Develop Charisma and Become More Likable

Likeability Blueprint

Have you ever wondered why more people don't like you as much as you feel they should? Are you a nice person that simply doesn't get the attention and love from other people that you should? Believe it or not, this is not your fault, and it's nothing about you! All you have to do is find the method to use with people to make them like you, and have NO idea why they like you so much. The method is called Automagnetism. Automagnetism is the way that you carry yourself that suggests things to people's minds that makes them like you without ever knowing way. You will be able to set yourself apart once you use the Likeability Blueprint; people won't know what hit them! All that it takes is a little bit of solid effort, and you can be on your way to getting people all over the place to like you! Read more...

Likeability Blueprint Summary


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Physical Appearance

Holt-Oram syndrome is a distinctive physical appearance that heightens suspicion of an ostium secundum atrial septal defect (Figs. 15-15 and 15-16). The thumb is hypoplastic with an accessory phalanx that results in triphalangism and a crooked appearance and difficulty in apposition of thumb to fingertips. The abnormality becomes more obvious when the palms are supinated (Fig. 15-15). The thumb may be rudimentary or absent. and the metacarpal bone may be small or absent with hypoplasia extending to the radius (Fig. 15-16). The bony anomaly ranges from minor changes perceptible only on x-ray to

Universal Aesthetic of Creativity

More than 250 years ago, William Hogarth attempted to develop a universal set of aesthetic criteria for judging the beauty of artistic products, and concluded that there are six central qualities (1) harmony among the parts of a work (2) variety in as many ways as possible (3) uniformity, regularity or symmetry, which is only beautiful when it helps to preserve the harmony in (1) (4) simplicity or distinctness, which gives pleasure not in itself but by enabling a beholder to enjoy the work's variety (5) intricacy, which makes it necessary for the beholder to think actively about the work and (6) quantity or magnitude, which captures beholders' attention and produces admiration and awe. More recently, however, in a famous and frequently cited essay in the area of art criticism, Clement Greenberg argued that each art form has its own system for the judgment of aesthetics. This issue of domain specificity versus generality has been discussed in a more general way by various writers such...

Starchitects and Other Practitioners

Starchitects are definitely among the most creative of architects. Their creativity rests primarily on exceptional originality, whereas in terms of practicality they do not necessarily achieve better results than other good architects. In fact, sometimes there are serious functional flaws in their buildings (the Sydney Opera House by Jorn Utzon, completed in 1973, is an example). But striking, original forms are received with so much admiration by the public at large that functional flaws are often met with forgiveness. In this respect, architecture occupies possibly a unique position as far as the balance of novelty and effectiveness in creativity is concerned, and in that it is closer to the visual arts. The Sydney Opera House cannot carry out the function that those who commissioned and paid for it envisaged (the staging of large-scale opera productions). However, because it looks beautiful this flaw is forgiven (by contrast, it is impossible to imagine public acclaim being given

History of Chiropractic

B.J., as he is invariably referred to, was D. D. Palmer's son. When the elder Palmer was jailed in 1906 for violating the medical practice law, B.J. took over the reigns of the Palmer School of Chiropractic (P.S.C.). Under his charismatic leadership both the school in Davenport, Iowa, and the general focus of chiropractic expanded enormously. B.J. began to market this system of healing aggressively, and enrollment at the PS.C. increased from a trickle, to a stream, to a flood. There had been a total of 15 graduates in the decade before B.J. inherited the school. Starting in 1921 the PS.C. graduated more than 1,000 students per year. Although the number of graduates soon declined into the hundreds, the Palmer School remained a major chiropractic institution throughout B.J.'s career.

Stereotypes and Emotional Reactions

Specific affective reactions to groups may also be a function of the way groups are stereotyped. Fiske, Cuddy, Glick, and Xu (2002) found that stereotypes are represented by separate dimensions associated with competence and warmth. Groups that are perceived as high in competence but low in warmth (e.g., rich people) tend to evoke envy, whereas those high in competence and high in warmth (e.g., Black professionals) produce admiration. Among groups viewed as low in competence, those who are high in warmth (e.g., elderly people) are associated with pity, whereas those also low in warmth (e.g., poor Black people) generate contempt.

