Ways To Improve Your Body Image

Mirror Madness

Mirror Madness

Get All The Support And Guidance You Need To Permanently STOP Having A Bad Body Image. This Book Is One Of The Most Valuable Resources In The World When It Comes To A Guide To Better Body Image.

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Dichotomous Classification

Intrapersonal tensions are crucial for creativity. Csikszent-mihalyi used the term cathartic originality to describe the underlying processes of artworks. He argued that the discomforts that are rooted in repressed tensions of childhood may stimulate creative works after the individual becomes mature and better able to handle them. Unsurprisingly, psychoanalytic views on creativity have supported this argument. William G. Neiderland reported that psychoanalysts encounter common factors such as tragic early childhood experiences, traumatiza-tion and conflicts, loneliness, loss, and discontent with body image among creative people in their clinical experiences. Many creative people's response to such unfortunate experiences is a heightened emotional reactivity that evokes their awareness of already existing oversensitivity to internal and external stimuli. The feelings of being incomplete, ugly, and deficient among creatively active individuals are often replaced by sensations of...

Ricardo Ruizlopez Diego Beltrutti Athina N Vadalouca Mauro S Nicoscia

When applied to patients with cancer pain, the term should encompass different clinical dimensions, providing a framework in which physical toxicity (physical impairment, body image, and function) as well as psychological, social, spiritual, cultural, and philosophical factors interact in a way specifically individualized to the patient and changing with the evolution of the disease.

Clinician Patient Relationship

The patient's satisfaction with the esthetic outcome of implant therapy is considered a cornerstone of implant therapy. Therefore, treatment plans should focus on the patients' satisfaction. One of the principal criteria of appraisal is the level of the patient's expectations. Patients with realistic expectations will be more easily satisfied than those with unrealistic expectations. Rittersma and others (1980) reported that 20 to 40 of patients who had undergone orthognathic surgery had not been sufficiently informed about the psychological risks (depression) and physical consequences (pain, dysesthesia) that arise postsurgery. On the other hand, patients who were duly informed and aware that immediately after the operation they may experience personal inconvenience for a short time easily overcame these effects. Women showed a higher degree of neurosis and a less favorable perception of their body image (Kiyak et al. 1981), and it was also noticed that unmarried In general,...

Dance and Neurobiology

Our body schema (a felt sense based on physical properties of our body) is ideally matched with our body image (learned attitudes about our body). In dance this is one of the most delicate convergences because many trained dancers acquire great skill at managing body schema activations however, their body image may become distorted by the ideal notion of what a dancer's body is to resemble. Body schemas operate almost entirely outside of our conscious awareness. For example (a) proprioception (meaning perception of one's own) provides a sense of body motion, (b) the vestibular system provides a spatial awareness while we are moving, (c) our senses of touch, sight, sound, and smell provide further information, and (d) muscle memory (procedural memory) facilitates an organized and coherent motor action. Multiple regions within our brain coordinate our body schemas and organize and mobilize conscious and unconscious intentional actions. What is most intriguing is that our perceptions of...

Dance Creativity and Research

Treatment practices in patients with neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease and related movement disorders. Scientific dance research investigates the implications of dance training and dance styles on the type, degree, and rate of injuries, as well as the psychological make-up of dancers working in this frequently brief and stressful profession. These investigations also examine the specific biomechanics and motor learning employed during the execution of dance skills. Research topics that remain at the forefront include investigations on the distinction between perfectionism and neurotic perfectionism denial of pain and exhaustion that frequently cause career ending injuries and body image and eating disorders, especially in the adolescent dancer who is vulnerable to disruptions in normal hormonal and bone development. Researchers such as Donna Krasnow, Linda Mainwaring, and Gretchen Kerr have demonstrated a clear link between excessive perfectionism and dance injuries...

