want to bring home more money? Do you feel as though you are just short of reaching all of your goals?

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What to Expect on Your First Visit Does It Hurt

The first thing your acu-pro will do is look at your general appearance and vitality. Are you a vibrant, assertive person with plenty of outward energy, or do you come across as weak and frail These are the first general observations that he or she will make. Your body type may also be noted. If you are overweight, you're more likely to be affected by illnesses stemming from disorders of dampness, while being too thin means you might be prone to imbalances of yin energies (see Chapter 6, How You Get Sick The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly ).

Birth Order and Personality

Are more restricted for the two remaining dimensions of the Five Factor Model. Firstborns appear to be more neurotic than laterborns, in the sense of being temperamental and anxious about their status. In addition, firstborns are more extroverted than laterborns, in the sense of being assertive and dominant, whereas laterborns are more extraverted in the sense of being sociable and fun-loving. Dominance and sociability are substantially different personality traits, even though they are classified together within the Five Factor Model. Firstborns tend to have higher IQs than laterborns, but this difference is small, especially after being controlled for differences in family size. On average, IQ falls one point with each increase in birth rank within the family. (Proponents of the Five Factor Model consider IQ to be a sixth factor, largely independent of personality.)

Gender Age Spacing and Other Moderating Influences

Gender also contributes to personality, doing so in ways that parallel the influence of birth order on some personality dimensions - particularly extraversion and agreeableness. These similarities arise because birth order and gender have comparable effects on the strategies siblings use as they jockey for position within the family. Partly for genetic reasons and partly because of socialization, females tend to be less aggressive than males, just as laterborns tend to be less aggressive than firstborns. Gender also modifies the forms taken by aggression. Firstborn males are more physically aggressive than laterborn males, whereas firstborn females are more verbally aggressive. In addition, males and firstborns tend to be more assertive and tough-minded, whereas females and laterborns tend to be more affectionate, tender-minded, and cooperative. Women tend to be conscientious, whereas later-borns do not, so these behavioral parallels do not apply across the board. These seemingly...

Therapeutic Interventions

Learn and demonstrate honesty, openness, and assertive-ness in communicating with others. (14, 22, 23, 24) 24. Using modeling, role-playing, and behavior rehearsal, teach the client healthy assertive skills then practice these skills in several current problem situations.

Abstracted Formulations

We may see restrictions ranging from severe ones based on compromises made early in life to minor ones stemming from later compromises. For example, there is a difference between persons who can maintain the integrity of their organizational capacities (the capacity for reality testing) only by totally walling off all human intimacy and persons who have minor limitations in experiencing assertive feelings with authority figures but otherwise function in an adaptive, age-appropriate way. The latter type of child simply may not be able to compete fully, whereas the former type of child realizes only a shadow of his or her human potential. The various types of constrictions (e.g., limiting the experience of certain types of feelings or thoughts, externalizing internal experiences) are described later in this chapter and in the Appendix. A third, very subtle type of constrictive impairment is called an encapsulated disorder, based on the child's inability to maintain experiential...

Understand the four intents

The first step in changing your attitude toward the 10 most unwanted behaviors is to understand them. The key is the four intentions with which people respond to situations and in two variables assertiveness level and focus of attention. People range from passive (less assertive) to aggressive (more assertive). The assertiveness level is often influenced by the situation during times of challenge, difficulty, or stress, people tend to move out of their normal comfort zone and become either more passive or more aggressive. Now put the two variables together. A person can focus on people aggressively (e.g., belligerence), assertively (e.g., involvement), or passively (e.g., submission) or on a task aggressively (e.g., bold determination), assertively (e.g., involvement), or passively (e.g., withdrawal).

