Stop your Cat Spraying in the House
Obesity is the most common nutritional disease in the Western world in both pets and their owners. A staggering 50 of dogs and cats in the UK are considered to be above their ideal weight. This means that every other dog and cat owner you speak to in your practice will have a pet that might benefit from a weight-management product. When discussing weight control it should be remembered that many owners might feel guilty that their pet has become overweight. You are as much counselling them as giving nutritional advice for their pet.
It is essential that the veterinary nurse knows how to assess and interpret the body language of dogs and cats to ensure that a safe approach can be made. In turn, your own body language, the tone and pitch of your voice and your self-assurance can influence how an animal reacts to you. Generally a reassuring but firm voice with a low tone will put animals at ease. Never put yourself in a situation where you feel uncomfortable - it is always preferable to request assistance from a more experienced member of staff than to injure yourself or your patient.
Clouds of dust cut out the light from the sun. The small, warm-blooded mammals could control their own body temperatures and were at an advantage, so most survived. By 45 million years ago all the major groups of mammals alive today had evolved. True cats are found in the fossil records from about 25 million years ago.
Originally, dog grooming was undertaken by the aristocracy as a 'fashion statement' or a status symbol but it is not recorded when the different clips originated. Techniques for the basic grooming of a dog are similar for each breed, but certain techniques are required for the different coat types. Short-haired cats are rarely groomed regularly but longhaired cats may be presented in the surgery to be dematted, which often requires a general anaesthetic and drastic clipping of the hair.
The concept of keeping animals as companions is not new. There is proof in surviving epitaphs that the ancient Greeks and Romans were avid pet owners and that they revered their pets for their ability to reciprocate affection and provide amusement and companionship. Unlike many other societies, pet owners were from every type of social background rather than being confined to the elite (Bodson 2000). Ancient Egyptian murals depict the enthusiasm that Pharaohs and other high-ranking officials had for keeping dogs, cats and other wild creatures as objects of affection (CSS 1988). In fact, it was thought that the domestic cat originated in Egypt, but archaeologists have since discovered the bones of a cat in Cyprus that are over 9000 years old and all the evidence points to it having been a pet (Muir 2004). Historically, cats appear to have suffered less at the hands of man. Their only function in society was to control the rodent population thus, no genetic modification was required....
Statistics show that the percentage of households with pets is significantly higher in families with children from the age of 6-15 years (Bonas et al 2000). Cats and dogs are often considered as family members and will instigate more social interaction within the home. The number of family households with pets may also be synonymous with the number of families in which both parents work and, in this case, an animal can provide company for children and a feeling of security when they are alone in the house.
Many species of smaller companion animal may also develop stereotypies. Both dogs and cats can express their anxiety by over-grooming and self-mutilation. Dogs that are lacking in mental stimulation may bark repetitively or chase their tails, whereas cats can express their frustration through fabric chewing or a condition known as feline hyperaesthesia that causes twitching and rippling of the skin. Stereotypies are seen in small caged animals such as the parrot that plucks its own feathers or a rodent that performs repetitive back-flips or gnaws at the bars of the cage. While the performance of stereotypies is believed to help an animal cope with its environment (Koene 1996), they are suggestive of poor welfare and can be damaging to an animal's health. Once a stereotypy has developed it is extremely difficult to retract, so prevention by providing environmental enrichment is the optimum treatment.
The three chapters in Part I address foundational issues related to the representation of human concepts. Chapter 2 by Goldstone and Son reviews work on the core concept of similarity - how people assess the degree to which objects or events are alike. Chapter 3 by Medin and Rips considers research on categories and how concepts are organized in semantic memory. Thinking depends not only on representations of individual concepts, such as dogs and cats, but also on representations of the relationships among concepts, such as the fact that dogs often chase cats. In Chapter 4, Doumas and Hummel evaluate different computational approaches to the representation of relations.
Another empirically validated set of predictions stemming from an alignment-based approach to similarity concerns alignable and nonalignable differences (Markman & Gentner, 1 993b). Nonalignable differences between two entities are attributes of one entity that have no corresponding attribute in the other entity. Alignable differences are differences that require the elements of the entities first be placed in correspondence. When comparing a police car with an ambulance, a nonalignable difference is that police cars have weapons in them, but ambulances do not. There is no clear equivalent of weapons in the ambulance. Alignable differences include the following police cars carry criminals to jails rather than carrying sick people to hospitals, a police car is a car whereas ambulances are vans, and police car drivers are policemen rather than emergency medical technicians. Consistent with the role of structural alignment in similarity comparisons, alignable differences influence...
The cat's deafferented spinal cord below a low thoracic transection can generate alternating flexor and extensor muscle activity a few hours after surgery when DOPA or clonidine are administered intravenously or when the dorsal columns or dorsal roots are continuously stimulated. This is called fictive locomotion. Several weeks after a complete lower thoracic spinal cord transection without deafferenta-tion, adult cats and other mammals have been trained on a treadmill so that their paralyzed hindlimbs fully support their weight, rhythmically step, and adjust their walking speed to that of the treadmill belt in a manner that is similar to normal locomotion.375,376 Postural support alone is detrimental to subsequent locomotion, whereas rhythmic alternating movements of the limbs with joint loading seems critical to the recovery of locomotor output.377 Serotonergic and noradrenergic drugs enhance the stepping pattern378 and strychnine, through a glycinergic path, quickly induces it in...
A mysterious specificity exists between certain feeding arthropods and certain viruses furthermore, a preferential feeding of certain arthropods (mosquitoes, for example) on certain food sources is shown. Some vertebrates react to a specific virus with severe disease. Yellow fever, for example, produces severe illness in humans, laboratory white mice, rhesus monkeys, and Alouatta monkeys. On the other hand, yellow fever may infect dogs, cats, Cebus monkeys, cows, and horses without producing overt disease. Among the encephalitides, eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) virus (endemic strains) can produce severe disease and death in humans, laboratory mice, certain other vertebrates, and very specifically equines. But cattle do not develop illness with this agent, nor do sheep, goats, dogs, or cats. By contrast, the South American EEE strain that kills horses produces no illness in humans but does produce detectable antibodies.
The combined body of evidence reported above supports a complex hierarchical view of how emotions are elaborated in the brain. For instance, the reciprocal relations in limbic and cortical regions during the imaging of emotions and cognitions in the human brain has prompted the formulation of a model of emotional regulation in which activity in neocortical regions plays an important role in the regulation of emotional states, including emotion generation, maintenance, and suppression (see Figs. 2.6 to 2.8). Elaborating on the observations on decerebration and sham rage in cats and dogs, Reiman (1997) hypothesized that the cerebral cortex serves to inhibit unbridled expressions of emotion.
