Adamec RE, Young B (2000). Neuroplasticity in specific limbic system circuits may mediate specific kindling induced changes in animal affect—implications for understanding anxiety associated with epilepsy. Neurosci Biobehav Revs 24:705-723. Adolphs R, Tranel D, Damasio H, Damasio A (1994). Impaired recognition of emotion in facial expressions following bilateral damage to the human amygdala. Nature 372:669-672. Adolphs R, Tranel D, Damasio AR (2003). Dissociable neural systems for recognizing emotions.

Brain and Cognition, in press. Aguiar MS, Brandao, ML (1994). Conditioned place aversion produced by microinjections of substance P into the periaqueductal gray of rats. Behav Pharmacol 5:369-373. Altemus M (1995). Neuroendocrinology of obsessive-compulsive disorder. In Panksepp J (ed).

Advances in Biological Psychiatry Vol. 1. JAI Press: Greenwich, CT, pp. 215-233. American Psychiatric Association (1994). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, DSMIV. American Psychiatric Association: Washington, DC. Anderson AK, Phelps EA (2002). Is the human amygdala critical for the subjective experience of emotion? Evidence of intact dispositional affect in patients with amygdala lesions. J Cogn Neurosci 14:709-720.

Bakish D (1999). The patient with comorbid depression and anxiety: The unmet need. J Clin Psychiatry 60:20-24.

Bechara A, Tranel D, Damasio H, Adolphs R, Rockland C, Damasio AR (1995). Double dissociation of conditioning and declarative knowledge relative to the amygdala and hippocampus in humans. Science 269:1115-1118. Beck CHM, Fibiger HC (1995). Conditioned fear-induced changes in behavior and in the expression of the immediate early gene c-fos: With and without diazepam pretreatment. J Neurosci 15:113-121.

Beckett SRG, Duxon MS, Aspley S, Marsden CA (1997). Central c-fos expression following 20 kHz/ultrasound induced defence behaviour in the rat. Brain Res Bull 42:421-426.

Bekkedal MYV, Rossi III J, Panksepp J (1999). Fetal and neonatal exposure to trimethylol-propane phosphate alters rat social behavior and emotional responsivity. Neurotoxicol Teratol 21:435-43.

Blanchard RJ, Yudko EB, Rodgers RJ, Blanchard DC (1993). Defense system psychopharma-cology: An ethological approach to the pharmacology of fear and anxiety. Behav Brain Res 58:155-156.

Blanchard DC, Griebel G, Blanchard RJ (2001). Mouse defensive behaviors: Pharmacological and behavioral assays for anxiety and panic. Neurosci Biobehav Revs 25:205-218.

Brandao ML, Anseloni VZ, Pandossio JE, De Araujo JE, Castilho VM (1999). Neurochemical mechanisms of the defensive behavior in the dorsal midbrain. Neurosci Biobehav Revs 23:863-875.

Broom DM (ed) (2001). Coping with Challenge: Welfare in Animals Including Humans. Dahlem Workshop Report 87, Dahlem University Press: Berlin.

Burrows GD, Roth M, Noyes R Jr (eds) (1990). Handbook of Anxiety, Vol. 3, The Neurobiology of Anxiety. Elsevier: Amsterdam.

Candor M, Ahmed SH, Koob GF, Le Moal M, Stinus L (1992). Corticotropin-releasing factor induces a place aversion independent of its neuroendocrine role. Brain Res 597:304-309.

Carobrez AP, Teixeira KV, Graeff FG (2001). Modulation of defensive behavior by periaqueductal gray NMDA/glycine-B receptor. Neurosci Biobehav Revs 25:697-709.

Cahill L, McGaugh JL (1998). Mechanisms of emotional arousal and lasting declarative memory. Trends Neurosci 21:294-299.

Cahill L, Prins B, Weber B, McGaugh JL (1994). ß-Adrenergic activation and memory for emotional events. Nature 371:702-704.

Chalmers DT, Lovenberg TW, Grigoriadis DE, Behan DP, De Souza EB (1996). Corticotrophin-releasing factor receptors: From molecular biology to drug design. Trends Neurosci 17:166172.

Charney DS, Bremner JD (1999). The neurobiology of anxiety disorders. In Charney DS, Nestler EJ, Bunney BS (eds). Neurobiology of Mental Illness. Oxford University Press: New York, pp. 494-517.

