Pharmacological Models

Dopamine-Based Models. Amphetamines, which elevate extracellular levels of monoamines including dopamine, have numerous effects in humans and animals including effects on motor activity, sensory motor function, attention, learning, and memory. In addition, low doses of amphetamine in nonhuman primates can produce long-lasting psychomimetic effects (Lipska and Weinberger, 2000; Gainetdinov et al., 2001; Kilts, 2001).

Glutamate-Based Models. As in humans, moderate doses of NMDA receptor antagonists produce symptoms of schizophrenia in rodents and monkeys including increased locomotion and stereotypies, deficits in sensory gating and cognition, as well as impairments in social interaction. Furthermore, many of the abnormal behaviors induced by NMDA receptor antagonists (e.g., PCP, ketamine) are ameliorated by atypical antipsychotic drugs (Lipska and Weinberger, 2000; Gainetdinov et al., 2001; Kilts, 2001).

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