There is a stranger in my bed

The integrity of the physical body mental image seems to be ingrained in the self, as happens with amputees who continue feeling and sometimes trying to use their absent limb. In contrast to lesions of the body, damage of higher brain centers can produce a phenomenon that we conceptualize as the reverse of a phantom limb the patients have an intact body, but the mental map of their bodies is altered. We believe that we perceive our body directly, as it is. However, our body is only known by constructing a mental image that actually consists of physical changes encoded in cellular brain networks. The fact that brain lesions, hallucinogenic drugs, or emotional states can alter our body image indicates that our image is different from the body itself. This implies that our corporeal awareness is not innate. We have unconsciously collected the impressions of our own body and stored them as our body image. Macdonald Critchley distinguishes the conceptual from the perceptual aspects of the...

Associated Neurological Findings

There are some potential distortions of body image that may accompany sensory loss helping to localize the sensory deficit to the cerebral cortex. Examples are anosodiaphora, which is a lack of concern over a profound loss of sensation or other neurological deficit anosognosia, which reflects a lack of awareness of a profound sensory or neurological deficit and asomatognosia, which represents loss of awareness of one half of the body. Additionally, the patient may manifest sensory neglect with a lack of orienting responses to unilateral stimuli. An aphasia and an increased susceptibility to distracting stimuli manifested as lack of attention or poor concentration are also signs localizing an accompanying sensory deficit to the cerebral cortex.

Nursing interventions

Problem Loss of self-esteem related to altered body image. Goal Patients acknowledge change in body image and expresses their feelings about this change. In the early stages, following the circumstances which led to an altered body image, some patients appear to be quite euphoric. This is due to simple relief at having The role of the nurse is to assist the patient to develop a re-integrated body image (Burgess, 1994). This may be achieved in a variety of ways. Perhaps the most important is to accept the patient as he is, at whatever stage he has reached. Allowing a patient to express his feelings and providing him with matter-of-fact information, such as an honest appraisal of the progress of his wound, is beneficial. It is also essential to include family and or significant others in the patient's care and in any education programme. Good management of the wound should prevent odour or leakage which helps to boost confidence. Burgess also suggests that if patients are having...

Expressive Therapies Art and Movement

Art and movement therapies are considered expressive because they help you explore how and why you use your body to communicate inner issues. Expressive techniques are also excellent tools to break through barriers to physical self-acceptance and help overcome body image distortion and body hatred. Art therapy projects are hands on and involve the world of your imagination. You may find yourself making a body map, filling in an outline of a body with paints, markers, crayons, drawing shapes, writing feeling words inside that outline. Or you may be asked to imagine a container into which you'll place the negative stuff that makes you uncomfortable in your body and contributes to your negative body image. You then make the actual container and its contents. Perhaps you'll create a photo album with images of you at various stages of your life, including a time in the future.

Psychosocial Adjustment

Understanding issues that can arise during various stages of psychological development can enhance therapeutic interventions. For example, with newborn screening and early diagnosis, a child and family need to learn early to cope with the illness related symptoms and complex, time-consuming treatment regimens. Discovering a sense of difference was a central phenomenon described in one study of children with cystic fibrosis during middle childhood years (D'Auria et al. 1997). In adolescents, delayed physical development due to cystic fibrosis may lead to poor body image, low self-esteem, and isolation. They may experience their physical symptoms as being intrusive and having negative impacts on peer activities. In young adulthood, long-term relationships are burdened with fears about prognosis and fear of rejection if the patient becomes ill.

What Practitioners Say It Does

Dance therapists believe that their work assists patients in every aspect of their selves. On an emotional level, dance therapy is used to promote body image and encourage self-expression. It may also assist in exploring and resolving emotional issues such as anger, frustration, and loss.