Resulted in physiological and behavioral activation in cats. This led to the hypothesis of the RAS as a group of structures and pathways necessary for waking up, including the mental activity of dreaming during sleep. Moruzzi and Magoun noted Berger's observation that the transition from sleep to wakefulness correlated with a change in the EEG from high-voltage slow waves to lower voltage fast activity (alpha blockade). These EEG changes occurred with any afferent stimulation that produced increasing alertness. Several earlier investigators had stimulated various sites in the ventral dien-cephalon, midbrain (including periaqueductal gray (PAG)) and pons, leading to cortical activation, but until the articulation of the RAS concept, there was no integrated theory for how this transformation occurred, either physiologically or anatomically. Moruzzi and Magoun extended and integrated multiple findings around parameters of cortical activation and alertness and in so doing repudiated...
Mandler and McDonough (1998) argued that the basic-level bias comes relatively late, and demonstrated that 14-month-old infants show a bias to project properties within a broad domain (animals or vehicles) rather than at the level usually considered to be basic. This finding is not inconsistent with Coley et al.'s (1997) conclusion because the distributional and linguistic properties that they claim mediate induction presumably have to be learned, and so finding a basic-level preference only amongst adults is sufficient for their argument. Mandler and McDonough (1998) argued that infants' predilection to project to broad domains demonstrates an initial propensity to rely on conceptual as opposed to perceptual knowledge as a basis for induction, meaning that infants rely on the very abstract commonalities among animals as opposed to the perhaps more obvious physical differences among basic-level categories (pans vs. cups and cats vs. dogs). Of course, pans and cups do have physical...
House cats often carry the parasite Floxum. House cats often carry the parasite Floxum. Even though the premise categories of the first argument are more diverse (house cats are less similar to field mice than to tigers), the second argument might seem stronger because house cats could conceivably become infected with the parasite Floxum while hunting field mice. Even if you do not find the second argument stronger, merely accepting the relevance of this infection scenario undermines the diversity principle, which prescribes that the similarity principle should be determinative for all pairs of arguments. At minimum, it shows that the diversity principle does not dominate all other principles of sound inference.
As shown in Table 7.2 there is a variety of cat housing available that allows the cat to be kept inside or outside as long as the accommodation suits the environmental conditions. Temperature details are shown in Table 7.3 and will depend upon the condition and reasons for housing. Cat housing differs from the dog housing in that cats are able to, and should be encouraged to climb. There is also a greater risk of respiratory infection when cats are housed in close proximity to each other and allowance must therefore be made for this. A 'sneeze barrier' of 0.6-1.2 m must be left between each open run and the next and all the accommodation, both sleeping and exercising areas, must be covered. In indoor catteries it is vital that good ventilation is installed to remove stale air and prevent cross-contamination. Transparent panelling can be used instead of wire mesh to prevent cross-contamination of air. Each individual cattery unit (Table 7.7) requires the following of cats
Not work as long and hard as Camille did without deriving satisfaction from the work. Her satisfaction did not come from wide public acclaim or sales of her work. It probably did not even come from enjoyment of the finished product she destroyed so many of her sculptures. Yet, she continued to work constantly, as if driven, without any other apparent source of entertainment or companionship, except for her cats. Surely she gained satisfaction from the work.
Carbohydrates provide the body with energy and may be converted to body fat. All animals have a metabolic requirement for glucose but, provided the diet contains sufficient glucose precursors (amino acids and glycerol), most animals can synthesize enough glucose to meet their metabolic needs without dietary carbohydrate. However, sugars and cooked starches are an economical and easily digested energy source. Sugars increase palatability to dogs but cats do not respond to the taste of sugar.
Deficiencies can occur as a result of overconsumption of certain foods that contain specific antivitamins. For example, avidin in egg white binds biotin, thiaminases in raw fish can lead to thiamin deficiency in cats. Water-soluble vitamin deficiencies can also be demonstrated in pets fed unusual home-prepared diets. Dogs fed exclusively on cereals such as porridge have been reported to develop niacin deficiency (termed pellagra), which presents as dermatitis, diarrhoea, dementia and death. Vitamin C is not technically a vitamin for healthy dogs and cats because all that is required can be synthesized by the animal. Vitamin C mainly functions in the body as an antioxidant and free radical scavenger and is needed for the synthesis of collagen. It was postulated that huge doses of vitamin C could be beneficial in preventing hip dysplasia but this has not been proved. Recent research has focused on the use of supplemental vitamin C in the prevention of some types of cancer.
Deficiencies are uncommon but cats require a source of preformed vitamin A, which is only found in animal tissue, and thus theoretically could become deficient if fed a vegetarian diet. Vitamin A toxicity is fairly common in cats receiving a diet high in liver or following oversupplementation with cod liver oil, since these foodstuffs contain abundant amounts of preformed vitamin A. Clinical signs of vitamin A toxicity include liver damage and painful bone disease, especially of the cervical vertebrae and long bones of the forelimb. Vitamin E is an important antioxidant and the requirement for vitamin E increases with the dietary levels of polyunsatu-rated fatty acids (PUFA). Vitamin E is only synthesized by plants and the richest natural sources are vegetable oils, seeds and cereal grains. The clinical manifestations of vitamin E deficiency vary markedly between species. In dogs the main clinical signs are degenerative skeletal disease with muscular weakness and gestational failure....
Despite reliable reports of gamma band activation in cats and monkeys, it has been more difficult to see this activity in humans using MEG, as compared to EEG. Eulitz et al. (1996) notes that one possible reason why it is difficult to see gamma band activity using MEG relates to the number of neurons in one region that must be active simultaneously (e.g., tens to hundreds of thousands) in order to produce a measurable MEG signal at the surface of the head. If gamma band activity originates from cell assemblies, and at most tens of thousands of neurons make up a particular cell assembly with only a fraction of those cells
Overeating results in the extra calories being converted to fat and then the fat is laid down in the body tissues. These extra calories can be from treats and titbits given by the owner or simply by giving too much of the pet's usual food. The way in which the pet is fed also has an influence on whether or not it gains weight. It has been shown that regular flavour rotation can increase the risk of obesity in cats. Pets that are fed on an 'ad lib' basis are also at a greater risk of weight gain. Breed - certain pure-bred dogs seem to be more prone to becoming overweight than crossbreed dogs (Box 10.1) however, pedigree cats are less likely to develop obesity than crossbreed 'moggie' cats
In contrast to the situation in older dogs, obesity is much less common in older cats. Many older cats, in fact, go thin. This is because cats are less well able to digest their food as they age. A highly digestible diet is therefore recommended and this can be achieved by feeding a diet with high-quality ingredients.
The blocks were immersed for 1 h in 1 or 2 glutaraldehyde in 0.05 m or 0.1 m cacodylate buffer (pH 7.2). Some animals (ten rats, three rabbits, four cats) underwent preliminary perfusion fixation with 2 glutaraldehyde in 0.1 m cacodylate buffer (pH 7.2-7.4). They were perfused at low pressure through the right ventricle with an opened left atrium in order to obtain better fixation of the lung. Following a brief rinse in the same buffer, the pieces were postfixed for 1 h in 1 OsO4 also in the same buffer (pH 7.2). Following dehydration in graded ethanol and acetone, the blocks were embedded in Durcupan ACM (Fluka). The regions of interest were identified on semi-thin sections (1 m), stained with different solutions of 1 Toluidine blue, 1 Methylene blue, Azure II or a stock solution of 1 Toluidine blue and 1 pyronin and examined using a light microscope to select appropriate areas for electron microscopy. Ultrathin sections (50-70 nm) were prepared on an LKB ultramicrotome. Specimens...