Accept Nothing Less Than Satisfactory Relief

Dealing with cancer is bad enough without the additional burden of poorly controlled pain, especially when you become aware that unrelenting pain is not necessary. Rather than passively accepting persistent pain or disturbing side effects of medication, families must learn to be as assertive as necessary and should communicate frequently with their doctors until

Conformist Forces Imported into Personality

Little research has directly studied the relation of conformist traits to creativity. Instead, research has focused on the opposite pole, personal autonomy, considered one of the 'core characteristics' of the creative personality. Autonomy refers to the preference for regulating oneself, instead of being regulated or controlled by social forces. Related personality traits include Independence of Judgment, Self-Directedness and Self-Determination, Self-Sufficiency, Self-Assertiveness, and Individuation. Such traits have been repeatedly shown to predict both momentary and lifetime creativity. This is because those high on these dimensions tend to (a) show less suggestibility and less need for the approval of others (b) more courage and persistence in the face of criticism and pressure from others, and more willingness to express dissenting opinions (c) more ability to maintain their task-involved or intrinsic motivation, and less susceptibility to ego-involved or performance motivation...

Effectiveness Studies in Mental Health Settings

That has shown tremendous promise is the Program for Assertive Community Treatment (PACT), which uses multidisciplinary teams, active outreach, and a variety of other measures such as job assistance. Initial studies its effectiveness have shown reduced hospitalization and improved stabilization in the community (Stein, 1992). An initial problem in having the program more widely adopted had been that replication studies had not taken place (Lalley et al., 1992).

Testosterone administration

In order to understand the complexity of the relation between sex hormones and aggression one further aspect has to be considered testosterone and aggression seem to be mutually dependent. In addition to sex hormone influences on human aggression, several studies have shown that assertive or aggressive behaviour (e.g., in sport competitions or game contests) followed by a rise in status leads to an increase in testosterone levels (Booth etal. 1989 Elias 1981 Gladue etal. 1989 Gonzalez-Bono etal. 2000 Mazur and Lamb 1980 Mazur etal. 1992 McCaul etal. 1992). However, the rise in testosterone following a win seems to be associated with the subject's elevated mood of victory or elation. Active participation in a competition is not necessarily required testosterone levels increased among spectators watching their favourite sports team win and decreased for fans of the losing teams (Bernardt et al. 1989). If the mood elevation is absent or subjects do not regard the win as important, than...

Understand the third intent get along

A third intent is to get along with other people. This is necessary if you want to create and develop relationships. When there are people with whom you want to get along, you may be less assertive as you consider their needs and interests above your own. In other words, personal desires are of lesser importance than the intent to get along with another person.

Understand the fourth intent get appreciated

This fourth intent requires a higher level of assertiveness, as well as a people focus, in order to be seen, heard, and recognized. The desire to contribute to others and be appreciated for it is one of the most powerful motivators. Studies show that people who love their jobs as well as husbands and wives who are happily married feel appreciated for who they are and what they do.

Spanking The Research

Spanking and yelling at children are power-assertive methods of disciplining. Their purpose is usually to teach a child appropriate behaviors and discourage inappropriate ones. In real life, these methods often occur in response to a parent's loss of patience. Researchers observing parent-child interactions report that some parents interrupt their children on average every seven minutes in an attempt to get them to change a behavior. With 2-year-olds, a full 65 percent of parent-child interactions consist of the parent telling the child to stop a behavior. It all adds up to a great deal of conflict and frustration for parents. And in the short run at least, spanking often seems to work. Children do stop what they're doing. According to the psychological research, the problem with spanking and other power-assertive methods of discipline come later. For one thing, spanking is not particularly effective. Yes, children stop their immediate offending behavior, but they eventually return to...

Why Some Cultures May Discourage Creativity

In some cultures creative people are viewed negatively, at least in certain contexts. According to Lubart, Lim and Plucker found that in Korea creative people are characterized by a set of deviant features - 'indifferent to others' opinions, headstrong, makes conflicts in working groups, is rude, is abnormal.' He also cited a study of Chinese teachers by Chan and Chan which suggests that nonconformity, expressiveness, and assertiveness are seen as characteristics of creative students, but viewed negatively in terms of rebelliousness, being opinionated, and being self-centerd.