Joining the Impressionists

Looking back at Cassatt's bravery in joining the Impressionists, the art critic Gustav Geffroy said in 1893 that Miss Mary Cassatt, though, has not gone the way of fashion, of the popular styles, of success, for she has gone to the disparaged Impressionists. He continued in his admiration, stating, A similarity of vision determined this choice, and this vision has expanded, has become increasingly searching, this strong-willed woman has truly learned to paint. Other American women painting in Paris at the time such as Elizabeth Gardner and Mary MacMonnies remained within the academic establishment and continued showing at the Paris Salon. While both of them had success during their lifetimes, their posthumous reputations have greatly diminished. In contrast, Cassatt rejected academic art and the Salon saying, I had already recognized who were my true masters. I admired Manet, Courbet, and Degas. I hated conventional art. I began to live.

Family Responsibilities

In 1884 Cassatt and her parents moved into an apartment at 14 Rue Pierre Charron that had room for Cassatt's studio. Three years later, they moved again, this time to an apartment and studio on rue Marignan near the Champs-Elysees that had an elevator and central heating, amenities that were a great help to her aging parents. Cassatt maintained this residence for the rest of her life. In 1891, her father died at age 85 and Cassatt nursed him in his failing health, as she had done with her sister Lydia and would do in her mother's final illness and death in 1895. Cassatt's admiration for her mother was evident in the portraits she painted of her, such as Reading Le Figaro, 1877-1878, which shows an intelligent strong looking woman reading the newspaper. The health problems in her elderly parents brought out a very nurturing aspect in Cassatt. This capacity for caring affected the imagery of Cassatt's work, resulting in a greater closeness between mother and child as in the pastel...

Degas and the Creative Imagination

Both Cassatt and Degas remained unmarried for their entire lives and despite her love and admiration for him it is unlikely that their relationship was sexual. We cannot know this for certain because Cassatt destroyed all her letters from Degas before she died and most of her letters to him were lost. Instead, their connection was most likely one of inspiration and desire channeled into art. Taking a Freudian point of view, Zerbe believes that Cassatt's paintings represent an unconscious desire to have Degas' child as well as being her own symbolic offspring. Even if they have biological children, it is very common for artists to consider the products of their creativity as children. Throughout the ages, artists such as Michelangelo have regarded their creative works as their children and Freud noted this phenomenon. This parental view of creativity is not exclusive to visual artists. The writer Charles Dickens said his favorite child was David Copperfield, the hero of his novel by...

Theoretical Perspectives

Collaborative circles provide the context to explore new ideas, and they protect participants from pressures toward conformity. Farrell also sees a role for charismatic leaders whose vision and impact help cement shared visions, but such leadership functions within a group that strives to attain relative equality, trading on each other's particular resources. Farrell identifies a sequence of stages the formation stage where members who have similar interests coalesce. The next, the rebellion stage is one where a dense network of participants focus on a charismatic leader. During the following quest stage, the circle's own vision is developed as different members assume roles which contribute to articulating the circle's shared perspective. Subsequently, in the creative work stage participants work in pairs as well as in a group and individually. Pairing is governed by the perception of equity between partners there is a sense that each gets a fair share of the rewards and costs. The...

Modernity Consciousness And Emotion

And locates itself in modern consumer society.28 These include alignment with greed and acquisition motivations, superficial idealization of consumer heroes and celebrities, attention to externally manufactured needs and desires, precedence of physical appearance over inner values, commodified social relations, frenzied consumption, and the entertainment of unreality.

Influences of Directional Outcome Motivation

Sires for positive views of themselves (and certain well-liked others) have also been found to influence their use of stored knowledge in memory such as the selective activation of concepts and recall of events that support these views. These phenomena are exemplified in a series of studies by Santioso, Kunda, and Fong (1990). Participants in these studies read fictitious articles revealing that either introverts or extroverts tend to have more academic and professional success. Following this, individuals who believed that introversion was linked to success were more likely to recall, and were faster to recall, autobiographical instances of introverted behaviors than extroverted behaviors. The opposite pattern of results was found for individuals who believed that extroversion was linked to success.

Narcissistic Personality Disorder

This is a pervasive pattern of grandiosity, lack of empathy, and hypersensitivity to others' evaluations and self-criticism. Despite outward success, self-esteem tends to be fragile and there is a need for constant admiration. Despite fantasies of beauty, brilliance, and success, genuine pleasure is rarely acceptable since these feelings of grandiosity may lead to exaggerated feelings of failure.

