RAGEAnger System

Ever since it became unpopular to consider the possibility that the brain contained intrinsic systems that promoted aggression (the politically correct view being that aggression is mostly induced by social injustice), the amount of substantive work on the rage/anger systems of the brain diminished substantially (for overview, see Panksepp, 1998a). However, continuing work on such systems in the cat brain has yielded clear evidence that opioid peptides reduce aggressive arousal (Gregg and Siegel, 2001). Since such antianger agents exhibit substantial pharmacological tolerance, addiction, and drug-withdrawal irritability, they will probably have little role in the routine management of aggression except perhaps, acutely. On the other hand, this work has also demonstrated that substance P, operating through NK receptors, is a robust facilitator of activity in basic anger promoting systems within the medial hypothalamus, making receptor antagonists for that system a prime target for evaluation.

This is now eminently possible because many nonpeptide NK receptor antagonists have already been developed and evaluated for safety for the management of pain and depression (Hill, 2000; Kramer et al., 1998). Although there is a current trend to conceptualize the substance P/tachykinin system simply as a "stress" or "anxiogenic" system, there is also clear data that anger-type biting responses are diminished in animal models by receptor antagonists (Griebel et al., 2001). Although various sensitive emotional measures for such drugs are available, such as stress-induced foot thumping in gerbils (Ballard et al., 2001), it will be important to empirically define whether such responses better reflect anger/irritability or fear/anxiety types of responses and which of the receptor subtypes influence which affective behaviors most intensely (Griebel et al., 2001). When it comes to the eventual evaluation of NK (substance P) receptor antagonists in human anger management, it may be wise to utilize specific testing strategies, such as provocations that evoke irritability (e.g., frustrative-aggressive tendencies that accompany reward reduction).

Defeat Drugs and Live Free

Defeat Drugs and Live Free

Being addicted to drugs is a complicated matter condition that's been specified as a disorder that evidences in the obsessional thinking about and utilization of drugs. It's a matter that might continue to get worse and become disastrous and deadly if left untreated.

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