Playfulness and ADHD

No peptide facilitator of playfulness has yet been discovered except for the capacity of low doses of opioids to promote rough-and-tumble play and social dominance in rats (Panksepp et al., 1985). Considering that this social process of the mammalian brain may be a fundamental source of joy, the search for other brain transmitters and neuromodulators that promote play, perhaps through modern molecular biological techniques, may lead to molecules that promote such positive affective states in humans. Their potential uses in the treatment of depression would be enticing (Panksepp et al., 2002b), since most current medications do not actively promote positive affect.

Another relationship of the play urges of the brain to psychiatric issues has been in attempts to conceptualize at least some of the impulsive and hyperactive symptoms of ADHD as unsatisfied play urges that need to be expressed, as is evident in animal models (Panksepp, 1998b). The utility of play therapy in an animal model of ADHD has been demonstrated (Panksepp et al., 2003). Considering that drugs used to treat ADHD are uniformly ones that reduce play urges, and which may sensitize reward and drug-seeking systems of the brain (Nocjar and Panksepp, 2002; Panksepp et al., 2002a), the issue of what natural play does for the developing brain/mind becomes an urgent neuropsychiatric question. Preliminary evidence suggests that in addition to well-accepted, but poorly demonstrated, psychological developmental effects, play may also promote neurotrophin gene expression that may have beneficial long-term effects for the brain (Gordon et al., 2003). These issues should coax us to consider some very troublesome issues in the use of antiplay drugs in child psychiatry, as well as the emerging role for neurotrophins in the genesis and treatment of psychiatric disorders.

Understanding And Treating ADHD

Understanding And Treating ADHD

Attention Deficit Disorder or ADD is a very complicated, and time and again misinterpreted, disorder. Its beginning is physiological, but it can have a multitude of consequences that come alongside with it. That apart, what is the differentiation between ADHD and ADD ADHD is the abbreviated form of Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder, its major indications being noticeable hyperactivity and impulsivity.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment