Predictors Of Functional Outcome And Illness Costs

depressive disorder, there is relatively little information regarding predictors

For example, Bradley and Zarkin (1996)

: costs in a with manic-

Chart review (Frye, Altshuler, Szuba, Finch, & Mintz, 1996) and modeling (Keck et a!., 1996) studies propose that i may affect hospital stay. Our 1997 study (Bauer, Shea, et al., 1997) 1 in a sample of 101 veterans, greater service utilization was predicted by the


Chap ter 3

Pathological Basis of Manic-Depressive Disorder


of the Pathophysiological


Physiologic hypotheses

Biological rhythms, s Biological rhythms, <

Craddock & Jones, 1999 Potash & dePaulo, 2000

Bunney et al,, 1972a-c Goodwin & Sack, 1974 Goodwin & Jamison, 1990 Janowsky et al., 1973 : & Watson, 1994 I & Li, 1993 i & Soares, 2002

et al, 1983 Bauer & Whybrow, 1990

Strakowski et al, 1993a-c Jurjus et al., 1993a, b • et al., 1985

Goodwin & J

(pp. 467-481) Faedda et al, 1993 Wehr et al., 1982 Halaris, 1987 Post ct al., 1986

i & Roberts, 1995 i. & Kizer, 2002 Ellicott et al, 1990 Leverich, 1990 Fenichel, 1945 Cooper, 1985 1993


et al, 1988

Similarly, in trying to understand the source of symptoms at a particular time in a particular person with manic-depressive disorder—which we all do may be multiple sources that lead to the symptoms that we are trying to treat. It is also not likely that biological theories will explain all the patholotions such as lithium renders purely psychosocial theories untenable. An integrative biopsychosodal mindset will likely be the most successful

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