Blast Your Biceps

Get Huge Arm Muscles Fast

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Biceps tendon ruptures

Many authors have described isolated ruptures of the tendon from the long head of the biceps muscle, though most ruptures of the biceps tendon have been found with supraspinatus tendon tears 7,131,132 . Studies that document isolated tears using arthroscop-ic techniques show these lesions to be rare (2.2 ). Osteophytes in the bicipital groove may cause these isolated ruptures of the biceps tendon 7 . Treatment of isolated ruptures of the biceps tendon has been separated into two groups based on age. In young and active patients that are particularly involved in overhead sport, weight-lifting or jobs requiring forceful supination, a sudden overload of this tendon may result in an isolated rupture. Physical examination and ultrasonography of the biceps can isolate the rupture site while MRI should be used to examine the status of the rotator cuff. An early repair is recommended 133 for patients with high functional expectations. ment of the tendon to the superior glenoid. The most...

Biceps Reflex C5 Fig 347

The athlete's forearm is placed over your forearm so that the biceps is relaxed. Place your thumb on the biceps tendon in the cubital fossa (flex elbow with resistance to make sure you are over the tendon). Tap your thumb nail with a reflex hammer, held in the other hand. The biceps should jerk slightly, the elbow may flex, and the forearm supinate slightly. Although the biceps is innervated by the musculocutaneous nerve at neurological levels C5 and C6, its reflex action is largely from C5. If there is a slight muscle response, the C5 neurological level is normal. If, after several attempts, there is no response, there may be a lesion anywhere from the root of C5 to the innervation of the biceps muscle. j Fig, 3-47 Biceps reflex (C5).

Distal Biceps Tendon Rupture

Rupture of the proximal biceps tendon comprises 90-97 of all biceps ruptures and almost exclusively involves the long head. Distal biceps tendon ruptures account for the remainder. Predisposition to this rare rupture occurs with degeneration of the Distal biceps tendon rupture is characterized by sudden pain over the anterior aspect of the elbow after a forceful effort against resistance. Usually the patient will hear a snap and have pain when the tendon rupture occurs. Swelling and bruising are soon to follow and a visible or palpable mass may develop in the upper arm. History is often suggestive of diagnosis. Elbow and shoulder ROM should be evaluated and complete strength testing should be performed. The arm contour is very revealing with regard to diagnosis. The Ludington test (or position), in which the hands are clasped behind the head and the biceps muscle is flexed, is often used to evaluate the contour of the arm. Other maneuvers, such as the Speed test and Yergason sign, are...

Biceps tendinitis

The long head of the biceps muscle extends intra-articularly under the acromion through the rotator cuff to its insertion on the superior rim of the glenoid. Bicipital tendinitis is produced by the same mechanisms that initiate impingement symptoms in rotator cuff injuries and can inflame the tendon in its subacro-mial location 158 . This condition can also be caused by subluxation of the tendon out of the bicipital groove on the proximal humerus due to rupture of the transverse ligament (see section on 'Biceps tendon instabil-p. 7i6). Symptoms of bicipital tendinitis are essentially the same whether due to impingement or tendon subluxation. Local pain is found at the proximal humerus and shoulder. Pain can occur during manual testing of the elbow flexors and during palpation of the tendon itself. Supination of the forearm may also aggravate pain since this is one of the primary functions of the biceps. of activities. Strengthening muscles that assist the biceps in elbow flexion and...

Relevant Anatomy And Biomechanics

The biceps brachii muscle is composed of two origins. The short head of the biceps arises from the coracoid process along with the coracobrachialis to form the conjoined tendon. The long head of the biceps originates in the glenohumeral joint from the supraglenoid tubercle and posterior labrum and travels in the rotator interval obliquely from posteromedial to anterolateral over the humeral head. The tendon then exits the joint beneath the transverse humeral ligament, entering the bicipital groove (also known as intertubercular groove) between the greater and lesser tuberosities. The bicipital groove has an average depth of both the long and short heads of the biceps travel distally to radius and the fascia of the forearm via the bicipital aponeuro-sis. The biceps is innervated by the musculocutaneous nerve (C5-C7), the first branch off the lateral cord of the brachial plexus. The proximal portion of the long head of the biceps receives its blood supply from the anterior circumflex...