FLUTD is characterized by an increased frequency of urination, pain on attempting to pass urine and blood in the urine (cystitis). All cats may be affected but it is more common in overweight, inactive cats, especially those living indoors completely. FLUTD has many causes but the formation of irritant crystals and stones in the bladder is one major cause. Cats under the age of 7 are more at risk from developing FLUTD due to struvite crystals (magnesium ammonium phosphate). These crystals form best in alkaline urine and so all foods for cats under the age of 7 years should be designed to help prevent struvite bladder disease by producing fairly acidic urine (pH 6.2-6.4). However, the incidence of struvite bladder disease decreases with increasing age. Cats over the age of 7 years are at a greater risk of FLUTD due to calcium oxalate crystals and stones. These oxalate crystals form better in more acidic urine and so senior cat foods should be designed to produce less acidic urine (pH...
Food allergy or hypersensitivity is an immunological response to one or more dietary proteins. It is considered the third most common skin hypersensitivity disease in dogs and the second most common in cats, accounting for up to 5 of all canine dermatoses and 6 of feline. The prevalence and severity of food hypersensitivity reactions is greatest in younger animals.
The epidermis depends on a supply of essential fatty acids (EFAs) derived either directly from the diet or via synthesis in the liver and transported to the skin in the blood. EFAs have a structural function in the lipoproteins of cell membranes. One of the most important functions of EFAs in the skin is to provide an essential barrier to prevent the loss of water and other nutrients through the epidermis. Linoleic acid must be provided in the diet of dogs and linoleic and arachidonic acids in the diet of cats. Skin changes have been described in dogs and cats with EFA deficiency. Skin abnormalities include
Oh yes I remembered I wanted to get some stuff for the cats - some cat biscuits - here I am in the pet shop - Pet's Parlour - Pet's Pantry - yes. I was asking her for cat cat bisc cat biscuits and cat lit leaves - yes I remember now that I decided to go back. Yes and we had a long chat about how much the cats loved them and I talked to her - oh yes about the scratch mat from America that we got with the corrugated card and how I put the cat lit leaves underneath it and she said she wanted to get some for her shop.
Twenty male Wistar rats 60-120 days old and four young cats, each 1 kg in weight were used in the experiment. The rats received 10 mg horseradish peroxidase (HRP) (Merck) in 1 ml 0.9 NaCl solution by intrapleural application (n 5 after 5 min and n 5 after 10 min) as well as intracardiac injection (n 5 after 5 min and n 5 after 10 min). The cats received HRP by intrapleural injection (two animals with 20 mg in 2 ml 0.9 NaCl) and by intraperitoneal injection (two animals with 40 mg in 4 ml 0.9 NaCl), and the samples were taken 10 min after administration. The blocks (rat and cat pleura of the lung and of the diaphragm, and cat peritoneum of the spleen, intestine, uterus, anterior abdominal wall and diaphragm) were processed by the method of Cotran and Karnovsky (1968) without washing before fixation. The same experimental group involved the material of the ovary surface epithelium of the female newborn guinea pigs. These animals received 3 ml HRP solution at the same concentration as...
Cats are solitary animals with a social structure and are thought to have descended from the African wild cat. Both dogs and cats communicate with others of their species by means of visual, olfactory and vocal behaviour patterns and anyone owning and working with them must learn to understand the visual signals in particular. Handling and restraint of an animal requires knowledge and confidence, which can only be gained by practice.
The domestic dog Canis familiaris is a carnivore and as such is a predator. The link between humans and dogs is thought to have arisen from a predatory link between the species, i.e. they may originally have predated similar species. Dogs and cats evolved from the viverravines and miacines present in the Eocene period about 50 million years ago (see Ch. 16). The dog is a member of the family Canidae, which includes such species as the wolves, jackals, coyote and foxes. As carnivores, they evolved a social structure related to the size of their prey, i.e. solitary species hunt smaller prey than social species, which hunt in groups and can take larger prey.
The main role for cats was as rodent controllers, a role that had already evolved naturally as they are excellent rodent hunters and killers. There was therefore no need to breed selectively for aptitude, leaving only selection for temperament to make the breed more amenable to humans. Different breeds developed in relation to geographical location and climate. For example, the British breeds are stockier, with dense coats, while Asian breeds have a slender frame and thinner coats. Until recently there were only basic genetic differences amongst the breeds but recently, since humans have begun to engineer different breed types and coat colours for the pet market, there has been a dramatic increase in the gene pool, e.g. development of the Bengal cat by cross-breeding with African wild cats.
Cats are described as being solitary animals with an organised social structure that may be due to genetic factors and environmental influence. They are extremely territorial and live in a variety of situations. For behavioural studies they are classified as shown in Table 13.2. Feline territories are divided into two areas a 'core area' and a 'home range'. An individual cat will defend the core area against intruders while the home area is a shared resource that can incorporate a number of cats' hunting grounds. Cat populations vary from single individuals to groups and the size of their area depends on food availability and distribution. Generally there will be a smaller cat population in territories where food is sourced via hunting and an increased population in areas where scavenging complements the prey available. It is theorized that cats surviving entirely on caught prey do not live in groups. Social - includes wrestling, rolling, biting, fighting, etc., and can occur with...
Cats use many methods of communication several of which are able to transmit information over the long distances of the home range. Body posture - a relaxed cat will walk around with its tail down but when greeting other cats or humans to whom it is friendly it will approach with its tail raised (Fig. 13.7). An aggressive cat will hold its tail close to its body while a frightened cat will arch its back and raise its tail. The hairs along the back and covering the tail will be erected to make the animal look larger and more formidable. Clawing and scratching - cats will scratch trees, fence posts and furniture and this may have two functions. Sounds range from miaows, which change according to their demands - some owners claim that their cats talk to them -to loud, carrying yowls, particularly those associated with the queen in season. Purring, usually associated with contentment, may also be a sign of low-grade pain. Cats also use growling and snarling to accompany their threatening...
As cats are small animals one person can usually safely restrain a cat for examination. This can be achieved by placing one hand over the animal's thorax and scruff, with the hand securing the head and neck, while the other arm supports the rear of the cat and holds the body into the handler's chest. If more secure restraint is required, hold the cat to your body using one arm while your hand holds the animal's forelegs, securing them between your fingers to prevent scratching. The other arm and hand is used to restrain the animal's head by placing the thumb upon the caudal skull region, the fore finger on the bridge of the nose and the remaining three fingers under the chin to keep the mouth shut.
Scoville and Milner's 1957 report on H.M. had suggested that, among the structures damaged within the temporal lobe, damage to the hippocampus in particular was responsible for the memory deficit. Therefore, following the initial reports on human amnesia, several laboratories developed procedures for ablation of the hippocampus in rats, as well as cats and rabbits. As was the case with monkeys, the first tests to be employed in examining the effects of hippocampal damage were a variety of simple
Several studies with animals indicate that the frequency of time spent in REM sleep increases as a result of new learning, such as finding the way out of a maze. This relationship is evident in work conducted with cats, mice, rats, and newly hatched chicks. Therefore, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep may play an important role in the consolidation of such cognitive activities as learning, memory, and problem solving for both humans and other organisms that engage in REM sleep.