Children and Adolescents

With advanced renal disease, patients may undergo dramatic changes in physical appearance, as a result of either the disease process itself or adverse effects of treatment. Short stature and delayed puberty are common, along with long-term psychological effects that accompany these deficits (Grooten-huis et al. 2006 Rosenkranz et al. 2005). Bone deformity may be a result of ESRD. Scarring from catheter and port placements for dialysis, as well as gastrostomy tubes, may be a source of embarrassment and impaired body image. Corticosteroids and immunosuppressants commonly cause cosmetic

Evidence Based Treatments

Cents with SLE and the specific physical and psychological sequelae that are unique to this disease. Although cognitive therapy was employed previously, primarily for pain management (Gil et al. 1996), the intervention was extended to other domains of functioning (e.g., negative affectivity, body image, social competence). The specific ingredients of the treatment package included coping skills training and cognitive restructuring techniques (Jensen et al. 1994). Efforts to teach active coping skills included training in relaxation, distraction, and problem-solving skills. Goals of the treatment included 1) developing skills for managing SLE, 2) reducing disability and perceptions of pain, 3) improving mood, 4) increasing self-efficacy expectations and perceptions of locus of control, and 5) delineating distortions associated with perceptions of physical appearance and social competence.

Impact of Pregnancy on the Patient

Pregnancy can be one of the most exciting times in a woman's life or one of the worst. Even a woman who experiences joy from becoming pregnant may suffer anxiety during her pregnancy. ''Will the baby be normal '' ''How will I tolerate labor '' ''How will the baby change my life '' ''I've put on so much weight. Will I ever be able to take it off '' These are just a few of the many questions commonly asked by pregnant women, and these issues cause much of their anxiety. Anxiety over body image is common as pregnancy progresses.

Methodological issues

For example, in their study of self-reported sexual difficulties in a sample of 322 patients with TBI (193 men and 129 women), Hibbard Gordon, Flanagan, Haddad, and Labinsky (2000) noted that their TBIs reported more frequent physiological difficulties influencing sex drive (i.e., decreased energy, sex drive, ability to initiate sexual activities, or achieve orgasm) physical difficulties (i.e., problems with body positioning, movement, and sensation) and body-image difficulties (i.e., feeling attractive and comfortable having the partner view one's body during sexual activities). Yet in men with TBI and without disability the most sensitive predictor of sexual dysfunction was level of depression, whereas for women endocrine disorders were the best predictor. Due to the complex interacting forces of the organic, cognitive, and psychosocial consequences of brain injury, specific delineation of the nature of these effects can often be difficult to ascertain.

Illness as a Grieving Process

Physical illness may involve loss in the following areas independence, sense of control, privacy, body image healthy self, relationships, roles inside and outside the family, self-confidence, self-esteem, productivity, self-fulfillment, future plans, fantasies of immortality, hindered movement, familiar daily routines, uninterrupted sleep, ways of expressing sexuality, and pain-free existence (Lewis 1998). Many of the assumptions of the child's daily life, including the sense of future, can be shattered by the diagnosis of an illness. Youngsters may experience overwhelming threats and fears including threats to narcissistic integrity and self-esteem, regressive fear of strangers on whom the patient must rely, separation anxiety, fears of loss of love and approval, fear of loss of control of bodily functions, and fear of pain and humiliation, as well as guilt and the fear of retaliation reflecting the unconscious belief that illness may be a punishment for past behavior (Lip-sitt 1996...

The evolution of sexual dysfunction following TBI

Which facilitates the patient's waking process (Blackerby, 1987 Ducharme & Gill, 1990). Sexual delusions may also be present. The second phase is characterised by inappropriate verbal allusions, confabulation, joking, and sexual approaches. These approaches may also be physical, accompanying the increase in sexual drive. The reentry phase is characterised by insensitivity to others, distractibility, poor judgement, memory disturbance, social isolation, medication effects, altered body image, and altered self-concept. The patient is faced with the changes in role as well as in reintegrating into the family and community. At this stage, the emotional reaction of the patient to the injury, including features of anxiety and depression, will often come into play (Blackerby, 1987 Ducharme & Gill, 1990). These deficits may effect a vicious circle of events triggering feelings of sexual inadequacy and incompetence that, in association with compromise in self-esteem and body image, may lead to...

Nutrition for the Athlete

Athletes are preoccupied with body image, composition, and total mass. In weight-dependent sports such as running, weight loss may aid performance. Other sports such as boxing, football, or wrestling may require healthy weight gain. Athletes expect physicians to know the effects of nutrition on performance measures such as endurance, speed, or strength.