Clinical Features And Evaluation

Magnetic resonance imaging is key in the evaluation of the specific individual components of the PLC of the knee. A high-powered magnet of at least 1.5 T is recommended in order to adequately assess the iliotibial band, long and short heads of the biceps femoris, LCL, popliteus, and the poplite-ofibular and fabellofibular ligaments (Figs. 55-1 through 55-4). A bone contusion of the anteromedial femoral condyle is also a common finding.

Longterm Followup Study Patients and Methods

Intraoperative muscle-evoked potentials (MEPs) recorded from the muscles following transcranial electrical stimulation Tc(E)-MEP during anterior decompression and fusion at the C3C4 level. A Before bone grafting. B Amplitudes of MEPs decreased after bone grafting with hyperelon-gation. C Amplitudes of MEPs recovered after bone graft shortening and regrafting. Biceps, m. biceps brachii ADM, m. abductor digiti minimi Fig. 3. Intraoperative muscle-evoked potentials (MEPs) recorded from the muscles following transcranial electrical stimulation Tc(E)-MEP during anterior decompression and fusion at the C3C4 level. A Before bone grafting. B Amplitudes of MEPs decreased after bone grafting with hyperelon-gation. C Amplitudes of MEPs recovered after bone graft shortening and regrafting. Biceps, m. biceps brachii ADM, m. abductor digiti minimi

Muscles Of The Anterior Compartment Of The

Consists of two heads that attach to the supraglenoid tubercle (long head) and the coracoid process (short head). The biceps brachii muscle converges to insert on the radial tuberosity. The biceps brachii crosses anterior to the glenohumeral joint and the elbow, primarily producing flexion in both joints. Because the distal attachment is to the radius, the biceps brachii will also produce supination due to movement of the radioulnar joints. The biceps brachii receives its innervation from the musculocutaneous nerve (C5-C6) and its blood supply from branches originating from the brachial artery.

Anterior Aspect Boney

Soft Tissue (see Fig. 4-50) Biceps Brachii Palpate the tendon and periosteal junction for a strain of this muscle. Its trigger points are usually found in the distal part of the muscle with referred pain in the anterior deltoid and cubital fossa. Biceps ruptures are rare but can occur. the biceps tendon Biceps Tendon This nerve is deep to the biceps muscle over the brachialis muscle above the elbow joint line. If it is impaired, it will affect the lateral cutaneous nerve of the forearm.

Proprioception and joint kinematics

Rotator cuff and biceps muscles are required for normal shoulder function. According to Gowan and his associates 52 , two groups of muscles control the shoulder during the pitching motion in professional baseball pitchers. The first group of muscles demonstrates increased electromyographic activity during the early and late cocking phase and decreased activity during the acceleration phase. This group of muscles positions the arm for the delivery of the pitch. The second group of muscles demonstrates increased elec-tromyographic activity during the acceleration phase of the pitch. Using the same measurement technique, Glousman and coworkers 45 showed changes in the electromyographic pattern in baseball pitchers with chronic anterior instability of the glenohumeral joint. Alteration of the normal neuromuscular balance in patients with anterior instability can cause changes in joint kinematics that can lead to repetitive microtrauma of the glenohumeral joint.

CMAP Monitoring Method Instruments

Trode paste Flefix (Nihon Kohden), used for electroencephalography (EEG), was applied, and the stimulating electrodes were placed on the scalp regions. For precise monitoring of upper extremity function, disk- or needle-type recording electrodes were placed on muscles, including the deltoid, biceps brachii, triceps brachii, interosseous, and extensor pollicis brevis. Although needle electrodes were superior for obtaining a sharply defined waveform, disk electrodes were also useful when the electrodes were placed by the medical staff. Disk electrodes were generally used for the distal muscles, as EMG could be recorded more easily from distal muscles than from proximal muscles. For monitoring lower extremity function, electrodes were placed on muscles that included the quadriceps femoris, hamstrings, tibialis anterior, gastrocnemius, and peroneus brevis. In addition, anal plug electrodes designed by the authors were placed on the external anal sphincter 16 . The anal electrodes were...