In cats the orange gene (O) is responsible for the colour of the ginger cat. It is carried on the X chromosome. The O gene eliminates all black or brown pigment from the hairs. A tortoiseshell cat is a female heterozygote Oo. In any cell only one X chromosome functions. Two cell lines develop at random - one with O producing hair with orange pigment and the other with o, allowing normal pigment to colour the hair with whatever the animal has inherited (Fig. 16.8)
Clostridium difficile and toxin B have been demonstrated in gut contents of dogs (pups more commonly than adults) with chronic diarrhea. Infection of the same litter with different toxigenic phenotypes suggests transient infection with different strains.160 Clostridium difficile has also been isolated from camels, horses, donkeys,161 swine,162 dogs and cats (up to 39 prevalence rate),163-165 and other domestic species.166 The importance of domestic animals as sources of infection for humans has not been established.163164
In PKD a large number of fluid-filled cysts form within the kidneys (Feline Advisory Bureau 2004). The cysts are present from birth but increase in size until they damage the surrounding kidney tissue and cause kidney failure (Fig. 16.10). The cat will eventually die, despite supportive treatment. The disease is peculiar to Persian cats and any breed of cat where Persian genes have been included, such as the Tiffany. looking for the presence of cysts. This is best done when the cat is more than 10 months old. An FAB-approved certificate is issued stating the result of the scan for that cat. This enables breeders to make informed decisions about which cats to use for future breeding. Tim Gruffydd-Jones believes that the disorder could be eradicated quickly if all breeders were responsible about testing their cats (personal conversation).
For the last century (Shepherd, 2001). Interestingly, only relatively recent studies started to test this formulation in controlled clinical trials. It was demonstrated that a 2-week intervention based on massed training of the affected arm in patients with chronic stroke resulted in improvements in the amount of use that outlasted the intervention period to a larger extent than a control intervention (Taub et al., 1994 Kunkel et al., 1999 Dromerick et al., 2000 Sterr et al., 2002). A randomized National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS, USA) sponsored multicenter clinical trial is presently under way to test this hypothesis. Other examples of the role of training in neurorehabilitation include the demonstrations that locomotor functions can improve when patients undergo treadmill-training procedures (Colombo et al., 2001 Hobson and Pace-Schott, 2002 Sullivan et al., 2004). The theoretical background of locomotor therapy is based on experiments in spinalized cats...
All pedigree kittens have to be registered with a formal organisation if they are to be sold as pedigree cats, used in a breeding programme or shown. In the UK the Governing Council of the Cat Fancy (GCCF) is the main organisation. Details of the kittens' parents and grandparents, their sex, colour and birth date are recorded.
The understanding of the brain mechanisms that sustain attention and consciousness was also greatly advanced by previous studies showing that electrical stimulation of the brain stem in lightly anesthetized cats produces the electroencephalographic pattern of arousal that is characteristic of attention and alertness 23 . Lesions of the same regions in monkeys also produce various coma-like states that resemble deep sleep. Some of the neural networks that control arousal and attention are embedded in what was initially known as the ascending reticular activating system, shown in Fig. 5.1 23 . In higher animals, including humans, this neuronal network reaches the intralaminar
Depending on the layout and design of a kennel area (see also Ch. 7) cats and small patients such as rabbits, guinea pigs, rats and birds should be housed separately from dogs. Serious thought should be given to the patient's condition and the effect of the external environment around them. For example, a dyspnoeic feline patient should not be placed in the kennel above a barking dog. A recumbent patient should not be hidden away in a kennel on its own but accommodated next
With cats a litter tray may be placed in their cage, which also aids the collection of urine, particularly if it is empty of litter. However, stressed cats can deliberately not urinate and cease to pass urine for long periods of time, so manual palpation to check bladder size is sometimes necessary. Dogs should be taken outside to urinate regularly throughout the day as many will be reluctant to urinate in their kennel. Grass is an ideal substrate to encourage urination and a wall or fence is very helpful when encouraging male dogs.
In cats, the highest levels of total arAR density, labeled with 3H prazosin, were found in laminae II, IX, and X of the cerebral cortex (5). The highest levels of a1A-AR mRNA expression were seen in the olfactory bulb, tenia tectae, horizontal diagonal band magnocellular preoptic area, zona incerta, ventromedial hypothalamus, lateral mammillary nuclei, ventral dentate gyrus, piriform cortex, medial and cortical amygdala, magnocellular red nuclei, pontine nuclei, superior and lateral vestibular nuclei, brain stem reticular nuclei, and several cranial nerve motor nuclei. Using in situ hybridization and combining a probe for choline acetyltransferase mRNA with a probe specific for the a1A-AR, the a1A-AR mRNA was determined to be expressed in cholinergic motor neurons. Prominent a1A-AR signals were also seen in the neocortex, claustrum, lateral amygdala, ventral cochlear nucleus, raphe magnus, and the ventral horn of thoracic spinal cord (6). Consistently, the a1A-AR was primarily...
This method allows administration of fluids into the medullary cavity of a long bone, e.g. the proximal femur or tibia in cats or dogs. It is especially useful in neonates and trauma patients where venous access is fragile or compromised. Absorption of fluids from this route is as rapid as the intravenous route. Placement requires skill and can be painful. Local anaesthetic should always be used in conscious animals. Maintenance of an intraosseous catheter should follow the same strict aseptic technique as intravenous catheter management.
Care must be taken to ensure that no further damage and distress is caused to the patient and that the handler is not injured while attending to it. It is important to talk to the animal, approach it calmly and then restrain it in a suitable manner for example, for cats and small dogs use cages or baskets, for larger dogs attach a lead or loop it around the neck so that it cannot escape and further injure itself. All cages and baskets must be escape-proof and provide ventilation for the patient. A muzzle may be necessary for some dogs and a soft muzzle made from a bandage is often the best in these situations (see also Ch. 13).
If the coat or skin is contaminated then it should be washed as soon as possible. This is a problem in cats, as they hate being bathed and many poisons are toxic to cats. If necessary they should be anaesthetized for the procedure. Keep under observation during recovery and take steps that the heat source used to dry the coat does not burn them
Treatment Antibiotics, fluid therapy and good nursing to include ensuring that the animal's airways are patent. Encourage the animal to eat, using odourous foods or by placement of a naso-oesophageal tube if anorexic. It is important to remember that cats will not eat if they cannot smell the food. Prevention Annual vaccination. Owners should ensure that the boarding cattery they use has strict procedures for vaccination and isolation. Sneezing cats should be isolated immediately or discharged if there is no secondary infection evident.
Pathogenesis Virus replicates in the oropharynx and related lymph tissues, leading to viraemia. Some animals may recover but in others the virus will further replicate in the lymph nodes and bone marrow. Some cats have a latent infection others will be persistently viraemic and continue to shed the virus in their saliva. Treatment There is no known cure. As infected cats shed the virus they are a continual threat to others and euthanasia may be the best option.
