Imaging Human Emotions And Affective Feelings33 Implications For Biological Psychiatry

Mario Liotti and Jaak Panksepp

On the Nature of Emotions 33

Emotional Changes Following Brain Damage 36

Neuroimaging Studies of Emotion 39

Brain Changes as a Function of Emotional States 44

Reciprocity of Human Cortico-Limbic Activity 50

Basic Emotional Operating Systems of the Brain: Animal Studies 51

Generating Emotional Feelings through Upper Brainstem-Limbic and 59

Cortical Interactions

Conclusions and Some Psychiatric Implications 65

References 66

3 NEURAL SUBSTRATES OF CONSCIOUSNESS: IMPLICATIONS 75 FOR CLINICAL PSYCHIATRY

Douglas F. Watt and David I. Pincus

Introduction 75

Dualism versus Emergent Properties 77

Nosology: Core versus Extended Consciousness 78

Classical Work on the Neural Substrates of Consciousness 79

Recent Work on the Neural Substrates of Consciousness: Brief Overview 80 of Anatomical, Connectivity, Neuromodulatory, and Neurodynamic Aspects

Case Study 1: Delirium—A Common Disorder of Attentional Function 84

and Working Memory

Neuroanatomical Systems and Consciousness—Basic Lesion/Functional 88 Correlates

Thalamic Systems 92

Cortical Systems 94

Two Case Studies of Mesodiencephalic Lesions 98

Neurodynamic Aspects of Consciousness 102

Summary Heuristics/Questions for Future Research 105

References 107

4 STRESS, SLEEP, AND SEXUALITY IN PSYCHIATRIC 111 DISORDERS

Terrence Deak and Jaak Panksepp

Introduction 111

Theoretical Framework for Understanding Stress Responsive Systems 112

Diathesis-Stress Models 114

Stress Responsive Systems 115

Integrative Role for Brain Cytokines 122

Sexuality and the Passions of the Brain 124

Sleep, Stress and the Restoration of Brain and Mind 130

References 136

5 PSYCHOBIOLOGY OF PERSONALITY DISORDERS 145

Brian Knutson and Andreas Heinz

Overview 145

What Are Personality Disorders? 146

What Is Personality? 150

How Are Personality Disorders And Personality Related? 152

What Leads to "Disordered Personality"? 153

How Can "Disordered Personality" Be Treated? 157

Summary 159

Postscript: A View to the Future 159

References 160

6 FUNCTIONAL NEUROIMAGING IN PSYCHIATRY 167

Johannes Tauscher, Nikolas Klein, and Shitij Kapur

Introduction 167

Magnetic Resonance Imaging 168

PET and SPECT 169

Studies of Cerebral Metabolism and Blood Flow 171

Neurotransmitter Imaging Studies 177

Future Directions and Challenges 186

References 187

Part II CORE PSYCHIATRIC CHALLENGES 195

7 DEPRESSION: A NEUROPSYCHIATRIC PERSPECTIVE 197

Helen S. Mayberg

Diagnostic and Clinical Features 197

Treatment Options 201

Syndromal Markers 203

Biochemical Markers 206

Animal Models 208

Regional Brain Markers 208

References 221

8 TREATMENT OF MOOD DISORDERS 231

Pedro L. Delgado and Paul Zarkowski

Overview 231

Classification 232

General Treatment Principles 235

Antidepressants 239

Somatic Treatments for Major Depression 250

Antimanic and Mood Stabilizers 252

Summary and Conclusions 259

References 259

9 NEUROSCIENCE OF SCHIZOPHRENIA 267

Christine Pesold, Rosalinda C. Roberts, and Brian Kirkpatrick

Introduction 267

Diagnosis and Classification of Schizophrenia 268

Etiology 270

Environmental Risks 274

Course of Illness 276

Neuropathological Abnormalities 277

Neurocognitive Problems 285

Neuropsychiatric Syndromes 287

Neurochemical Abnormalities 287

Animal Models 289

Conclusion 292

References 293

10 PHARMACOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF SCHIZOPHRENIA 299

Rajiv Tandon and Michael D. Jibson

Introduction 299

Targets of Pharmacological Treatment 300

Pharmacological Treatment 302

Course of Treatment 306

Combining Several Medications 309

Future Trends 311

Conclusion 315

References 315

11 PSYCHOBIOLOGY OF POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER 319

Bessel A. van der Kolk

Introduction 319

Psychobiology 324

Psychophysiological Effects of Trauma 325

Lessons from Neuroimaging 330

Implications for Treatment 335

Conclusions 338

References 338

12 NATURE AND TREATMENT OF PANIC DISORDER 345

Fredric N. Busch and Barbara L. Milrod

Defining the Syndrome of Panic Disorder 345

Course of Panic Disorder 347

Basic Models of the Etiology of Panic Disorder 348

Treatment of Panic Disorder 354

Long-Term Outcome of Treatment Trials for Panic Disorder 359

References 361

13 NATURE AND TREATMENT OF OBSESSIVE-COMPULSIVE 367 DISORDER

Lisa A. Snider and Susan E. Swedo

Introduction 367

Epidemiology 368

Clinical Presentation 370

Comorbidity 372

The OCD Spectrum 373

Neurobiology 375

Treatment 382

Summary 385

References 385

Anxiety and Depression 101

Anxiety and Depression 101

Everything you ever wanted to know about. We have been discussing depression and anxiety and how different information that is out on the market only seems to target one particular cure for these two common conditions that seem to walk hand in hand.

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