Posterior Division Of The Sacral Plexus

Tensor Fascia Lata Nerve

Exits the pelvis via the greater sciatic foramen and travels inferior to the piriformis, providing motor innervation to the gluteus maximus muscle. Common fibular (peroneal) nerve (L4-S3). Is the smallest division of the sciatic nerve (half the size of the tibial nerve). The common fibular nerve exits the pelvis via the greater sciatic foramen to enter the gluteal region inferior to the piri-formis muscle. The nerve descends along the posterior aspect of the thigh, providing motor innervation to the short head of the biceps femoris muscle. The common fibular nerve descends to the popliteal fossa and curves laterally around the neck of the fibula to bifurcate into the superficial and deep fibular nerves, providing motor innervation to the lateral and anterior compartments of the leg, respectively. Furthermore, the superficial fibular nerve provides sensory innervation to the anterolateral region of the leg and the dorsum of the foot. The deep fibular...

Techniques of laminoplasty and supplementary procedures

Double Door Laminoplasty

Nerve root palsy due to thermal damage or mechanical injury to the nerve root is known to develop occasionally following posterior decompression, and a different type of nerve root palsy is reported to occur after laminoplasty 27, 28, 34 . The initial symptom is severe pain in the shoulder and upper arm, which is followed by paresis or paralysis of the deltoid and biceps brachii muscles. There is a motor-dominant type of nerve root paralysis. The former symptom is the more frequent form of this complication. It occurs on the 1st, 2nd, or 3rd postoperative day, and not immediately after surgery. The fifth cervical nerve root is most frequently involved, followed by the sixth and seventh, in that order. The eighth nerve root is rarely affected. Out of 239 laminoplasty patients in our series, 12 patients developed fifth or sixth nerve root palsy, 3 patients had seventh nerve root involvement, and 1 patient had an eighth root complication. The long-tract signs and

Muscles Of The Posterior Compartment Of The Thigh

Hamstrings Muscles Posterior Thigh

The muscles in the posterior compartment of the thigh are primarily extensors of the hip or flexors of the knee because of their posterior orientation. The tibial nerve (L4-S3) innervates the muscles in the posterior compartment of the thigh, with the exception of the short head of the biceps femoris muscles (common fibular nerve). Muscles in this compartment do not receive all the innervation levels from the tibial nerve rather, they receive innervation from the spinal nerve level between L5 and S2 (Figure 36-2C). Biceps femoris muscle. Consists of two heads (long and short heads). Proximally, the long head attaches on the ischial tuberosity, and the short head attaches to the lateral lip of the linea aspera. Distally, the muscle attaches to the head of the fibula. The biceps femoris muscle flexes and medially rotates the leg at the knee joint and extends and medially rotates the thigh at the hip joint. The tibial nerve (L5-S2) innervates the long head, and the short head is...

Degenerative Disc Disease

Compression of the C6 root typically causes numbness in the thumb and index finger, and compression of the C7 root typically involves the index and middle fingers. When compression is severe, myotomal weakness, reflex loss, and, with time, fasciculations and atrophy may ensue. With C6 compression, the biceps, brachioradialis, pronator teres, and radial wrist extensors may be weak, and the brachioradialis and biceps reflexes may be diminished or lost. With C7 weakness, the wrist and finger extensors and the triceps are typically weak. The triceps reflex may also be diminished or lost. With C8 compression, there is often interscapular pain and pain in the medial aspect of the arm and hand with weakness of the hand intrinsic muscles. The finger flexor reflex may be lost. Lesions above C6 are less common and are associated with correspondingly more proximal sensory symptoms and weakness. Lesions of the C5 root may cause shoulder pain and pain and numbness...

Does Excessive Protein Build Larger Muscles

It's true that protein is needed for the development of muscle, but it's not true that extra protein will build bigger biceps. Body builders and other athletes do need more protein than the RDA. However, this increase is already accounted for in the typical American diet. As mentioned earlier, we cannot store excess protein. Therefore, all those extra protein calories (and the fat that came along with them) will most likely wind up on your well, let's just say I'm not talking about your quads

