Which Ventricle Is Causing the Apical Impulse

Normal Apical Impulse

The heart during systole, becoming smaller, generally withdraws from the chest wall except for the apex for the reasons explained above. The effect of this withdrawal on the chest wall can be observed as an inward movement of the chest wall during systole called retraction. Although the heart is basically comprised of two separate pumps (right and left ventricles), these two pumps operate normally at two vastly different pressures. Left ventricular systolic pressures being approximately five...

Valvular Heart Disease

Mallar Flush

Only the more advanced forms of valvular heart disease may be visually detected 1. Tricuspid regurgitation Tricuspid regurgitation may be suspected on observation if there are ear lobe pulsations, a prominent v wave in the jugular venous pulse, as well as hepatic pulsations. Fig. 7. (Color Plate 7, following p. 270) Mitral facies 35-yr-old Polish female P1 G6 Ab4 showing a malar flush. She had mitral stenosis and mitral regurgitation. 2. Mitral stenosis Caucasian patients with mitral stenosis...

Loud P2 Pulmonary Hypertension Mp3

Laplace's Law defines the relationship between the wall tension (T) and the pressure (P) and the radius (r) for a thin-walled cylindrical shell (Fig. 15). The tension is directly related to the pressure and the radius. If the wall has a thickness, then the circumferential wall stress is given by Lame's equation (Fig. 15), where the wall tension (T) is related to the pressure (P) and the radius (r) and inversely related to the wall thickness (h). In other words, hypertrophy of the wall is a...

Pathophysiology Of Dilated Cardiomyopathy

Cardiomyopathy Pathophysiology

Dilated cardiomyopathy refers to intrinsic myocardial disease. The etiology is often idiopathic, while in others it may be related to definable etiological factors such as ethanol-related myocardial damage or a definite viral myocarditis. Whatever may be the etiology, the hallmark of the disorder is a dilated poorly contracting left ventricle, and Pathophysiological changes Clinical symptoms signs Pathophysiological changes Clinical symptoms signs Severe hypertension or decreased LV systolic...