Ella Fitzgerald The Life

Chick Webb was a rising jazz drummer and band leader in the Harlem clubs and theaters. His group played mostly instrumentals and he realized he had to have a singer to be more popular with audiences. He hired Charles Linton, who soon got an offer to join the singing group, the Ink Spots. Webb noticed that other bands were able to charge more because they had good looking female singers. He asked Linton to try to find him a female singer. Linton asked around, and one of his female friends mentioned the singer who had won at the Apollo, whom he could find on 125th street singing and dancing on the sidewalk. When Linton brought her to Webb, Webb said, You're not puttin' that on my bandstand. No, no, no. (Nicholson, interview with Linton, p. 35). Linton threatened to quit and Webb relented, letting Ella watch from the wings for a few weeks to see whether she could learn the music. Ella was a quick learner and could read the charts and memorize the words. Webb began to put her on stage,...

Later Forms of Imaginary Relationships

Imaginary companions and other types of pretend play become less common in later life, but philosophers have pointed to the continuity of childhood pretending with adult activities involving drama, film, art, internet role play games, and fiction (both reading and writing). Adult novelists, playwrights, and screenwriters provide interesting examples of adults who are preoccupied with the production of fantasy and there is a growing literature investigating the psychological significance of these activities. More generally, imagined interactions continue beyond childhood in various guises, from intellectual exercises such as imagined conversations with historical figures to more fully developed and maintained fantasies. The social worlds of many people can be described as including individuals whom they know only through television, books, movies, and other forms of media, as well as the people they interact with face-to-face in their everyday lives. The experience of having a personal...

Combinatory Freedom Predigital Sampling and Creativity

Kurosawa is a complex figure whose body of work is both rooted in its Japanese and Asian cultural, economic, spiritual, institutional, and historical context, and transcends it. His work is notable for its capacity to thoroughly embody Western forms of representation, while using essential Japanese elements and extending them in new directions. Kurosawa is bound to neither Japanese or Western forms of imagery and film making, and used this freedom to create novel forms of expression that moved back into the world of film outside of Japan, and drove innovation on an international scale. It is a multidirectional phenomenon. Kurosawa's admiration for the work of John Ford and his westerns combines with his knowledge of Japanese history and the Seven Samurai results. This, in turn, creates new story elements and styles and is taken up by the director John Sturges as The Magnificent Seven, which becomes a staple of American popular culture.

Michelangelos Early Life and Works in Florence

Lorenzo died on 9 April 1492, aged 43, and was succeeded by his incompetent son Piero, whose only commission for Michelangelo was for a statue in snow. Michelangelo returned to his father's house for a time. Lorenzo's death coincided with the rise of the charismatic Dominican preacher Girolamo Savonarola, whose fire-and-brimstone sermons on the vanity of worldly wealth made him enormously influential. After the French invaded Florence in 1494, ousting the Medici, Savonarola emerged as virtual dictator of the city, until public opinion turned he was burnt at the stake on 23 May 1498. Despite his Medici connections, Michelangelo had considerable sympathy for Savonarola's message, attentively reading his writings and listening to his sermons. The tension between the ultra-humanistic and the ultra-religious was a constant throughout Michelangelo's life and informed the intense emotionality and iconographic richness of his works. The same tension is evident in Michelangelo's anatomical...

The Psychological Challenge Of Religious Surrogacy

Charisma has been relocated from the religious to the secular arena. Popularized media heroes facilitate religious surrogacy by serving as focal points of worship. The most adored figures in the media sphere can even offer opportunities for primitive hysterical catharsis, especially when they perform live. Some people today construct entire life-styles around the following of worshipped entertainment idols.

The Sacralization And Ritualization Of Consumption

Indeed it seems that everything, no matter how silly or trivial, is being collected. The collectors themselves have a reverence for their objects that bears a strong resemblance to the respect shown by religious people to sacred relics. Complete and flawless collections are regarded with heartfelt spiritual admiration. Groups of similarly oriented collectors form congregations that allow them to share their devotion to the sacred objects that inspire their lives. Being a collector also has a clear ritual component, as collectors spend many hours sorting, arranging, and labeling their sacred objects and readying them for display. All this is energized by the prospect of financial gain as the collection approximates perfection.