Surgical complications

Orchiectomy can have a damaging psychosocial consequence resulting in impairments in body image and self-perception 15 . Fortunately, most men treated for testicular cancer eventually regain normal body image 16 . Insertion of a testicular prosthesis is a viable option to improve scrotal cosmesis following orchiectomy, although the implant itself is not without possible associated complications such as pain, infection, and lymph-adenopathy 17-19 Surgical site infection Body image impairment Vascular injury Bowel injury

Psychological Effects in Men Who Have Undergone Treatment for Penile Cancer

It is in these areas of fear and anxiety regarding masculinity, sexual function, and voiding function that patient support is most important. It is important for the healthcare professional team to anticipate these concerns and to provide support, either verbal or written. Online resources for patients might be expected to help, but given the rarity of penile cancer, particularly in the Western world, the availability of good-quality patient information, written or electronic is currently limited. Healthcare professionals should provide support and information from the moment the patient first seeks medical attention. In the United Kingdom a dedicated penile cancer nurse specialist provides this support and acts as a point of contact for the patients as they make their journey through the treatment pathway (Fig. 15.1). They are able to explain the steps of investigation and treatment, while providing support for the practical problems and wound management issues (Figs. 15.2 and 15.3)...

Psychological factors in illness behavior

There is strong clinical evidence that these clinical observations can also give us information about illness behavior (Table 10.2). We can clearly separate the behavioral symptoms and signs, both clinically and statistically, from the symptoms and signs of physical disease or impairment. They often spread far beyond any likely neurophysiologic mechanism and tend to a body image distribution. They are closely related to other observations of illness behavior. Illness behavior is closely related to emotional arousal and distress. As a first oversimplification, we might regard illness behavior as the clinical equivalent or expression of distress.

The Adolescent Interview

Adolescents, aged 13 to 22 years, make up 15 of the U.S. population. Too old to be considered children but too young to be considered adults, adolescents may avoid health care because they do not feel comfortable either at the pediatrician's office or at an internist's office. On the other hand, mortality rates are almost five times higher among 15- to 24-year-olds than among 5- to 14-year-olds, and adolescents experience considerable morbidity. Perhaps 20 of adolescents have a chronic health condition, and many suffer consequences of engaging in adult behaviors sexual activity, drug and alcohol use, driving, paid employment, and competitive sports. Adolescents' limited life experience and their psychologic stage (described as ''adolescent egocentrism'') magnify the risks of these exposures. The rapid physical changes in a teenager's body come at a time when the psychologic process of forming a body image is at its strongest the mismatch between the actual and the desired physique can...

Causes And Outcomes Of Sexual Harassment

Sexual harassment may also explain a portion of the difference in rates of depression and eating pathology among women and men. Women are twice as likely to develop depression39 and more likely to experience sexual harassment compared to men.40,41 Further, depression is higher among those who have experienced sexual harassment compared to their nonha-rassed counterparts, leading some to theorize that gender differences in the rates of certain disorders are related to women's higher risk of experiencing discrimination and sexual harassment.42,43 Eating pathology and body dissatisfaction are also associated with sexual harassment, but this can occur for multiple reasons. Sexual harassment often damages self-esteem, particularly body-based self-esteem, which then puts one at risk for increased eating pathology (sexual harassment syndrome).44,45 Sexual harassment also increases one's body scrutiny and dissatisfaction, which further increases one's risk for disordered eating.45,46,47...

Impact of Musculoskeletal Disease on the Patient

Diseases of the musculoskeletal system range from minor aches and pains to severe crippling disorders, often associated with premature death. Rheumatoid arthritis is a crippling disorder that strikes many patients in the prime of life. In addition to having joint pain and reduced activity, patients with rheumatoid arthritis fear the possibility of being crippled. They become more dependent on others as the disease progresses. The disability alters patients' self-image and self-esteem. The altered body image may be devastating patients often become withdrawn.