Charney DS, Woods SW, Goodman WK, Heninger, GR (1987). Serotonin function in anxiety: II. Effects of the serotonin agonist MCPP in panic disorder patients and healthy subjects. Psychopharmacol 92:14-24.

Charney DS, Deutch AY, Krystal JH, Southwick SM, Davis M (1993). Psychobiologic mechanisms of posttraumatic stress disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry 50:294-305.

Charney DS, Nestler EJ, Bunney BS (eds) (1999). Neurobiology of Mental Illness. Oxford University Press: New York.

Cheetham SC, Heal DJ (2000). Antidepressant and anxiolytic drugs. In Bittar EE, Bittar N (eds). Biological Psychiatry. JAI Press: Stamford, CT, pp. 511-567.

Conner KM and Davidson JRT (1998). Generalized anxiety disorders: Neurobiological and pharmaco-therapeutic perspectives. Biol Psychiatry 44:1286-1294.

Damasio AR (1999). The Feeling of What Happens: Body and Emotion in the Making of Consciousness. Harcourt Brace: New York.

Damasio AR, Grabowski TJ, Bechara A, Damasio H, Ponto LLB, Parvizi J, Hichwa RD (2000). Subcortical and cortical brain activity during the feeling of self-generated emotions. Nature Neurosci 3:1049-1056.

Davidson JR (2001). Pharmacotherapy of generalized anxiety disorder. J Clin Psychiatry 62(Suppl 11):46-50.

Davidson JRT (1997). Biological therapies for posttraumatic stress disorder: An overview. J Clin Psychiatry 58(Suppl):29-32.

Davidson JRT, Tupler LA, Potts NL (1994). Treatment of social phobia with benzodiazepines. J Clin Psychiatry 55(suppl):28-32.

Davidson JRT, DuPont RL, Hedges D, Haskins JT (1999). Efficacy, safety, and tolerability of venlafaxine extended release and buspirone in outpatients with generalized anxiety disorder. J Clin Psychiatry 60:528-535.

Davis M (1992). The role of the amygdala in fear and anxiety. Ann Rev Psych 43:353375.

Davis M (1994). The role of the amygdala in emotional learning. Internat Revs Neurobiol 36:225-266.

Davis M (1999). Functional neuroanatomy of anxiety and fear: A focus on the amygdala. In Charney DS,Nestler EJ, Bunney BS (eds). Neurobiology of Mental Illness. Oxford University Press: New York, pp. 463-474.

Davis M, Campeau S, Kim M, Falls WA (1995). Neural systems of emotion: The amygdala's role in fear and anxiety. In McGaugh JL, Weinberger NM, and Lynch G (eds). Brain and Memory: Modulation and Mediation of Neuroplasticity. Oxford Univ. Press: New York, pp. 3-40.

De Oca BM, DeCola JP, Maren S, Fanselow MS (1988). Distinct regions of the periaqueductal gray are involved in the acquisition and expression of defensive responses. J Neurosci 18:3426-3432.

Depaulis A, Bandler R (eds) (1991). The Midbrain Periaqueductal Gray Matter: Functional Anatomical and Neurochemical Organization. Plenum Press: New York.

Dielenberg RA, Hunt GE, McGregor IS (2001). "When a rat smells a cat": The distribution of Fos immunoreactivity in rat brain following exposure to a predatory odor. Neuroscience 104:1085-1097.

Dunn AJ, Berridge C (1990). Physiological and behavioral responses to corticotropin-releasing factor administration: Is CRH a mediator of anxiety or stress responses? Brain Res Revs 15:71-100.

Eison AS, Temple DL (1986). Buspirone: Review of its pharmacology and current perspective on its mechanism of action. Am J Med 80 (Suppl. 3B):1-9.

Falls WA, Miserendino MJD, Davis M (1992). Extinction of fear-potentiated startle: Blockade by infusion of an NMDA antagonist into the amygdala. J Neurosci 12:854-863.

Fanselow MS (1991). Analgesia as a response to aversive Pavlovian conditional stimuli: cognitive and emotional mediators. In Denny MR (ed). Fear, Avoidance and Phobias: A Fundamental Analysis. Lawrence Erlbaum: Hillsdale, NJ, pp. 61 -86.

Fanselow MS, Kim JJ, Yipp J, De Oca P (1994). Differential effects of the N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist D,L-2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate on acquisition of fear of auditory and contextual cues. Behav Neurosci 108:235-240.

