Neuroimaging of Anger

Fewer studies have reported brain responses associated with anger. Interestingly, in spite of the obvious threat content of angry faces, they do not consistently activate the amygdala, or they do so much less than fear. One possible explanation is that fear expressions serve the social communication function to alert and alarm conspecifics about an impending threat in the environment, the source of which has not yet been identified by the perceiver, while for angry expressions the source of threat is immediately apparent to the subject, being the portrayer itself.

One study reported activation of orbitofrontal cortex in response to angry facial expressions (Blair et al., 1999). Script-generated anger has been associated to activations in anterior temporal poles, orbitofrontal cortex (Dougherty et al., 1999; Kimbrell et al., 1999) and ventral anterior cingulate cortex (Dougherty et al., 1999), while one study has emphasized deactivation of medial prefrontal cortex possibly including the subgenual cingulate (Pietrini et al., 2000). The latter observations may be related to a recent study showing that transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the anterior midline frontal region selectively impairs recognition of anger (Harmer et al., 2001).

Anxiety and Depression 101

Anxiety and Depression 101

Everything you ever wanted to know about. We have been discussing depression and anxiety and how different information that is out on the market only seems to target one particular cure for these two common conditions that seem to walk hand in hand.

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