The management of surgical wounds Patient assessment

Controiling body temperature pyrexia is an indication of infection. Mobilising mobility is often reduced in the postoperative period. Expressing sexuality assess patients' reaction to their altered body image. Sleeping sleeping patterns may be altered because of pain and or disturbance by nursing staff.

Clinical Manifestations and Pathology

A distorted body image is an almost universal characteristic of anorectics, with many patients insisting that they are overweight even when their bodies are extremely emaciated. As a result, most individuals with anorexia nervosa deny or minimize the severity of their illness and are thus resistant to therapy. The anorectic's refusal to acknowledge her nutritional needs, and her steadfast insistence that nothing is wrong, make anorexia nervosa one of the most recalcitrant disorders in contemporary medicine.

The missing arm that hurts

Ricardo, a patient that I examined as a medical student, was strangely similar to Maria. He was a middle-aged retired construction worker, who went to the clinic complaining of pain and a burning sensation in his right arm. The problem was that his right arm was missing he had lost it years earlier in an accident. Pain in the missing arm How can an arm that you do not possess hurt Ricardo pointed in the space where the imaginary arm hurt. The arm was missing from his body but not from his brain. The mental image of his arm was slightly smaller than the arm that he lost. One of the medical students thought that Ricardo was hysterical, but the neurologist in charge knew better and said that it was a classic case of pain in the phantom limb. Another student asked, What is a phantom limb The neurologist explained that it is an illusion always present immediately after an amputation. The amputated limb is felt as still present, to the point that some patients have fallen out of bed when...

Treatment of delayed puberty in boys

Androgen replacement therapy in male adolescents with constitutional delay of growth and adolescence has been shown to be beneficial psychologically as well as physiologically, and should be initiated promptly on diagnosis (Albanese and Stanhope 1995 de Lange etal. 1979 Kaplan et al. 1973 Rosenfeld et al. 1982). Boys with delayed puberty are at risk for not obtaining adequate peak bone mass and for having deficiencies in developing social skills, an impaired body image, and low self-esteem. Younger boys with short stature, delayed bone age (at least 10.5 years), and delayed pubertal development in the absence of other endocrinological abnormalities can be treated with 50-100 mg of testosterone enanthate or cypionate im, every four weeks for three months, whereas boys 13 years old maybe treated with 250 mg (im, every four weeks for three months). After a three-month wait and see period, another course of treatment may be offered if pubertal development does not continue. An increase in...

Impact of Head and Neck Disease on the Patient

The concept of body image is important. The head and neck are the most visible portions of the body. The shape of the eyes, mouth, face, and nose is very important to people. Many dislike their body image and want to change it by cosmetic surgery. Others require cosmetic surgery to repair alterations caused by trauma. Still others suffer from disfiguring head and neck cancer and need to undergo surgical procedures for the removal of these lesions. Many of these procedures are themselves mutilating. Distortion of the body image, especially on the head and neck, can have a devastating effect on the patient. The most common reaction to head and neck disease is depression. Many affected patients suffer from feelings of sadness and hopelessness. They look in the mirror hoping that someday they will see themselves with a more acceptable body image. Recurrent thoughts of suicide are common. Many of these depressed patients turn to alcohol or other drugs.

Neurobiological Factors

Relevant paradigms, such as responses to high- and low-calorie food pictures, show elevated temporal lobe activation (C.M. Gordon et al. 2001), while elevated medial prefrontal and ACC activation is found in both underweight and recovered patients with anorexia nervosa (Kurosaki et al. 2006). Tasting sucrose solution versus water decreased activation in the insula and striatum of weight-restored subjects with anorexia nervosa (Kurosaki et al. 2006). Increased striatum activation was found during a non-food-related reward processing task (Wagner et al. 2007). During tasks related to body image distortion, increased activation has been observed in the frontal and parietal lobes (Uher et al. 2005) the ACC (Audenaert et al. 2003) and the brainstem, amygdala, and fusiform gyrus (Wagner et al. 2003). In another study using body image distortion tasks, Uher et al. (2004) found decreased parietal lobe activation. Taken as a group, these studies suggest that patients with anorexia nervosa have...