Ferrarese C, Appollonio I, Bianchi G, Frigo M, Marzorati C, Pecora N, Perego M, Pierpaoli C, Frattola L (1993). Benzodiazepine receptors and diazepam binding inhibitor: A possible link between stress, anxiety and the immune system. Psychoneuroendocrinology 18:3-22.

Gittelman R, Klein DF (1985). Childhood separation anxiety and adult agoraphobia. In Tuma AH, Maser J (eds). Anxiety and the Anxiety Disorders. Lawrence Erlbaum: Hillsdale, NJ, pp. 389402.

Gloor P (1997). The Temporal Lobe and Limbic System, Oxford University Press: New York.

Goddard AW, Coplan JD, Gorman JM, Charney DS (1999). Principles of the pharmacotherapy of anxiety disorders. In Charney DS, Nestler EJ, Bunney BS (eds). Neurobiology of Mental Illness. Oxford University Press: New York, pp. 548-563.

Gorman JM (2002). Treatment of generalized anxiety disorder. J Clin Psychiatry 63:17-23.

Gray JA (1987). The Psychology of Fear and Stress, 2nd ed. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, England.

Haefely WE (1990). The GABA-benzodiazepine receptor: Biology and pharmacology. In Handbook of Anxiety, Vol. 3. The Neurobiology of Anxiety. (Burrows GD, Roth M, Noyes R, Jr (eds). Elsevier: Amsterdam.

Handley SL (1995). 5-Hydroytryptamine pathways in anxiety and its treatment. Pharmacol Ther 66:103-148.

Harro J, Vasar E, Bradwejn J (1993). CCK in animal and human research on anxiety. Trends Pharmac Sci 14:244-249.

Heilig M (1995). Antisense inhibition of neuropeptide Y (NPY)-Y1 receptor expression blocks the anxiolytic-like action of NPY in amygdala and paradoxically increases feeding. Regulatory Peptides 59:201-205.

Heilig M, Koob GF, Ekman R, Britton KT (1994). Corticotropin-releasing factor and neuropeptide Y: Role in emotional integration. Trends Neurosci 17:80-85.

Helton DR, Tizzano JP, Monn JA, Schoepp DD, Kallman MJ (1998). Anxiolytic and side-effect profile of LY354740: A potent, highly selective, orally active agonist for group II metabotropic glutamate receptors. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 284:651-660.

Holstege G, Bandler R, Saper CB (ed) (1996). The Emotional Motor Systems. Progress in Brain Research, Vol. 107, Elsevier: Amsterdam.

Irwin W, Davidson RJ, Lowe MJ, Mock FJ, Sorenson JA, Turski PA (1996). Human amygdala activation detected with echo-planar functional magnetic resonance imaging. NeuroReports 7:1765-1769.

Johnson MR, Lydiard RB (1995). The neurobiology of anxiety disorders. Psychiatric Clin NAm 18:681-725.

Kehne JH, Coverdale S, McCloskey TC, Hoffman DC, Cassella JV (2000). Effects of the CRH1 receptor antagonists, CP 154,526, in the separation-induced vocalization anxiolytic test in rat pups. Neuropharmacol 39:1357-1367.

Killcross S, Robbins TW, Everitt BJ (1997). Different types of fear-conditioned behaviour mediated by separate nuclei within amygdala. Nature 388:377-380.

Klein DF (1993). False suffocations alarms, spontaneous panics, and related conditions. Arch Gen Psychiatry 50:306-317.

Klein DF, Rabkin, J (eds) (1981). Anxiety: New Research and Changing Concepts. Raven Press: New York.

Knutson B, Burgdorf J, Panksepp J (2002). Ultrasonic vocalizations as indices of affective states in rat. Psych Bull 128:961-977.

Kollack-Walker S, Watson SJ, Akil H (1997). Social stress in hamsters: Defeat activates specific neurocircuits within the brain. J Neurosci 17:8842-8855.

Kunovac JL, Stahl SM (1995). Future directions in anxiolytic pharmacotherapy. Psychiatric Clin N Am. 18:895-909.

LeDoux JE (1996). The Emotional Brain. Simon and Schuster: New York.

LeDoux JE (2000). Emotion circuits in the brain. Ann Rev Neurosci 23:155-184.

LeDoux JE, Cicchetti P, Xagoraris A, Romanski LM (1990). The lateral amygdaloid nucleus: Sensory interface of the amygdala in fear conditioning. J Neurosci 10:1062-1069.

Liebowitz MR (1988). Pharmacotherapy of personality disorders. In Clynes M, and Panksepp J (eds). Emotions and Psychopathology Plenum Press: New York, pp. 77-94.