Minority Distinctiveness

Other researchers have also found support for the importance of solo and token status for racial and ethnic minorities. Pettigrew and Martin (1987) argued that African Americans face significant barriers during the recruitment, entry, and promotional stages of their careers as a result of being a solo or token member of the organization. Solos are often met with very low expectations from their supervisor and coworkers. These low expectations are insulting to the minority member, may result in less challenging work assignments, and may affect performance as Blacks internalize the low expectations and begin to expect less of themselves. Research by Taylor, Fiske, Close, Anderson, and Ruderman (1977) showed that compared to nonsolos, solos were rated by others as more prominent (i.e., talking more, making a stronger impression, and more confident and assertive). This prominence, however, was not found to be a positive advantage for solos. Instead, their contributions were rated as less...

Aggression in Children

At the other end of a child's moral spectrum are self-serving attitudes and behaviors that are aggressive and harmful to others. Sometimes the words assertive and aggressive are incorrectly believed to have the same meaning. But in psychological terms, they're not interchangeable. Assertive behaviors are goal-oriented actions that help someone obtain legitimate ends. Aggressive behaviors, whether verbal or physical, are carried out without heeding the needs of others. They are intended to cause harm, damage, or injury to another person. In children and teenagers, aggressive actions encompass hitting, name calling, spreading malicious gossip,

Understanding Factors Associated With Sexual Violence In Couples

For survivors of intimate partner sexual violence, violence spans across sociodemographic and geographic boundaries,26 but a few studies have identified distinct factors that may place some survivors at greater risk. For example, in a community sample of women, low sexual refusal assertive-ness, drug use, and prior intimate partner victimization predicted intimate-partner sexual victimization, while heavy episodic drinking and number of sexual partners predicted victimization from nonintimates.27 Studies assessing demographic characteristics have found that marital rape can occur across the life span, but at least one study found that first-time rapes within a marriage occur most often before the age of twenty-five.26 Earlier research often reported mixed findings on greater risk for lower versus higher social class backgrounds, often because of a more limited focus on class.16,26 However, more recent research has highlighted the increased risk and more lethal forms of violence among...

Socio Cultural Arguments

Regardless of the circular interplays however, psychologists and sociologists have in fact conducted hundreds of studies examining gender and personality, and several conclusions have been reasonably established. Although not universally accepted, significant empirical data suggest that males are more aggressive, ambitious, willing to take risks, assertive, and confident on average than their female peers. On the other hand, the data suggest that females on average possess greater degrees of interpersonal ability, self-awareness, communicative expression, cautiousness, anxiety, and modesty. These gendered differences in personality are likely to have sizable effects upon an individual's creative performance, as many of these personality traits (among others) have also been shown to correlate with creative ability within specific domains. Artistic creativity, for example, appears well connected to emotional instability, nonconforming tendencies, anxiety, and imagination among others....

Bring out the best in the Tank

W hen you're under attack by the Tank, you've been targeted as part of the problem. The aggressive behavior is meant to either shove you back on course or eliminate the obstacle that you represent. Your goal must be to command respect, because Tanks simply don't attack people they respect. Aggressive people require assertive reactions. Here's a five-step action plan that will send a clear signal that you are strong and capable. Once you've begun this step, don't back off. Aggressive people like assertive people who stand up for themselves, as long as this isn't perceived as an attack. Keep your voice volume at 75 of the Tank's volume. Then he or she will perceive you as assertive but not aggressive.

Selfabsolution And Private Religion

Unlike in premodern times, when followers were the instruments of God, they have now taken the initiative and made God into an instrument of progress and advancement.3 Old-fashioned forms of faith have disappeared since they rely upon a constant self that is not fostered under existing cultural conditions. Additionally, they demand too much patience and equanimity, and that requirement has caused them to yield to more assertive spiritual capitalizations. The active exploitation of a demystified and more progressive God reflects the trend of moderns to assume greater responsibility for their own wants.

Bring out the best in the KnowItAll

Know-It-Alls are knowledgeable and extremely competent people, highly assertive and outspoken in their viewpoints. Their intent is to get it done in the way that they have determined is best, so they can be very controlling, with a low tolerance for correction and contradiction. Know-It-Alls perceive new ideas as challenges to their authority and knowledge and will rise to those challenges. They will do anything to avoid humiliation.