Itzhak Fischer1 Angelo C Lepne1 Steve Sang Woo Han1 and Alan R Tessler12

Spinal Neural Repair

Whole pieces of the ventral portion of E12 spinal cord (Nogradi and Vrbova, 1996) or whole pieces of the entire E14 spinal cord (Duchossoy et al., 2001), transplanted into adult host spinal cord and apposed to an avulsed ventral root or peripheral nerve graft, also contain neurons that establish functional connections with denervated muscle and partially reverse muscle atrophy. Some of these multipolar neurons are as large as the small- and medium-sized motor neurons that normally innervate biceps brachii in intact rats and are immunore-active for CGRP (Duchossoy et al., 2001), a phenotypic marker for motor neurons (Ramer et al., 2003). Even when their axons are provided with access to a ventral root or peripheral nerve, only a small number of motor neurons develop within the grafts. Moreover, there are no reports that these grafted motor neurons are integrated into functional circuits with either primary afferent or supraspinal axons that regenerate into...

Explain how EMG is used to assess patients with spinal disorders for the presence of a radiculopathy

Specific muscles are selected for EMG assessment. Six upper limb muscles, including paraspinal muscles, consistently identify more than 98 of cervical radiculopathies that are confirmable by electrodiagnosis. For upper-limb EMG evaluation, a suggested screen includes deltoid, triceps, pronator teres, abductor pollicis brevis, extensor digitorum communis, and cervical paraspinal muscles. Six lower limb muscles, including paraspinal muscles, consistently identify more than 98 of electrodiagnostically confirmable lumbosacral radiculopathies. A suggested lower-limb EMG screen for optimal identification includes the vastus medialis, anterior tibialis, posterior tibialis, short head of biceps femoris, medial gastrocnemius, and lumbar paraspinal muscles. For both lumbosacral and cervical disorders, when paraspinal muscles are not reliable to study, eight distal muscles are needed to achieve optimal identification.

Axilla Fig 363 Soft Tissue

Subluxing Extensor Tendon Mcp Joint

Biceps Brachii Muscle Serratus Anterior Muscle A rupture of the biceps tendon may cause axillary and arm pain. A palpable lump may be felt in the biceps muscle when the athlete is asked to contract the biceps. Anderson JR et al Glenoid labrum tears related to the long head of biceps, Am J Sports Med 13 337,1985. Donoghue DH Subluxing biceps tendon in the athlete, Sports Med 20-29, March April 1973. Ludington NA Rupture of the long head of the biceps flexor cubiti muscle, Arch Surg 77 358,1923.

Lateral View Fig 31 Boney

Atrophy of the coracobrachial is, biceps brachii, and brachialis indicates an injury to the musculocutaneous nerve. Loss of proper muscle contour may also be the result of a muscle tear or rupture such as the Fopeye biceps, which develops following a complete rupture of the biceps tendon (Fig. 3-16). The abducted scapulae may result in compression of the acromioclavicular joint, which in turn can affect the clavicle and its movements during glenohumeral flexion and abduction. Scapular movement, especially rotation, will also be diminished. The subacromial space can be reduced, making impingement of the supraspinatus, biceps, and the subacromial bursa possible. A tight biceps tendon can also pull the humerus forward and capsular adhesions can result.

Anterior Division Of The Sacral Plexus

Nerve to the inferior gemellus and quadratus femoris muscles (L4-S1). Exits the pelvis via the greater sciatic foramen, inferior to the piriformis, and travels along the deep surface of the superior gemellus muscle and the obturator internus tendon, providing innervation to the inferior gemellus and quadratus femoris muscles on their deep surface. Tibial nerve (L4-S3). The tibial nerve (a division of the sciatic nerve) exits the pelvis via the greater sciatic foramen to enter the gluteal region inferior to the piriformis muscle. The nerve descends along the posterior aspect of the thigh, providing motor innervation to the hamstring muscles (excluding the short head of the biceps femoris muscle) and a hamstring head of the adductor magnus muscle in the medial compartment of the thigh. The tibial nerve descends through the popliteal fossa and enters the posterior compartment of

Lateral Popliteal Sciatic Block

Of the groove between the vastus lateralis and biceps femoris muscles. After the groove is identified, the leg is straightened. Where the lateral line from the patella intersects the groove is the point of needle insertion. A 50-mm insulated needle is inserted at the marking perpendicular to skin until it contacts the femur. This distance is noted. It is then returned to skin and redirected at a 20- to 30-degree angle posteriorly, to bypass the femur, searching for both the common peroneal (more internal, toes up) and tibial, toes down nerves ( Fig. 20-52 ). After successful stimulation at an mA less than 0.5, each nerve is incrementally injected with 15 mL of local anesthetic.