Mancini C, Ameringen MV (1996). Paroxetine in social phobia. J Clin Psychiatry 57:519-522.

Maren S (1999). Long-term potentiation in the amygdala: A mechanism for emotional learning and memory. Trends Neurosci 22:561-567.

Maren S, Fanselow MS (1996). The amygdala and fear conditioning: Has the nut been cracked? Neuron 16:237-240.

Miczek K, Haney M, Tidey J, Vivian J, Weert E (1994). Neurochemistry and pharmacothera-peutic management of aggression and violence. In Reiss A, Miczek K, Roth J (eds). Understanding and Preventing Violence. Vol. 2, Biobehavioral Influences, National Academy Press: Washington, DC, pp. 245-514.

Muller J, Corodimas KP, Fridel Z, LeDoux JE (1997). Functional inactivation of the lateral and basal nuclei of the amygdala by muscimol infusion prevents fear conditioning to an explicit CS and to contextual stimuli. Behav Neurosci 111:683-691.

Nader K, LeDoux JE (1997). Is it time to invoke multiple fear learning systems in the amygdala. Trends Cog Sci 1:241-244.

Ninan PT (1999). The functional anatomy, neurochemistry, and pharmacology of anxiety. J Clin Psychiatry 60(Suppl 22):12-17.

Nutt DJ (1990). The pharmacology of human anxiety. Pharmac Ther 47:233-266.

Nutt DJ, Glue P, Lawon C, Wilson S (1990). Flumazenil provocation of panic attacks: Evidence for altered benzodiazepine receptor sensitivity in panic disorder. Arch Gen Psychiat 47:917-925.

(Ohman A, Mineka S (2001). Fears, phobias, and preparedness: Toward an evolved module of fear and fear learning. Psych Rev 108:483-522.

Ohman A, Dimberg U, Esteves F (1989). Preattentive activation of aversive emotions. In (Archer T, Nilsson L-G (eds). Aversion, Avoidance and Anxiety. Lawrence Erlbaum: Hillsdale, NJ, pp. 169-193.

Pande AC, Greiner M, Adams JB, Lydiard RB, Pierce MW (1999). Placebo-controlled trial of the CCK-B antagonist, Cl-988, in panic disorder. Biol Psychiatry 46:860-862.

Panksepp J (1982). Toward a general psychobiological theory of emotions. Behav Brain Sci 5:407-467.

Panksepp J (1985). Mood changes. In Vinken PJ, Buyn GW, Klawans HL (eds). Handbook of Clinical Neurology, Revised Series, Vol. 1(45) Clinical Neuropsychology. Elsevier: Amsterdam, pp. 271-285.

Panksepp J (1990). The psychoneurology of fear: Evolutionary perspectives and the role of animal models in understanding human anxiety. In Burrows GD, Roth M, Noyes R, Jr (eds). Handbook of Anxiety, Vol. 3, The Neurobiology of Anxiety Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 3-58.

Panksepp J (1991). Affective neuroscience: A conceptual framework for the neurobiological study of emotions. In Strongman KT (ed). International Review of Studies on Emotion, Vol. 1 Wiley: Chichester, England, pp. 59-99.

Panksepp J (1993). Neurochemical control of moods and emotions: Amino acids to neuropep-tides. In Lewis M, Haviland JM (eds). Handbook of Emotions, Guildford Press: New York, pp. 87-107.

Panksepp J (1996). Modern approaches to understanding fear: From laboratory to clinical practice. In Panksepp J (ed). Advances in Biological Psychiatry, Vol. 2. JAI Press: Greenwich, CT, pp. 209-230.

Panksepp J (1998a). Affective Neuroscience: The Foundations of Human and Animal Emotions. Oxford University Press: New York.

Panksepp J (1998b). The periconscious substrates of consciousness: Affective states and the evolutionary origins of the SELF. J Consciousness Studies 5:566-582.

Panksepp J (1999a). Emotions as viewed by psychoanalysis and neuroscience: An exercise in consilience, and accompanying commentaries. NeuroPsychoanalysis. 1:15-89.

Panksepp J (1999b). On preventing another century of misunderstanding: Toward a psychoethol-ogy of human experience and a psychoneurology of affect. NeuroPsychoanalysis 2:240-255.

Panksepp J (2000). Fear and anxiety mechanisms of the brain: Clinical implications. In Bittar EE, Bittar N (eds). Biological Psychiatry, JAI Press: Stamford, CT, pp. 155-177.