This procedure is used in some cases of chronic ear infection in which the vertical canal has become chronically inflamed and narrowed. In this situation it is important that owners do not believe that this will provide a miracle cure for their animal - usually it just makes treatment of the underlying condition easier and allows air to circulate in the ear canal. Another indication for this surgery is an animal with polyps or a tumour affecting just the vertical canal. It is more commonly carried out in dogs than cats, particularly animals with 'floppy' ears where air circulation is reduced and infection more likely, e.g. labradors and spaniels.
The animal should be monitored for signs of haemor-hage or swelling at the operation site. Dogs should be discouraged from licking, as this can cause complications, and it may be necessary to use an Elizabethan collar to prevent this. Since cats do not have any external sutures they may not need to return to the surgery, but most other species will require suture removal after about 10 days.
This method works by bypassing the anatomical dead space, i.e. the nasal chambers, pharynx, larynx and trachea and allows continuous oxygen delivery at low flow rates. These catheters are placed between the fourth and fifth cartilaginous rings following full surgical preparation. A hole is made that is slightly larger than the catheter to be used. Select a large-bore, long, soft, preferably silicone catheter - it is preferable to fenestrate the end before application, which reduces the risk of jet damage. Place the needle of the catheter between the two cartilaginous rings in dogs and through the cricothyroid ligament in cats and small dogs. Feed the catheter through to the level of the fifth intercostal space. Withdraw the needle and, if appropriate, cover it with a needle guard and secure it to the animal's neck with a bandage. Connect the end of the catheter to a humidified oxygen source. This is a cheaper method of delivering oxygen as low flow rates are used. It is generally well...
Saint-Exupery as a boy was wild and fearless, fond of violent games in which he tyrannized over others. Edison was always getting into scrapes because of his inquisitiveness. One day, he attached wires to two large cats and then attempted to rub them vigorously to produce static electricity. The scratches and claw marks he got were deep. Rachmaninoff's favorite sport was to jump on and offhorse-driven streetcars in motion, even in winter on icy pavement.
Accurate interpretations of movements being voluntary and centrally driven are further questionable in light of the fact that full weight-bearing overground locomotion can be performed in cats after the cerebral cortex has been removed (Bard and Macht, 1958). Even in non-human primates, it is clear that the corticospinal tract (CST) does not have to be intact for an animal to generate locomotion (Vilensky et al., 1992). On the other hand it is quite clear that the descending input from the brainstem plays a very critical role in the control of posture and locomotion (Orlovsky et al., 1999). However, the brainstem is not an essential source of control to stand or to step, even in humans. Following SCI the ability to stand and maintain equilibrium is a highly desirable accomplishment. It is somewhat surprising that this motor task has received relatively little attention given the clear demonstration of the ability of the spinal cord to sustain a standing position simply by placing...
Thus, better taxonomies of fearful states need to be developed. Fear can be evoked by (i) painful stimuli, (ii) by cues previously associated with aversive stimuli, (iii) by various nonpainful but potentially dangerous stimuli that have reflected the high probability of threat in the evolutionary history of a species (e.g., smell of cats for rats), and perhaps (iv) even certain frustrating events, such as the delay of expected rewards. These types of animal models, each of which may have distinct cognitive and motivational modulatory controls, are differentially sensitive to antianx-iety drug manipulations. Because of the number of existing models, which parse the emotional dimension of fearfulness in different ways, the existing anxiety models in the behavioral literature often give the impression of being unintegrated, indeed, chaotic.
Very powerful and predictable. Lasts for 3-4 h. Sedative effect except in high doses in cats, where it may cause excitement. Slower elimination in cats because of lack of liver glucuronidation Lasts for 2 h. Ten per cent of the strength of morphine. Has vagolytic effects. Can be used to provide additional analgesia to supplement that provided by drugs that are mixed agonists. Excellent for gastrointestinal surgery and pancreatitis Not licensed for cats and dogs. Less potent than morphine. Lasts for 2 h. Excellent sedative, especially if combined with acetylpromazine Moderate analgesia. Less sedation and more dysphoria Rapid onset. 50 times as potent as morphine. Lasts for 20-30 min, so used during an operation. Can cause respiratory depression so IPPV may be needed. Combined with fluanisone as a neuroleptic anaesthetic. Not licensed in cats and dogs. 12 times as potent as morphine. Very rapid effect. Apnoea may occur with clinical dose - use in...
A commonly used combination, especially in cats, where the intramuscular route is useful in fractious patients. This can provide light chemical restraint up to full general anaesthesia depending on the dose. For example, ketamine 5 mg kg + medetomidine 0.05 mg kg i.m. provides adequate anaesthesia for minor procedures. Ketamine 5-10 mg kg + medetomidine 0.05-0.08 mg kg + buprenorphine 0.01 mg kg provides adequate anaesthesia for routine neutering.
A young man arrested and jailed in connection with an apparent homicide was referred for a forensic consultation to address competency to stand trial and the need for psychiatric hospitalization. Anamnesis revealed that he did not have a significant history of assaulting people. However, he had tortured and killed cats and dogs over the years for sadistic pleasure. Close relatives confirmed cruelty to animals. He explained the homicide as an extension of his acts of cruelty to animals, motivated by pleasure, not by passion or personal gain. Diagnoses included antisocial personality disorder and malingering. On the basis of these diagnoses, hospitalization was not recommended.
Allergic conjunctivitis is frequently found in pediatric patients and adults. It is usually seasonal, most often the spring and fall. Although often associated with allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis may occur without systemic symptoms. There is an increase in itching, redness, and swelling, which is variable from day to day. Seasonal allergic conjunctivitis is related to tree and grass pollens, each of which has a distinct season and severity. The condition may be asymmetric. Chronic allergic conjunctivitis is most often related to various indoor allergens, including dust mites, animal dander, molds, and cockroaches. Cats are especially irritating to the eye for the allergic patient.
There have been a handful of reports of survivors, but even the most intensive supportive care is generally futile, and there are no specific drugs or other therapies. Prevention is the only solution. Vaccinating dogs and cats, controlling strays, monitoring wildlife populations, and education are all essential. A preexposure human vaccine is available for persons at special risk, such as game wardens, veterinarians, and laboratory workers. This scheme was not adopted, but some important experiments were undertaken in the 1790s and the first two decades of the 1800s. The prominent English physician John Hunter proposed saliva inoculation experiments in 1793 and in 1799. An Italian investigator, Eusebio Valli, claimed that the virus in saliva was made less virulent by gastric juice from frogs. He did not, however, publish his results, and his work seems to have had little impact. The first saliva inoculation experiments are credited to the German investigator Georg Gottfried Zinke, who...