The pelvis and sacroiliac joints

The thoracolumbar fascia plays an important role in load transfer between the trunk and legs. It is part of a corset that surrounds the trunk. The erector spinae lies within its layers. Contractions of the latissimus dorsi, gluteus maximus, and abdominal wall muscles tense the fascia, which effectively links the actions of these muscles. The biceps femoris tendon tenses the sacrotuberous ligament below. This all acts as a muscle-tendon-fascia sling that provides a functional link between the trunk, the pelvis, and the legs. This fascia also has rich innervation for both proprioception and nociception.

Palpate the Popliteal Pulse

Femoral Artery Palpation

The popliteal artery is often difficult to assess. Each artery is evaluated separately. While the patient is lying on the back, the examiner's thumbs are placed on the patella, and the remaining fingers of both hands are pressed in the popliteal fossa medial to the lateral biceps femoris tendon, as demonstrated in Figure 15-11. The examiner should hold the leg in a mild degree of flexion. The patient should not be asked to elevate the leg, because this tightens the muscles and makes it more difficult to feel the pulse. The examiner should squeeze both hands in the popliteal fossa. Firm pressure is usually necessary to feel the pulsation.

Palpate the Brachial Pulse

Because the brachial pulse is stronger than the digital pulses, the examiner may use his or her thumbs to palpate the patient's brachial pulses. The brachial artery can be felt medially just under the belly or tendon of the biceps muscle. With the examiner still standing in front of the patient, both brachial arteries can be palpated simultaneously. The examiner's left hand holds the patient's right arm, and the examiner's right hand holds the patient's left arm. Once the examiner's thumbs feel the brachial pulsation, the examiner should apply progressive pressure to it until the maximal systolic force is felt. This is demonstrated in Figure 15-6. The examiner should now be able to assess its wave form.

Musculocutaneous nerve overload

The nerve can be compressed between the lateral border of the biceps aponeurosis and the brachial fascia during repetitive elbow extension combined with forearm pronation. Symptoms are burning hyperesthesia in the lateral forearm, and tenderness and weakness of the biceps muscle. Examination reveals atrophy of biceps and reduced sensation on the lateral forearm. Treatment consists of rest and with persisting symptoms decompression with resection of a wedge of the biceps aponeurosis 56 .

Spinal Reflexes

Using electromyographic biofeedback, the stretch reflex of the human biceps brachii muscle was successfully conditioned to increase or decrease in amplitude, but also required considerable training, approximately 400 trials per session.153 Evidence for the effects of physical activity and training on the strength of spinal reflexes has also been found in active compared to sedentary people. The H-reflex and disynap-tic reciprocal inhibition responses were small in sedentary subjects, larger in moderately active subjects, and largest in very active ones.154 The reflexes were lowest, however, in professional ballerinas. The greater need for corticospinal input to the cord to stand en pointe and the sustained cocontractions involving the gastrocne-mius and soleus complex probably lead to a decrease in synaptic transmission at Ia synapses, reducing the reflex amplitude. Thus, activity-dependent plasticity in the spinal motor pools contributes to the long-term acquisition of motor skills....

Biomechanics

The primary function of the elbow is to stabilize and position the hand. This function is achieved by the coordination of bones, joints, ligaments, and muscles. The four basic movements of the elbow are controlled by different muscle groups. Elbow flexion is controlled by the biceps, brachialis, and brachioradialis. Despite having a smallest cross-sectional area, the brachioradialis plays the most significant role in flexion because of its mechanical advantage. Extension of the elbow is achieved primarily by the triceps, with a small amount of help from the anconeus muscle. Pronation of the elbow is controlled by the pronator quadratus, pronator teres, and flexor carpi radialis. The supinators of the elbow include the supinator and biceps brachii muscles. The medial and lateral epicondyles of the humerus are home two the basic wrist flexors and extensors, respectively.

Scapula

Located superior to the glenoid cavity and serves as the attachment for the long head of the biceps brachii muscle. Coracoid process. A prominent and palpable hook-like structure inferior to the clavicle. The coracoid process serves as an attachment for the pectoralis minor, coracobrachialis, and short head of the biceps brachii muscles.