Panksepp J (2001). The neuro-evolutionary cusp between emotions and cognitions: Implications for understanding consciousness and the emergence of a unified mind science. Evolut Cogn 7:141-163.

Panksepp J (2003). Can anthropomorphic analyses of "separation cries" in other animals inform us about the emotional nature of social loss in humans? Psych Rev, 110:376-388.

Panksepp J, Abbott BB (1990). Modulation of separation distress by alpha-MSH. Peptides 11:647-653.

Panksepp J, Bekkedal M. (1997). Neuropeptides and the varieties of anxiety in the brain. Italian J Psychopathology 1:18 - 27.

Panksepp J, Herman BH, Villberg T, Bishop P, DeEskinazi FG (1980). Endogenous opioids and social behavior. Neurosci Biobehav Revs 4:473-487.

Panksepp J, Siviy SM, Normansell LA (1985). Brain opioids and social emotions. In Reite M, Fields T (eds). The Psychobiology ofAttachment and Separation. Academic Press: New York, pp. 3-49.

Panksepp J, Normansell L, Herman B, Bishop P, Crepeau L (1988). Neural and neurochemical control of the separation distress call. In Newman JD (ed). The Physiological Control of Mammalian Vocalizations. Plenum Press: New York, pp. 263-300.

Panksepp J, Sacks DS, Crepeau LJ, Abbott BB (1991). The psycho- and neurobiology of fear systems in the brain. In Denny MR (ed). Fear, Avoidance, and Phobias. Lawrence Erlbaum: Hillsdale, NJ, pp. 7-59.

Panksepp J, Normansell L, Cox J, Siviy S (1994). Effects of neonatal decortication on the social play of juvenile rats. Physiology & Behavior 56:429-443.

Panksepp J, Knutson B, Burgdorf J (2002). The role of brain emotional systems in addictions: A neuro-evolutionary perspective and new "self-report" animal model. Addiction 97:459-469.

Paul SM, Purdy RH (1992). Neuroactive steroids. The FASEB J 6:2311-2322.

Payeur R, Lydiard RB, Ballenger JC, Laraia MT, Fossey MD, Zealberg J (1992). CSF diazepam-binding inhibitor concentrations in panic disorder. Biol Psychol 32:712-716.

Petursson H (1994). The benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome. Addiction 89:1455-1459.

Phan KL, Wager T, Taylor SF, Liberzon I (2002). Functional neuroanatomy of emotion: A metaanalysis of emotion activation studies in PET and fMRI. NeuroImage 16:331-348.

Phillips RG, Le Doux JE (1992). Differential contribution of amygdala and hippocampus to cued and contextual fear conditioning. Behav Neurosci 106:274-285.

Potts NL, Book S, Davidson JR (1996). The neurobiology of social phobia. Int Clin Psychophar-macol 11(Suppl. 3):43-48.

Rauch SL, Savage CR, Alpert NM, Miguel EC, Baer L, Breiter HC, Fischman AJ, Manzo PA, Moretti C, Jenike MA (1995). A positron emission tomographic study of simple phobic symptom provocation. Arch Gen Psychiat 52:20-28.

Rickels K, Downing R, Schweizer E, Hassman H (1993). Antidepressants for the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder. A placebo-controlled comparison of imipramine, traxodone and diazepam. Arch Gen Psychiatry 50:884-895.

Rocca P, Fonzo V, Scott M, Znalda E, Ravizza L (1997). Paroxetine efficacy in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder. Acta Psychiatr Scand 95:444-450.

Rolls ET (1999). The Brain and Emotion. Oxford University Press: Oxford, UK.

Rosen JB, Schulkin J (1998). From normal fear to pathological anxiety. Psych Rev 105:325-350.

Roy-Byrne PP, Cowley DS (1991). Benzodiazepines in Clinical Practice: Risks and Benefits. American Psychiatric Press: Washington, DC.

Ruis MAW, te Brake JHA, Buwalda B, De Boer SF, Meerlo P, Korte SM, Blokhuis HJ, Koolhaas JM (1999). Housing familiar male wild-type rats together reduces the long-term adverse behavioral and physiological effects of social defeat. Psychoneuroendocrinology 24:285-300.

Schaefer SM, Jackson DC, Davidson RJ, Aguire GF, Kimberg SL (2002). Modulation of amyg-dalar activity by conscious regulation of negative emotion. J Cogn Neurosci 14:913-921.