Urine is the best sample to collect for lesions low in the urethral tract, e.g. urethral plugs, uroliths and bacteria however, this fraction is the most likely to be contaminated. End stream is the best to collect for examination for prostatic disease or for haemorrhage or sediment that might have collected on the floor of the bladder. However, the practicalities of obtaining the last two types of sample are difficult, to say the least In the case of dogs, a well-cleaned container should be used to collect the sample, then it should be transferred to a sterile container. Commercial sterile collection kits are available, e.g. Uripet. Cats are more problematic but again commercial kits are available, which involve using a litter tray with an inert substrate from which the urine can be obtained. Manual expression - this is convenient provided the bladder contains sufficient urine to be isolated manually on palpation of the abdomen. However, if strong resistance is encountered care must...
In similar fashion, Trichophyton ferrugineum established itself in western parts of Russia after introduction by troops from the Far East. Classical favus in Western Europe is caused by Trichophyton schoenleinii, but in North Africa and the Mediterranean by Trichophyton vio-laceum. Microsporum canis (tinea canis cat and dog ringworm , tinea capitis, and tinea corporis), coextensive with dogs and cats as pets, has become endemic in New Zealand in feral cats. Human infections are also contracted from cattle (Trichophyton verrucosum), horses, and other farm animals. Microsporum gypseum has a worldwide distribution, but outbreaks in humans are usually short-lived.
Animal models of neurological deficits are essential for the assessment of new therapeutic options for stroke. While most studies of stroke and recovery have been conducted in rodents (primarily rats and mice), other models have been developed in larger species (e.g., monkeys, cats, rabbits, etc). The advantages and disadvantages are summarized as below.
Council Regulation (EEC) N. 2377 90 as a substance that does not need an MRL level. Gaultheria procumbens should not to be used as flavoring in pet food since salicylates are toxic to dogs and cats. As cats metabolize salicylates much more slowly than other species, they are more likely to be overdosed. Use of methylsalicylate in combination with anticoagulants such as warfarin can result in adverse interactions and bleedings (Chow et al., 1989 Ramanathan, 1995 Tam et al., 1995 Yip et al., 1990).
In similar fashion, Trichophyton ferrugineum established itself in western parts of the Soviet Union, after being introduced by soldiers returning from the Far East. Classical favus in western Europe is caused by Trichophyton schoenleinii, but typically by Trichophyton violaceum in North Africa and the Mediterranean basin. Microsporum canis (tinea canis cat and dog ringworm , tinea capitis, and tinea corporis), coextensive with cats and dogs as pets, has become endemic in New Zealand in feral cats. Human infections are also contracted by contact with ringworm in cattle (Trichophyton verru-cosum), horses, and other farm animals. Mi-crosporum gypseum (which could be considered as an opportunistic dermatophyte) has a worldwide distribution, the outbreaks in humans usually being sporadic, short-lived, and sometimes traceable to a group of people having access to the same soil in which the pathogen is an inhabitant.
To determine how the different electrical properties of the PNS affected the localization of a peripheral nerve, the peripheral nerve stimulators were used in the laboratory to locate a peripheral nerve in an anesthetized cat. Six cats of either sex weighing between 2.5 kg and 3.5 kg were used for this study. The cats were obtained from Kaiser Lake, St. Paris, Ohio, and housed in the Department of Laboratory Animal Medicine until used. On the day of the experiment, the cat was given 100 mg of ketamine and 0.1 mg of atropine intramuscularly. After the appropriate areas for surgery were shared, the cat was intubated and placed on a respirator. Anesthesia was maintained with 0.2 to 0.5 methoxyflurane, 67 N2 O, and the balance of O2 . Venous and arterial lines were established in the external jugular vein and carotid artery, respectively. Blood pressure and heart rate were monitored continuously. Blood gases were taken every 60 minutes to ensure that normal acid-base status was maintained.
The BNB delimits the endoneurial microenvironment of the peripheral nervous system (PNS), a space that extends from the proximal root attachment zones of cranial and spinal nerves to the distal sensory and motor end-organs. Numerous studies in a variety of species, including rats, mice, rabbits, cats, dogs, humans, and frogs have demonstrated that nerve fascicles and the endoneur-ial compartment therein are anatomically circumscribed by a connective tissue ensheathment within which and through which travel the anastomosing plexuses of the vasa nervorum. With a few important exceptions that may be a consequence of the
An alternative treatment strategy is based on the idea that intraspinal transplants of brainstem mono-aminergic neurons important for the control of locomotor and autonomic function can enhance recovery by replacing depleted neurotransmitters that activate intrinsic spinal cord circuits. A similar rationale led to treating patients with Parkinson's disease with fetal substantia nigra tissue transplanted into an ectopic location in the caudate or putamen. Exogenous administration of serotonin agonists to walking spinal cats has been shown to increase the duration and amplitude of hind limb flexor and extensor electromyographic (EMG) activity and noradrenergic agonists have been shown to initiate locomotion and increase the duration of the step cycle (reviewed by Barbeau and Rossignol (1991)) (see Volume I, Chapter 13). Evidence acquired over 15 years, has demonstrated that grafts of embryonic locus coeruleus cells, a source of noradrenergic neurons, and raphe cells, a source of...
Species variation must also be taken into account when considering drug metabolism. Most notably, cats do not possess the ability to conjugate certain drugs and so elimination from the body is slowed. This increases the likelihood of toxicity in this species from drugs that are well tolerated in other species.
Rabies occurs in Africa, Asia, the Americas, and most of Europe. It has never occurred in, or has been eliminated from, Britain, Ireland, Sweden, Norway, Japan, Australia, New Zealand, Hawaii, and many islands in the Pacific and Caribbean. Rabies is a disease of wild carnivores, particularly canids such as foxes, wolves, jackals, and coyotes. Skunks and raccoons are also common hosts, as are bats. Virtually any mammal can contract the disease when bitten by an infected animal. Domestic dogs are the major threat to humans cats are a growing danger in North America. Cattle, horses, sheep, and other livestock may also be affected, but bovine rabies and equine rabies usually pose little danger for humans. In the wild, rabies tends to occur in irregular waves and may spread over thousands of miles in a few decades. Control of rabies by population reduction is generally unsuccessful, and vaccines for wild mammals are still experimental. Monitoring reservoir hosts can alert public-health...
Cutaneous larva migrans is caused by animal hookworms, commonly the dog parasites Ancylostoma braziliense or Ancylostoma caninum. The creeping eruption occurs when the skin comes in direct and prolonged contact with the hookworm larva contained in the feces of dogs, cats, or humans. Moist areas visited by the infected animals, such as beaches or exposed soil covered by porches, are common sites for acquiring infection. The clinical appearance is that of a raised, serpiginous, erythematous, pruritic eruption, and it represents the paths of migration within the epidermis. Because the organism lacks collagenase and cannot disrupt the basement membrane, the parasite is unable to invade the dermis. The lesions migrate about 1 to 2 cm per day and may evolve into bullae. Topical application of thiabendazole is the treatment, although the infection is usually self-limited. Figure 20-80 shows the sole of a foot of an infected 31-year-old man after a beach vacation in Jamaica.