Other Psychological Treatments

Assertiveness training is often a useful adjunct to behavioral management techniques. Social and emotional support resulting from pain displays may be particularly salient for those patients who lack skills for appropriately asking for what they want, resolving conflicts, and refusing inappropriate demands by others. As distinct Table 13.13 Patient guidelines for assertive behavior from aggression, assertiveness consists in simultaneously treating both others' and one's self with respect (see Table 13.13).

New Base of Competence

By doing all this thinking and preplanning, you've effectively changed the focus of your life from problems to solutions, from negatives to positives. You've made a commitment to therapy and taken the first steps. You're now at a potential transition point in your relationship with family and friends you've confronted yourself and your eating disorder you've admitted the need for help and taken the steps to find it you've shown your strength and guts, and your willingness to grow. You've proven that you can be assertive and self-aware your words and actions show that you can be capable, rational, and assume appropriate control of some aspects of your life. You are building a foundation of competence success breeds success, and confidence comes with competence.

Psychological Reactions To Rapeposttraumatic Stress Disorder And Other Symptoms

Pies were consistently the most effective in treating PTSD. The two most effective therapies for PTSD are cognitive therapy and exposure therapy. A form of each will be described in detail in the remainder of this chapter. Briefly, the cognitive therapies help the person change or modify negative thoughts beliefs that occur as the result of a rape in order to improve emotions exposure therapies help the woman safely revisit the memory of the trauma repeatedly in her mind with the goal of processing the painful emotions associated with a rape. It is important to note that other therapies have also been found to be helpful in reducing PTSD symptoms, such as relaxation therapy, assertiveness training, and stress inoculation therapy. Also, other approaches not considered psychotherapy, such as yoga, meditation, and spirituality, target the overall well-being of the individual and are also important in creating a balance within the individual and her recovery. Other chapters will provide...

Encapsulated Disorders

The major limitations and alterations seen in symptom encapsulations are in thought and affect. The first type, limitation of thought, is found, for example, in hysterical symptoms such as periodic dizziness. Aside from such symptoms, the child may function at an age-appropriate level engage in warm, loving relationships be assertive and experience empathy and concern as well as anger and aggression. Only a narrow content area of psychic life dealing with specific wishes (e.g., of a pleasurable nature) is walled off. In the interview, the limitation of thought may become apparent only by the continued absence of this specific content in an otherwise flexible child who evinces a wide range of themes.

Self Confidence and Arrogance

Self-confidence and arrogance represent another set of traits that involve internal locus which are related to autonomy. The argument is that people are more confident in terms of expressing their ideas if they do not have to think about others' influence, and most of the time they may even be more superior to others. In our world, where competition is an important factor in achieving success, accomplishment depends highly on the level of dominance, arrogance, and self-confidence of any given person. In this respect, the paper of Raymond Van Zelst and Willard Kerr shows that there is a statistically significant correlation between being productive and describing oneself as 'argumentative,' 'assertive,' and 'self-confident.'

Observational Categories for Constructing a Developmental Diagnostic Formulation

When the child has major rigidities in important sectors of experience (e.g., a child who is one or two developmental stages behind), an intensive, long-term, dynamically oriented psychotherapeutic approach is indicated. The child with more circumscribed but chronic and intense difficulties (e.g., around assertive and aggressive feelings, or around intimate feelings) also may benefit from an intensive approach. In such cases, one might expect positive, far-reaching results in a shorter time than with the more major rigidities. In some such cases, in which a circumscribed difficulty of short duration exists, short-term dynamically oriented consultations or simply advice to parents, teachers, and others in the child's environment may be enough to help him or her work out his or her difficulty. For example, observing if a boy can represent, through pretend play or with words, concerns with dependency and assertiveness allows you to compare him with another child (without symptoms) who...

Playfulness and Creativity

Converging evidence suggests that children who are playful tend to be more flexible in their understanding of the world, more approachable, tend to initiate contact with others, and have an assertive style that may contribute to their ability to act adaptively when distressed. It may be that children who are naturally playful are more effective and efficient at dealing with their problems in their environment. Nonetheless, more research is needed to better understand the relationships between playfulness and positive adaptive behaviors.