Schafe GE, Nader K, Blair HT, LeDoux JE (2001). Memory consolidation of Pavlovian fear conditioning: A cellular and molecular perspective. Trends in Neurosci 24:540-546.

Schmidt LA, Schulkin J (1999). Extreme Fear, Shyness, and Social Phobia. Oxford University Press: New York.

Schweizer E, Rickels K, Lucki I (1986). Resistance to the anti-anxiety effect of buspirone in patients with a history of benzodiazepine use. New Engl J Med 314:719-720.

Schweizer E, Rickels K, Weiss S, Zavodnick S (1993). Maintenance drug treatment of panic disorder. I. Results of a prospective, placebo-controlled comparison of alprazolam and imipramine. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 50:51-60.

Sgoifo A, Koolhaas J, Alleva E, Musso E, Parmigiani S (eds) (2001). Social stress: Acute and long-term effects on physiology and behavior. Physiol Behav 73:253-449.

Silveira MCL, Sandner G, Graeff FG (1993). Induction of Fos immunoreactivity in the brain by exposure to the elevated plus maze. Behav Brain Res 56:115-118.

Silveira MCL, Sandner G, Di Scala G, Graeff FG (1995). C-fos immunoreactivity in the brain following electrical or chemical stimulation of the medial hypothalamus of freely moving rats. Brain Res 674:265-274.

Skolnick P, Legutko B, Li X, Bymaster FP (2001). Current perspectives on the development of non-biogenic amine-based antidepressants. Pharmacol Res 43:411-423.

Soubrie P (1986) Reconciling the role of central serotonin neurons in human and animal behavior. Behav Brain Sci 9:319-364.

Spruijt BM, van den Bos R, Pijlman F.TA (2001). A concept of welfare based on reward evaluating mechanism in the brain: Anticipatory behaviour as an indicator for the state of reward systems. Appl Animal Behaviour Sci 72:145-171.

Sramek JJ, Zarotsky V, Cutler NR (2002). Generalised anxiety disorder: Treatment options. Drugs 11:1635-1648.

Stahl SM, Gastpar M, Keppel Hesselink JM (eds) (1992). Serotonin 1A Receptors in Depression and Anxiety. Raven Press: New York.

Stein MB (1998). Neurobiological perspectives on social phobia: From affiliation to zoology. Biol Psychiatry 44:1277-1285.

Stein MB, Liebowitz MR, Lydiard RB, Pitts CD, Bushnell W, Gergel I (1998). Paroxetine treatment of generalized social phobia (social anxiety disorder). J Am Med Assoc 280:708-713.

Tallman JF, Gallagher DW (1985). The GABA-ergic system: A locus of benzodiazepine action. Ann Rev Neurosci 8:21-44.

Tracey I, Ploghaus A, Gati JS, Clare S, Smith S, Menon RS, Matthews PM (2002). Imaging attentional modulation of pain in the periaqueductal gray in humans. J Neurosci 22:27482752.

Tranel D, Damasio AR (1990). The covert learning of affective valence does not require structures in hippocampal system or amygdala. J Cog Neurosci 5:79-88.

van der Kolk BA (ed) (1987). Psychological Trauma. American Psychiatric Press: Washington, DC.

You ZB, Tzschentke TM, Brodin E, Wise RA (1998). Electrical stimulation of the prefrontal cortex increases cholecystokinin, glutamate, and dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens: an in vivo microdialysis study in freely moving rats. J Neurosci 18:6492-6500.

Young AW, Hellawell DHJ, van de Wal C, Johnson M (1996). Facial expression processing after amygdalotomy. Neuropsychologia 34:31-40.

Young WS, Kuhar MJ (1980). Radiohistochemical localization of benzodiazepine receptors in the rat brain. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 212:337-346.

Zachar P, Bartlett S (2001). Basic emotions and their biological substrates. A nominalist approach. Consciousness and Emotion 2:189-222.

Zald DH (2003). The human amygdala and the emotional evaluation of sensory stimuli. Brain Res Revs 41:88-123.

Zald DH, Mattson DL, Pardo JV (2002). Brain activity in ventromedial prefrontal cortex correlates with individual differences in negative affect. Proc Natl Acad Sci 99:2450-2454.

Anxiety and Depression 101

Anxiety and Depression 101

Everything you ever wanted to know about. We have been discussing depression and anxiety and how different information that is out on the market only seems to target one particular cure for these two common conditions that seem to walk hand in hand.

Get My Free Ebook

Post a comment