Contractures

A variety of surgeries and chemical blocks have been described to reduce contractures at most joints (Table 8-12). Electromyographic studies of a partially functioning hand and, in an ambulatory patient, during a formal gait analysis, are mandatory before attempting an invasive intervention. Otherwise, selection of the optimal procedure for the right muscle is guesswork and can lead to iatrogenic complications. For example, if the hip adductors are used for stepping, an obturator neurectomy for an adductor contracture could prevent the subject from ambulating. Surgeries in the leg must also take into account that muscles such as the hamstrings and rectus femoris cross both the hip and knee and the gastrocnemius crosses the knee and ankle. For instance, if the long head of the biceps femoris were lengthened too much for a knee contracture, the hip may lose stability. Overcorrection of an equinovarus foot by heel cord lengthening can cause a calcaneo-valgus foot deformity and require...

Relevant Anatomy

The PLC of the knee has classically been described to include the lateral collateral ligament (LCL), popliteofibular ligament, popliteus tendon, and the arcuate ligament complex. Some authors have included the iliotibial band2,5 and the fabello-fibular ligament5,6 in this group. Seebacher et al7 divided the lateral aspect of the knee into three layers (1) lateral fascia, iliotibial tract, and biceps femoris tendon (2) patellar retinaculum and patellofemoral ligament and (3) joint capsule, LCL, arcuate ligament, fabellofibular ligament, and popliteus tendon. It is this third layer that is the focus of this discussion. The fabellofibular ligament is often not referred to in the PLC literature because the fabella is not present in all knees. The fabella is a sesamoid bone in the lateral head of the gastrocne-mius at its proximal attachment to the femur. The fabellofibu-lar ligament runs parallel to the LCL from the fabella to the fibula, inserting posterior to the insertion of the biceps...

Trunks

The suprascapular, musculo-cutaneous, axillary, upper and lower subscapular, long thoracic, and dorsal scapular nerves may be involved, resulting in notable loss or limited function of the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, biceps brachii, brachialis, deltoid, subscapularis, rhomboids, and serratus anterior musculature. In addition, the affected limb will be internally rotated as a result of the lack of muscle support.

Lateral Side Injury

The posterolateral corner is approached through a curvilinear incision extending from the lateral epicondyle to Gerdy's tubercle. A systematic evaluation of all structures should take place including the iliotibial band, biceps femoris, lateral collateral ligament, popliteus, popliteofibular ligament, lateral meniscus, and peroneal nerve. Repair should proceed from deep to superficial with either a direct end-to-end suture repair or suture anchors as needed. Repairs should be performed with the knee in 30 degrees of flexion. In cases of significant mid-substance injury or poor tissue quality, direct repair may be augmented with hamstring auto-graft, allograft, biceps femoris, or iliotibial band tendon. Numerous techniques have been described.38-40 These same techniques can be applied to cases of chronic laxity requiring reconstructions. We perform reconstructions of the fibular collateral ligament and popliteofibular ligament using a split Achilles tendon allograft fixed on the...

Surgical Technique

A no. 10 blade is used to dissect a full-thickness skin flap through a laterally based hockey-stick incision that starts 8 cm proximal to the lateral joint line, immediately posterior to the lateral epicondyle, and courses approximately 7 cm distally between Gerdy's tubercle and the fibular head (Fig. 55-5). Care is taken to preserve at least a 7-cm skin bridge from other incisions, particularly from an anterior-based incision from open cruciate reconstruction (Fig. 55-6). The interval between the iliotibial band and biceps femoris tendon is developed, which allows exposure of the lateral head of the gastrocnemius and the posterior capsule (Fig. 55-7). The LCL and the popliteus tendon can be evaluated proximally by incising the iliotibial band at the level of the epicondyle. As the peroneal nerve runs posterior to the biceps femoris tendon, it must be carefully protected throughout the procedure (Fig. 55-8). Knee flexion and biceps femoris retraction helps to protect...