His work steadily progressed, however, and by 1939, Gibbon reported at the annual meeting of the American Association for Thoracic Surgery that three cats whose circulation had been totally supported by the heart-lung machine had survived more than nine months after the surgery. Dr. Clarence Crafoord, chief of thoracic surgery at the prestigious Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, said Gibbon's report was a pinnacle of success in the progress of surgery. Dr. Leo Eloesser, a prominent chest surgeon from San Francisco, said the work reminded him of Jules Verne's dreamlike visions, regarded as impossible at the time but later actually accomplished.
Into extension is another critical element for the swing phase. These details have been appreciated in studies of spinal transected cats and patients with complete SCI (see Chapter 1 and Fig. 1-6). For all patients, practice in rhythmic, symmetrical stance and swing phases of stepping is engrained by the moving treadmill belt. Several theoretical benefits of an approach such as BWSTT are worth further study. In experiments with the cats after a low thoracic spinalization, locomotion was enhanced by treadmill training and adversely affected by a program of postural training for standing without stepping.153,154 In neurologically impaired individuals, initial gait training, as a practical matter, is preceded by therapeutic exercise aimed at obtaining postural stability. This standing regimen could in theory depress locomotor capability. Typical physical therapy proceeds beyond standing only if the patient has the strength required for weight shifting and stepping.
The first thing that I noticed upon entering Kathy's house was the number of cats that she possessed. There must have been at least half a dozen of different breeds roaming about the house. As I began the session, the cats began climbing all over me, trying to take the pen from my hand. This was becoming a distraction so I asked Kathy if it was possible to use a room where the cats would not disturb us. Unfortunately Kathy was unable to feel comfortable without the cats, so they became a permanent fixture during our sessions.
Scientific research has established that pet owners not only have fewer minor health problems and visit doctors less but they also have a higher rate of survival following coronary heart disease. The most obvious health benefit to dog owners is that they are motivated to take regular exercise out of duty to their pet. However, the benefits of pets to human health are not just limited to dogs and at a nursing conference held in May 2004 (Frith 2004), cats, ferrets and parrots were included in a request by a psychologist to make registered pets available on prescription to those recovering from serious illness or surgery. Research presented by McNicholas
A significant proportion of hospitalized geriatric patients will be suffering with one or more conditions so the history is a significant factor when formulating a nursing plan. Part of the treatment will be achieved through effective dietary management. Common examples include elderly dogs with heart disease or old cats with renal or hepatic disease (see Ch. 11). Obesity may also be a problem, particularly in geriatric dogs, who usually take less exercise but their owners continue feeding the same amount and type of food the patient was fed when it was 2 years old. The energy requirements of a senior dog are approximately 20 less than its younger counterpart (McCune 1999). In some cases, owners in fact increase the food as a loving gesture The resultant problems include the onset of joint disease such as arthritis, which, although a common condition in geriatrics, may be exacerbated by extra weight and strain on the joints. In general, a reduced-calorie, highly digestible and...
The session began with a review of the homework. Kathy had read the leaflets and decided that there were quite a few symptoms of schizophrenia that she did not know about and it might have helped had these been explained when she first became ill. The cats remained a nuisance, but Kathy explained that they kept the agent mice away from her in the corner of the room.
Sequential PET studies of CBF, CMRO2 and CMRGlc before and repeatedly up to 24 hours after MCA occlusion in cats could demonstrate the development and growth of irreversible ischemic damage. Immediately after MCA occlusion CBF within the supplied territory dropped, but CMRO2 was less diminished and was preserved at an intermediate level. As a consequence, OEF was increased, indicating misery perfusion, i.e. penumbra tissue. With time,
Transorbital middle cerebral artery occlusion this model was introduced in the seventies for the production of stroke in monkeys 39 , and later modified for use in cats, dogs, rabbits and even rats. The procedure is technically demanding and requires microsurgical skills. The advantage of this approach is the possibility of exposing the middle cerebral artery at its origin from the internal carotid artery without retracting parts of the brain. Vascular occlusion can thus be performed without the risk of brain trauma. On the other hand, removal of the eyeball is invasive and may evoke functional disturbances which should not be ignored. Surgery may also
Cat bites are the second most common animal bite, most often occurring in women and elderly individuals. Most involve the hand. Because cats have long, thin teeth that cause puncture wounds, their bites are more likely to become infected than a dog bite. Approximately 50 of cat bites become infected.48,49
Campylobacter jejuni is the most commonly identified bacterial cause of diarrhea worldwide. The organism accounts for 2.1 to 2.4 million cases of illness in the United States each year. Risk factors for Campylobacter infection include consumption of chicken, sausage, red meat, and contaminated water foreign travel receipt of an antimicrobial agent household exposure to chickens and contact with pets (especially birds and cats). Between 25 and 50 of C. jejuni infections in the United States appear to be related to chicken exposure or consumption.
T. cruzi is the agent that causes American trypanosomiasis. American trypanosomiasis is transmitted by a number of species of reduviid bugs (Triatoma infestans and Rhodrium prolixus) that live in wall cracks of houses in rural areas of North, Central, and South America.75-79 The reduviid bug is infected by sucking blood from animals (e.g., opossums, dogs, and cats) or humans infected with circulating trypomastig-otes. American trypanosomiasis is endemic in all Latin American countries and can be transmitted congenitally, by blood transfusion, and by organ transplantation.
Rabies occurs in most of the world, including Africa, Asia, the Americas, and most of Europe. It has never occurred in, or has been eliminated from, Britain, Ireland, Sweden, Norway, Japan, Australia, New Zealand, Hawaii, and many other islands in the Pacific and the Caribbean. Rabies is primarily a disease of wild carnivores, particularly canids such as the fox, wolf, jackal, and coyote. Skunks and raccoons are also common hosts, as are many species of bats. Virtually any species of mammal can contract the disease when bitten by an infected animal. Domestic dogs are the major threat to humans cats are a growing danger in North America. Cattle, horses, sheep, and other livestock may also be affected. Outbreaks among farm animals may cause considerable economic loss, but bovine or equine rabies usually poses little danger for humans.
The cortex is not necessary for ordinary walking in laboratory animals such as cats. It is necessary for skilled walking, for example, when the cat must place its feet precisely such as when walking on the rungs of a horizontal ladder. Similarly, in humans, the frontal motor areas are presumed to be involved in precise locomotion such as walking on uneven surfaces, avoiding obstacles on the ground, and dancing.
The occurrence of spongiform encephalopathy extends well beyond the confines of human medicine. Ever since the early eighteenth century, a spongiform illness called scrapie has been known to affect sheep and goats, and in past decades similar diseases have been identified in mink, cats, and ungulates, most recently as the cause of a dramatic epidemic of spongiform encephalopathy in British cattle. The disease in each of these species appears to have resulted from the contamination of animal feed with meat and bone meal processed from scrapie-infected sheep carcasses, and there is mounting evidence that a small but increasing number of British cases with new variant CJD are due to a further species-jumping transmission to humans, presumably from BSE-contaminated beef products. Apart from these cases, CJD in humans may be broadly categorized as sporadic (for which no evident cause can be determined), familial (associated with mutations in the PRNP gene), and iatrogenic (caused by...