Therapeutic Interventions

Draw an outline of one's own body and ask for feedback about the accuracy of one's body image. (13) 13. Teach the client about his her distorted, negative body image and ask him her to draw an outline of his her body give feedback as to 10. Identify situations that easily trigger feelings of fear about weight and body image. (19) 19. Assist the client in identifying situations that trigger fear regarding weight and body image

Sensory Syndromes Associated with Psychogenic Sensory Loss

A psychogenic sensory loss should be suspected in patients with sensory loss that demonstrates hyperesthesia for one modality in a given area and anesthesia for another in the same area, absolute loss of all cutaneous sensation, hyperesthesia that resolves with mild distraction, and sensory levels that correspond to the patient's body image rather than organic sensory levels. The examiner should look for abrupt midline changes, vibration asymmetry over a fixed bone that spans the midline, vibration asymmetry at a fixed midline point as the tuning fork is pivoted from one side to the other, and marked variation with repeated examination. The validity of determining a psychogenic sensory loss with these factors has been debated. y , y

Timing of Reconstruction

It is essential to reconstruct the segmental mandibular defect immediately because if the resected ends of the mandible are allowed to scar and fibrose, one can never restore the native mandible to its proper position. Postoperative radiation therapy compounds the problem with contracture, and creates a functional trismus that can never be corrected. The refinement of microsurgical techniques has allowed the reconstructive surgeon to immediately and reliably transfer well-vascularized bone and soft tissue in a single operation. Immediate replacement of the tissue that is lost contributes significantly to primary wound healing. This decreases hospital stay and also helps the patient's psychological status by restoring their sense of well-being and body image. The ability to initiate radiotherapy chemotherapy early after surgery is a further benefit of primary reconstruction. Thus immediate reconstruction generally provides the optimal esthetic and functional result and is indicated for...

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

(Trent et al. 2003 Weiner et al. 2004). However, compared with women with infertility due to other causes, those with PCOS report greater depression and dissatisfaction with their body image (Himelein and Thatcher 2006). Furthermore, depressive symptoms and quality of life do not differ between women with PCOS who desire pregnancy and those who do not (Tan et al. 2008). Clearly, depressive symptoms and poor body image result from aspects other than infertility in girls and women with PCOS. Increased weight among women with PCOS is the most significant contributor to poor quality of life, and menstrual irregularity is the next greatest contributor (Barnard et al. 2007). Women with PCOS are more likely to exhibit eating disorders and anxiety than are unaffected women (Kerchner et al. 2009). Although most studies of depression, quality of life, and body image in PCOS have included women exclusively, data are beginning to emerge revealing that behavioral treatments such as...

Anorexia Nervosa

Anorexia nervosa is a psychophysiological disorder especially prevalent among young women and characterized by refusal to eat or maintain normal body weight, intense fear of becoming obese, a disturbed body image in which the emaciated patient feels overweight, and absence of any physical illness accounting for extreme weight loss. The term anorexia is actually a misnomer, because genuine loss of appetite is rare and usually occurs only late in the illness. Most anorectics are actually obsessed with food and constantly deny natural hunger.

Physical Therapy

Physical therapy focuses on improving gross and fine motor skills balance and coordination strength, flexibility, and endurance posture and cognitive and sensory processing and integration. Physical manipulations, exercise, heat, cold, electricity, and massage are used to achieve these goals. Exercise also produces generalized benefits related to improved body image, body mechanics, sleep, and mood. One randomized, controlled trial provided evidence of efficacy for youth with chronic musculoskeletal pain (Jones et al. 2007), and one yielded support for those with fibromyalgia (Stephens et al. 2008). Results from case series are promising for the use of physical therapy for complex regional pain syndrome (Sherry et al. 1999). Preliminary research has not yet consistently yielded support for youth with arthritis (Takken et al. 2008). Further research with children and adolescents is needed.