Muscular Support

In addition to the support of the rotator cuff musculature, the long head of the biceps brachii and deltoid muscles assist in the support of the glenohumeral joint Long head of the biceps brachii muscle. Provides superior and anterior support. injury that usually results from an activity such as throwing an object over the head (e.g., pitching a baseball). The result is a tear of the labrum of the superior glenoid muscle. A SLAP tear is thought to be due to the long head of the biceps tendon pulling on the superior labrum when the humerus decelerates during a throwing motion, resulting in a tear. Biceps brachii m. (short head) Biceps brachii m. (long head) Biceps brachii m. (short head) Biceps brachii m. (long head)

Overuse

The mechanical actions involved in the overhand throwing pattern are used in many sports such as volleyball, tennis, baseball, basketball, water polo, and javelin throwing. This repetitive and ballistic action could cause microtrauma to the muscles involved. These muscles are often compressed in the subacromial space, especially the supraspinatus muscle and the long head of the biceps brachii muscle. The position of abduction and external rotation followed by internal rotation could cause an unstable or loose-fitting biceps tendon to sublux or slip out of its groove. With overuse this slipping could lead to tendonitis. Such a position could also cause subluxing of the glenohumeral joint in the athlete who has joint laxity or a previous dislocation. Finally, the overhand throw pattern could lead to eventual glenoid labrum damage. With electromyographic analysis, it was determined that the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, deltoid, trapezius, and biceps brachii have greater...

Hamstring Strain

Hamstring strains are most commonly seen13 and especially occur in those sports requiring sprinting or jumping. These muscles (long head of the biceps femoris, semimembranosus, semitendinosus) cross two joints so they are susceptible to fast, heavy loads. Strain location can be an avulsion at the origin on the ischial tuberosity. A mid-substance muscular strain is occasionally seen, but failure is most commonly at the musculo-tendinous junction, at the junction of the middle and distal thigh. The lateral hamstrings are more commonly involved than the medial hamstrings. Poor flexibility and fatigue have been implicated.9 Pain, a pop, or a tearing sensation is usually acutely felt during a jumping or running activity. This most commonly occurs during eccentric contraction of the muscle. There are acute pain and swelling. The degree of strain may be classified as in Table 64-1.14 If the tear is severe with a major portion of the substance involved, a gap or mass may be palpable. This is...

Direct Muscle Injury

The aforementioned disorders share an indirect mechanism of injury, primarily eccentric loading. The final portion of this chapter deals with direct muscle injuries, which primarily present as lacerations and contusions. It is beyond the scope of this chapter to discuss lacerations, and readers are referred to general trauma texts. In cases of closed transactions of the biceps brachii muscle, surgical repair has been described with good results.32 This injury is uncommon and affects the unique population of static line parachute jumpers such as those found in airborne infantry units. While this particular injury may be unique to a military setting, the poor outcomes seen in those managed nonoperatively stimulated the interest in developing a surgical technique to improve function, and this, in turn, has stimulated further interest in basic science research of surgical muscle repair.33,34 Research efforts such as this can be expanded on and their findings applied to the treatment of...

Anatomy

Well as a knee flexor and internal rotator the hamstring muscles (biceps femoris, semitendinosis and semimembranosis) hip extensors, knee flexors and knee rotators the adductors (adductor magnus, adductor longus, adductor brevis, gracilis and pectineus) hip adductors, hip flexors and hip external rotators depending on the position of the hip joint the posterior part of the adductor magnus can even extend the hip joint. The gracilis can also flex and internally rotate the knee joint

Muscle Biopsy

With another disease process (e.g., radiculopathy) nor have suffered a recent (i.e., within 1 month) injection or needle electrode examination (i.e., electromyography). The needle electrode examination should generally be performed on only one side of the body (and this should be clearly labeled in the chart) and is used to help in the identification of a muscle meeting sampling criteria so that the homologous muscle in the contralateral extremity may be sampled. In general, the most frequently biopsied upper extremity muscles are the deltoid and biceps brachii, and the most frequently biopsied lower extremity muscles are one of the quadriceps (e.g., vastus lateralis) because the range of normal for these muscles is well-defined. Although the gastrocnemius is frequently cited as a useful muscle, it should be avoided because of its type 1 muscle fiber predominance, its greater susceptibility to random pathological changes, and its pennate nature. '7 The problem with pennate muscles...

31 Days To Bigger Arms

31 Days To Bigger Arms

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