Social Integration and Offenders with Mental Illness Massachusetts FTT Community Reentry Studies

Additionally, a large body of research on specialized case management, such as assertive community treatment, concludes that intensive case management can reduce the risk of violence and re-hospitalization and improve community tenure for individuals discharged from the hospital (Dvoskin & Steadman, 1994 Mueser, Bond, Drake, & Resnick, 1998 Phillips, Burns, Edgar, Mueser, Linkins, Rosenheck, Drake, & Herr, 2001). Thus, for recently released hospitalized individuals, approaches to integration focus on personal characteristics and community or social service resources (networks and capital).

Platform And Ordnance

A naval military analogy between the vehicle of delivery, the platform (e.g. battleship, frigate, etc.) and what is delivered, the ordnance (e.g. shell, missile, etc.) is helpful in understanding the difference between service organisation and therapy.42 In terms of this analogy the platform would be aspects of the mental health service, such as assertive outreach, case management and so on whereas ordnance would consist of different types of therapeutic intervention, such as CBT and family interventions. This distinction is useful in clarifying what is being tested. For example a trial of different service organisations (platforms) would be the UK 700 trial,43 in which 708 psychotic patients in four centres were randomly assigned to standard or intensive case management. In this trial the only specific difference between the two trial limbs was the number of patients the case managers had in their case loads. No investigation was made about the therapeutic input that the case...

Summary Outline of Areas to Be Covered in Developmental History

Early experiences for organized, assertive, original behavioral patterns (e.g., In second year, could the patient engage in complex games and behavioral interactions Could the patient take caregiver by the hand and show him or her what the patient wanted rather than simply crying Were emotions complex and rich, incorporating positive and negative feelings, or did one polarity dominate ) 3. Comfort with assertiveness, passivity, and feelings of loss

Internal Factors Personality

Personality inventories of male high ability students show that male high ability dropouts are more assertive, independent, rebellious, cheerful, expressive, frank, and talkative than male high ability nondropouts. S. P. Lajcie and B. M. Shore discussed in 1981 that this might indicate that school pressures for conformity, rather than a lack of interest in school, create potential dropouts. Further, such characteristics can prevent the students from being selected for gifted programs, even if they have superior ability and other talents.

Short Opponens Hand Splint

Wrist Extension Mobilization Splint

Capsulectomy involves the surgical division (capsulotomy) or excision (capsulectomy) of a portion of the collateral ligaments of a digital joint with normal articular surfaces but limited passive motion due to contracted periarticular ligamentous structures. Although a substantial improvement of motion may be reliably anticipated at the MP level, the results of a capsulectomy procedure at the PIP joint are less predictable.14,44,85,100,109 Mobilization efforts are usually initiated within 1 to 7 days postoperatively. These efforts routinely involve assertive and focused splinting and exercise programs, which are vigilantly monitored.

Theory Research and Practice

Avoidance acts to free up and facilitate further Exploration of the Experience when it becomes blocked and Exploring the Experience creates an increased anxiety state and defensive process, thus requiring more extensive Exploring of the Avoidance. There are two common defensive processes in this context. The first consists of expectations, hopes, and fears the patient has regarding the therapist's potential reaction to his or her feelings or underlying needs. The second common defensive process in this context is the patient's internalized criticism of his or her own needs or wishes. These introjected criticisms impede the exploration of feelings the patient has about the therapeutic impasse. Overall, it is helpful for the therapist to assist the patient in distinguishing and exploring these various emotion states in context. Therapists can help to refocus the patient's awareness to the ways in which she or he moves to a self-critical stance when self-assertive feelings are triggered...

Depression In Theoretical Perspective

Although not often stated formally, another theory of depression holds that the internalization of negative emotion can result in the experience of depression. In this regard, it is sometimes said that depression is the opposite of expression. The prolonged inhibition of any emotion may lay the groundwork for depression, but internalization models have paid special attention to anger. Among other things, they gave birth to assertiveness training as a popular therapeutic technique for depressed people. The simple logic behind assertiveness training is that outward expression is negative emotion essential for positive mental health. Training the person to develop greater ability to externalize negative emotion, it is reasoned, lessens the risk of depression.

