Experimental Responses During Field Stimulation

Electric field stimulation of cardiac tissue, as during defibrillation, involves interaction of the applied field with the tissue during different phases of the action potential.11 Thus, it is instructive to understand the field-cell interaction for at least two contrasting action potential phases: at rest when a cell is most excitable and during the action potential plateau when it is refractory. But first, let us briefly review the technology that enables recording of Vm responses from a specimen as small as a cardiac cell (a typical cardiac cell is approximately 120 |im in length and 20 |im in diameter).12

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