Simulations based on the bidomain model have provided key insights into how an electrical stimulus excites cardiac tissue. They have helped resolved decades-old questions about the mechanisms of make and break excitation and the shape of the strength-interval curve. Bidomain simulations are also important in understanding in the induction of reentry. Reentry can be induced in cardiac tissue using trains of weak pulses: each pulse having a strength similar to a pacemaker stimulus.29 The bidomain properties of cardiac tissue are also crucial in predicting the response of cardiac tissue to strong shocks and can cause "quatrefoil reentry"12>30>31 (see the Wikswo and Roth chapter). They influence how the heart responds to defibrillation.32 Trayanova and Plank discuss these effects in the next chapter.

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