Affectrelated traits and creativity The case of trait emotional intelligence and divergent thinking

The literature on links between affect-related traits and creativity is informed mainly by empirical work based on trait emotional intelligence and divergent thinking. The studies conducted so far have generally found no overall correlation between global trait emotional intelligence scores and divergent thinking. However, this null correlation may conceal different relationships between divergent thinking and the separate factors underlying global trait emotional intelligence. In a recent study, Maria Jose Sanchez-Ruiz, Daniel Hernandez-Torrano, Juan Carlos Perez-Gonzalez, and K. V. Petrides found certain trait EI factors such as sociability (i.e., assertiveness, emotion management, and social awareness) to be positively related to divergent thinking, while others such as self-control (i.e., emotion control, impulsiveness, and stress management) were related negatively to it. The latter finding is consistent with positive correlations found elsewhere between divergent thinking...

Psychological implications

Similarly, in a sample of 183 healthy Swedish men aged 20-75 years, associations of CAG repeat length and scores in the Karolinska Scales of Personality were described. Tendencies indicated positive relationships between shorter CAG trinucleotide repeats and personality scales connected to dominance and aggression (low Lack of Assertiveness , high Verbal Aggression , high Monotony Avoidance ). Longer polyglutamine tracts were associated with some neuroticism-related personality scales high Muscular Tension , high Lack of Assertiveness and high Psychastenia (Jonsson etal. 2001).

Patient Encounter Part 1

In adults, there is a steady decline in the rate of complete remission (CR) following initial induction therapy with increasing age. When results are corrected for differences in immunophenotype, ALL cells from adults are more resistant to the multiple antileukemic agents than are cells from children in the first decade of life.8 While induction treatment produces 95 CR in children, it declines to no more than 60 in patients older than 60 years of age. This is due in part to decreased tolerance of assertive induction consolidation regimens in older patients. Other potentially import

Affects and Anxiety

The range and degrees of specific affects are very broad. In the aggressive domain, for example, one finds gradations from assertive behavior, to competitive behavior, to mildly aggressive behavior, to explosive and uncontrolled aggressive behavior. The same is true in the affectionate and caring domain, which ranges from promiscuous emotional hunger, to mild affection, to a sincere sense of warmth, to compassion, to the de-velopmentally advanced emotion of empathy. In all cases, you want to see how your observations fit in with what is expected of a child at his or her developmental stage. In a 3-year-old, for example, one does not expect as great a variety of differentiated affects as an 8-year-old would show. With a 3-year-old, you can expect to see pos-sessiveness, with some show of stubbornness and negativism. You can expect to see some capacity to share with you, and perhaps curiosity, pleasure, and excitement, but not more mature affects such as empathy. By age 6 or 7, if you...

Social traits

In a classic study in the 1950s, Van Zelst and Kerr collected personality self-descriptions on 514 technical and scientific personnel from a research foundation and a university. Holding age constant, they reported significant partial correlations between productivity and describing oneself as 'argumentative,' 'assertive,' and 'self-confident.' In one of the few studies to examine female scientists, Bachtold and Werner administered Cattell's 16 Personality Factor to 146 women scientists and found that they were significantly different from women in general on nine of the 16 scales, including dominance (Factor E) and self-confidence (Factor O). Similarly, Feist in the 1990s reported a structural equation model of scientific eminence in which the path between observer-rated hostility and eminence was direct and the path between arrogant working style and eminence was indirect but significant.


Some cultures (e.g., Asians) show regard for quiet but influential leaders over assertive leadership styles. Current methods of identification could overlook these culturally different characteristics as signs of potential creativity. In reference to past literature and research studies in the field, creativity and the creative process have been assessed in terms of divergent thinking, problem solving, cognitive flexibility, critical thinking, ideation, fantasy, visual imagery, and other information-processing modes. The issue of preferences is also important to be considered in the realm of diversity and creativity. For example, some individuals are more creative (i.e., offer many ideas) in cooperative learning situations than in situations that are competitive in nature. Additionally, some individuals prefer to solve problems in a reflective and systematic manner, whereas others prefer a more intuitive and spontaneous approach. Learning style inventories may help determine the...