Expressing sexuality

Body image is the mental picture that people have of themselves. Sexuality is an integral part of the image. Body image is also closely associated with self-esteem. Shipes (1987) suggests that self-esteem can be defined as the sum total of all we believe about ourselves. All patients with wounds have an altered body image. This can have a profound effect on self-esteem and motivation. Obvious types of wounds which can have these effects are those resulting in disfigurement such as burns, head and neck surgery, mastectomy, amputation and ostomies. Many patients will also be suffering from anxiety about their prognosis. The resultant stress can be so overwhelming that patients may be unable to take in information, to share their feelings or to commence rehabilitation. This has physiological effects which delay wound healing (see also Communicating, Section 2.2.2, and Psychological care, Section 2.3).


Regular evaluation of progress is important for patients with an altered body image. Learning to cope with the new image may take time, and strategies may have to be altered along the way. This may be particularly true for those undergoing a series of plastic surgery operations. They may have to cope with a constantly changing body image.

Social Workers

Adjustment to neurologic disability involves a gradual process of psychological assimilation to changes in body image, self-concept, and ability to interact with the environs.173 The social worker begins this process of assimilation. Caregivers also face adjustments. Their emotional distress may be greater than that of the patient, related to the new physical, cognitive, financial, and role-reversing demands of dis

Medical Issues

Although organ transplantation can be a lifesaving intervention, it should not be perceived as an absolute cure. Physicians often talk about transplant as trading one chronic illness for another. Following transplantation, patients must be prepared to adhere to an immunosuppressive medication regimen and lifestyle modifications on a daily basis for the rest of their lives. These medications help to prevent graft rejection but can have numerous physical and medical side effects. Steroid-based immunosuppres-sant medications can cause weight gain, moon facies, excessive body hair growth, truncal obesity, acne, and gingival hyperplasia. Medical complications can include renal insufficiency, hypertension, osteoporosis, and posttransplant lymphoprolifera-tive disease. Furthermore, because of perpetual im-munosuppression to protect foreign graft functioning, patients are at constant increased risk for infection. Among adolescent pediatric kidney transplant recipients, a positive correlation...


Elimination poor nutrition may result in constipation. Some analgesia may also have the same effect. Ultimately, constipation will cause loss of appetite. Mobility poor mobility may affect the patient's ability to be self-caring. Expressing sexuality most patients are greatly distressed by their altered body image.

Precocious Puberty

Precocious Puberty Pediatrics

Within the normal range of pubertal onset, early menarche (prior to 11.6 years) was found to be associated with symptoms of depression and substance abuse (Stice et al. 2001). For both girls and boys participating in a national sample study, pu-bertal development that occurred at the early end of the normal spectrum was associated with undesirable experiences. Among girls who perceived themselves to be early maturing, smoking, dissatisfaction with body image, and early sexual activity were more common compared with their counterparts who considered their pubertal maturation to be In a follow-up study conducted of 16 adolescent girls treated for precocious puberty that included a control group, affected girls reported more psycho-pathological symptoms than unaffected girls (Ehrhardt and Meyer-Bahlburg 1986). A second controlled study revealed that poor body image was associated with precocious sexual development in girls (Officioso et al. 2000). Although limited information exists...

Eating Disorders

Anorexia is a serious, potentially life-threatening disorder marked by a distorted body image it's when someone, most often a female, believes she is grossly fat when she's average or even thin. She has an intense fear of gaining weight and refuses to eat or just eats enough to survive. Anorexia usually appears between the ages of 14 and 18.

The New Anxiety

The defining feature of koro is a high degree of anxiety associated with penis size. The sufferer is convinced that his penis is shrinking and disappearing into his abdomen. The idea involves the same sort of body image distortion that we see in anorexia nervosa, except that the koro victim perceives the penis as much smaller than it is in reality. The body image distortion of the anorexic causes the victim to perceive her his body as larger than it is. Koro is a disorder that is found only in some south Asian countries (e.g., China, Taiwan, Malaysia) and can be traced to the cultural cognition Be virile that becomes a primary motivation of many men in these cultures.