The neuroanatomic structures related to human mood, emotion, and thought function are complex, and research in this area is still under development. The association of various brain regions with particular functions is based primarily on studies of lesions and, more recently, on functional neuroimaging. Although generalizations based on these isolated cases are somewhat precarious, extended observations based on series of cases are somewhat more reliable. Additionally, although the findings of animal studies are highly reproducible, they do not necessarily apply to human behavior. 4 Early experiments on dogs and other animals demonstrated that decortication produced rage behavior when the animal was presented with previously nonthreatening stimuli. Later work in cats showed the importance of an intact diencephalon (thalamus and hypothalamus)
Especially when mixed with ethanol (Falk-Filipsson et al., 1993). Lastly, cats and dogs are very susceptible to insecticides and baths containing d-limonene, giving rise to neurological symptoms including ataxia, stiffness, apparent severe CNS depression, tremors, and coma (von Burg, 1995 see also Beasley, 1999).
The fact that many of the fatal and debilitating diseases to which cats and dogs can succumb are relatively rare is entirely due to vaccination programmes. Unfortunately many pet owners do not realise this and do not understand that immunity can only be maintained through booster vaccinations. It is the job of veterinary staff to educate their clients in this subject and to encourage them by incorporating free health checks and sending booster reminders. Particular care should be taken in ensuring that pets entering boarding establishments and breeding bitches and queens are up to date with their vaccinations.
One entire female cat can be responsible for 20 000 offspring over 5 years (Jevring & Catanzaro 1999), based on the principle that each female has two litters of six kittens a year including two queens. Animal rescue organisations are inundated with unwanted companion animals and neutering is an important aspect of animal welfare. Another reason for neutering is the prevention of hormone-related diseases such as pyometra, mammary tumours and testicular tumours. Cats and dogs can be neutered for behavioural reasons and, although it is not always the antidote for aggression in dogs, it can help to modify other unwanted sex-related behaviour. Cats and dogs are less likely to wander in search of females in oestrus, thus preventing straying and road-traffic accidents. Cats in particular are prone to fighting when entire, and neutering will prevent the spread of diseases such as feline virus leukaemia. There are many myths about neutering born through people's tendency to anthropomorphize,...
Feral dogs and cats have had a considerable impact on the wildlife population and may be partly responsible for the extinction of some species (CCS 1988), but it is not only wandering dogs and cats that affect the ecology. Pet rabbits released into the wild have destroyed the habitat of burrow nesting seabirds such as puffins. Colonies of parakeets are almost commonplace in parts of London and the south-east and terrapins were commonly released into waters in the UK following the fad for 'ninja turtles'. It is unlikely that the terrapins would survive long enough to have a severe impact on British wildlife and no one is yet sure whether the parakeets are causing damage however, the disappearance of the red squirrel following the introduction of the grey squirrel into Great Britain shows how a non-indigenous species can upset the ecology.
Inconsistency between history and injury was frequently mentioned in Munro and Thrusfield's (2001) report. Clients reported that children had dropped their animals, the pet had lain too close to a fire or the pet had fallen and, as one veterinary surgeon remarked, cats do not fall downstairs. Another respondent described how the injuries of a cat were consistent with those that might be sustained in a road-traffic accident but during a further consultation the respondent discovered that the cat was not allowed outside. The history can be considered as suspect when it changes in telling by different people.
The spinal organization of force field modules may provide a basis for computational flexibility even when a stroke or SCI interrupts descending influences on the cord. In this circumstance, segmental afferent activity may become a more dominant input for resculpting locomotor or reaching activity. For walking, the details of experiential practice in cats and rats198 and in humans174,179,195,199 are critical for improving reciprocal stepping. As noted earlier, important sensory inputs relate to the rate and degree of hip extension, the level of limb weight bearing, the timing of interlimb movements and of shifts in bearing weight at the transition between stance and swing, and the speed of walking. Such inputs, provided repetitively, may activate any conserved organization of primitives and CPG circuitry of the cord and provide a clinical benefit (see Chapters 6 and 9). This sensory information also activates and reorganizes spared cortical and subcortical assemblies of motoneurons...
The species of domestic animals most commonly affected are cattle, sheep, and goats pigs, dogs, and cats are less susceptible. An enlarged spleen is a classic observation in animals with anthrax, thus the disease has also been known as splenic fever or splenic apoplexy. In humans, the cutaneous form is known as malignant pustule, and the pulmonary or intestinal (industrial) type as woolsorters' disease or industrial anthrax. In French, the equivalent of splenic fever is sang de rate, in German Milzbrand other French synonyms include charbon and pustule maligne.
One of the factors which distinguish the different breeds of both dogs and cats is their coat type and this must be taken into account when starting to groom them (Tables 9.1, 9.2). If a more uncommon breed of dog or cat with a more specialized type of coat is presented then an experienced dog groomer should be contacted.
Experiments were carried out on 50 Wistar rats (20 young adult males and 30 female, aged between 60 and 120 days), weighing about 200 g each. A rat is a standard laboratory animal that can be used as a convenient experimental model for investigating the mammalian SM to answer basic morphological questions. It was chosen as representative of mammals mainly because (a) the lungs represent a typical example of the thin type of pleura (b) the lack of detailed information about the pleura and pericardium as compared with the relatively complete characteristic of the peritoneal covering (c) in contrast to the peritoneum, observations about the pleura maybe interpreted as a more suitable model as the pleural cavity has a simple relief with only one visceral covering over the lung (d) morphologic changes have a diffuse character over organs of the entire thoracic half, which is close to the clinic practice (e) clear definition and easy accessibility for experimental studies. For comparison...
The 11th amino acid that is essential for cats only is called taurine. Inadequate taurine in the diet of cats can cause irreversible blindness and heart problems. Plant proteins do not contain taurine. The only source of taurine is animal protein, providing evidence that the cat is an obligate carnivore. not in cats and so it must be present in the diet of the cat. Arachidonic acid is only found in fats of animal origin. Linolenic acid is synthesized from linoleic acid by both dogs and cats. Therefore neither species requires linolenic acid in dietary fat.
Dietary fibre, or roughage, consists of a group of indigestible polysaccharides such as cellulose, lignin and pectin. They are the main constituents of plant cell walls and are relatively indigestible within the gut of dogs and cats. In these species the role of fibre in the diet is to provide bulk to the faeces, regularizing bowel movements and helping to prevent constipation and diarrhoea. Fibre also has therapeutic uses in the treatment of fibre-responsive diseases. Since fibre is largely indigestible it decreases the energy content of the diet and so has a role in the correction and prevention of obesity.
Although the most frequently isolated pathogen related to dog and cat bite wounds is Pasteurella multocida, the array of potential organisms is much greater. Anaerobes such as Bacteroides tectum, Prevotella spp., fusobacteria, and pepto-streptococci can be isolated from animal bite wounds 75 of the time, mostly from wounds with abscess formation. Capnocytophaga canimorsus has also been associated with fatal infection from fulminant sepsis in asplenic patients. Wounds inflicted by cats are often scratches or tiny punctures located on the extremity and are likely to become infected and lead to abscess formation.
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