Problem: Inadequate pain control.
Goal: Patients will be able to express feelings of comfort and relief from pain.
Pain management is a big topic and can only be addressed briefly here. Modern systems of drug delivery such as slow-release drugs, or intravenous pumps, provide constant pain relief that is more effective than the use of injections, which have a bolus effect. Spinal infusion has been found work well in a small group of terminally ill patients for whom other methods failed (Hicks et al., 1994).
Music has been used as a distraction therapy to help reduce a patient's perception of pain in the immediate postoperative period (Taylor etal, 1998). Relaxation has been successfully used as a technique to reduce pain in cancer patients (Sloman et al., 1994) and in older men undergoing hip replacement (Parsons, 1994). Other strategies may be used to assist in pain relief. Measures such as turning, lifting or massage may be very comforting. Simple aids such as a bed cradle to reduce the weight of the bedclothes can be very effective.
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