Doug's physical and neurological functioning seemed intact. His mood conveyed an underlying sadness, longing, and depression, in contrast to the happy assertiveness one would expect of an 8-year-old. He projected an overall relatedness that was intense and emotionally hungry in style. There was a clear capacity for human relationships, but it had an affect-hungry quality to it rather than the sharing we would ordinarily expect in an 8-year-old. The affect system appeared organized but lacked depth and variety. I observed a general apprehension studded with preoccupations about guarding against future emergencies and fear of being hurt, robbed, and ill. I did not see a range of affects from empathy and love to competitive anger, for example. Rather, the affect range was constricted around fearful concerns and some competitive feelings toward siblings.

The Early Years

Although O'Keeffe preferred her fun-loving father to her stern mother, it was her mother, grandmothers, and unmarried aunts Lola, a school teacher, and Ollie, who worked for a newspaper, who became her role models as capable, assertive, and focused women. Intense drive, independence, and a strong will characterized O'Keeffe since childhood. As she grew older, they formed the strengths necessary to maintain an artistic career, but in childhood they made her appear domineering to her siblings. Referring to a family photograph of the children where O'Keeffe was partly blurred, her sister Catherine, as noted by Robinson, said it was probably because Georgia was giving orders.

ShannonM Lynch

Structured groups usually have a present focus and the goal of teaching a specific set of skills, such as stress management, relaxation training, emotion regulation, or assertiveness training. Generally, structured groups have a topic per meeting. Often members are provided with handouts that are reviewed and discussed by group members. Groups are usually structured

Leanne R Brecklin

Of assertive and combative responses to various forms of intimidation and threat along the continuum of sexual violence.21,22 Are the techniques taught in self-defense classes actually effective at reducing the sexual victimization of women Prior research studies suggest that participation in self-defense training may be related to rape avoidance for participants.23,24,25 In addition, several empirical studies of the role of victim resistance strategies in rape incidents have demonstrated that victims' use of forceful physical resistance (e.g., hitting, kicking, biting), nonforceful physical resistance (e.g., fleeing, hiding, blocking blows), and forceful verbal resistance (e.g., screaming, yelling at, or threatening offender) are typically related to avoiding completed rape and unrelated to physical injury. On the other hand, nonforceful verbal resistance (e.g., pleading, begging, or reasoning with the offender) has been found to be related to greater severity of sexual abuse but not...

Principles of change

Alexander and French (1946) first suggested the importance of facilitating corrective emotional experiences, those therapeutic experiences that serve to disconfirm previously held negative expectations. Therapists can facilitate a corrective experience, for example, by encouraging clients to behave more assertively in situations that clients have heretofore perceived as risky, or by therapists, themselves, responding to an instance of assertive in-session behavior in a manner that serves to disconfirm clients' previous expectations of others' reactions to that behavior. Both techniques promote a corrective experience in that they can update clients' original expectations that have prevented them from behaving in ways that are more conducive to adaptive functioning. Because one such experience is unlikely to lead to long-lasting change, therapists can encourage clients to engage in ongoing reality testing until a critical mass of corrective experiences is encountered to allow for more...


Statements that the voices made and her difficulties with assertiveness. Explicit exposition of beliefs about herself were handled very carefully e.g. the voices say I'm a bad mother and that I'm evil was examined as a hypothesis and negative perceptions balanced rapidly within that session by use of guided discovery to elicit positive counter-balancing arguments. She eventually developed her own currently successful way of handling her voices and they have now remitted.


It became clear after admission that amphetamines may have complicated his presentation but were not responsible for it. His thought disorder remained despite confinement to the ward. Urine screening confirmed that he was not taking amphetamines or other illicit substances. He accepted medication and was prescribed increasing amounts with minimal response of his thought disorder but significant sedation and akathisia. Gradually, over a period of 8 to 9 months, he became more settled, but well before his symptoms had abated, he was keen to leave the ward. This was eventually agreed, on a trial basis, with very regular support from an assertive outreach team member, as care coordinator who had training in the management of substance misuse, and with whom he fortunately got on very well.