Handling Questions Even the Tough Ones

In the question, Landau pointed out an error in one of Einstein's equations. While everyone in the room was chastising Landau for his rudeness, Einstein studied the blackboard and thought about what Landau had said. Finally, Einstein turned back to the audience and quietly said that the point that the young man had raised was correct and that what had been presented today beyond a certain step was incorrect. This statement reveals that Einstein's quest was not personal glory, but the search for truth. Niels Bohr had similar aims and never hesitated to admit when he was in error,22 a trait in his character that earned him much admiration. Perhaps that is the best sign of one's security the willingness to admit when one is wrong.

Children and Adolescents

With advanced renal disease, patients may undergo dramatic changes in physical appearance, as a result of either the disease process itself or adverse effects of treatment. Short stature and delayed puberty are common, along with long-term psychological effects that accompany these deficits (Grooten-huis et al. 2006 Rosenkranz et al. 2005). Bone deformity may be a result of ESRD. Scarring from catheter and port placements for dialysis, as well as gastrostomy tubes, may be a source of embarrassment and impaired body image. Corticosteroids and immunosuppressants commonly cause cosmetic

Psychosocial Adjustment

Dobkin et al. (2001) also noted that a subset of patients (approximately 40 ) evidence poor coping skills and remain distressed, thus requiring psychosocial interventions. Given the disease characteristics associated with SLE (i.e., changes in physical appearance, functional limitations, symptoms of depression, and complex symptom management), these variables are particularly relevant for youth with SLE (Beresford and Davidson 2006 Seawell and Danoff-Burg 2004). Given the clinical literature that clearly suggests the presence of depressive symptoms in children and adolescents with SLE (Nery et al. 2007), negative affect is deemed to be a particularly relevant area of adjustment. In an open interview, women with SLE indicated that one of the most troubling aspects of their disease was their physical appearance (Karlen 1998). Similarly, Corn-well and Schmitt (1990) found that women with SLE endorsed lower scores on measures of body image compared with women with rheumatoid arthritis and...

Evidence Based Treatments

Cents with SLE and the specific physical and psychological sequelae that are unique to this disease. Although cognitive therapy was employed previously, primarily for pain management (Gil et al. 1996), the intervention was extended to other domains of functioning (e.g., negative affectivity, body image, social competence). The specific ingredients of the treatment package included coping skills training and cognitive restructuring techniques (Jensen et al. 1994). Efforts to teach active coping skills included training in relaxation, distraction, and problem-solving skills. Goals of the treatment included 1) developing skills for managing SLE, 2) reducing disability and perceptions of pain, 3) improving mood, 4) increasing self-efficacy expectations and perceptions of locus of control, and 5) delineating distortions associated with perceptions of physical appearance and social competence. Finally, the third session focused on calming self-statements and cognitive restructuring, which...

Jurisprudence and Debauchery Student Years in Leipzig and Heidelberg

In Leipzig, Schumann wrote songs based on poems by Justinius Kerner (1786-1862). He was more and more drawn to music and to the charismatic piano teacher, Friedrich Wieck. This well-known pedagogue guaranteed his piano method, citing as best evidence his highly proficient 9-year old daughter, Clara, whom he wished to mold into the world's foremost pianist. Clara was an unusual child who did not use words until the age of four. When she first encountered Robert in 1828, the childish 9-year old was obviously smitten by the handsome yet taciturn 18-year old pianist.

Early Piano Compositions Return to Leipzig

After vacationing in Italy, Schumann's motivation to study law seemed to have totally disappeared. Piano playing constituted his main occupation, and improvisation never ceased to elicit his peer's admiration. Young Schumann did best as a composer of miniature pieces which he appropriately called Papillons (Butterflies). Tonal analogues between words and music will be found in several of Schumann's later compositions. This work's brilliant virtuoso style may reflect Schumann's way of playing at the time. He may have changed the tonality of his Toccata to make the double-notes and stretches easier, for he later acknowledged numbness in a finger of his right hand, a psychophysiological problem which would hamper and finally destroy his career as a piano virtuoso. Deeply perturbed, sounds haunted him during the night creating auditory hallucinations which would become an inherent part of his lifelong battle with madness. For the first time on March 18, 1830, he admits to hovering in a...

Dynamic Theory of Personality Organization

For instance, we can speak of a narcissistic personality when the narcissistic component of the psyche takes control and imposes some kind of organization over the other parts. In the narcissist, the more appetitive desires for sex are disciplined to an overriding desire for admiration. Now it becomes important to have sexual relations with someone who will contribute to one's glory. And reason is deployed as a primarily cal-culative faculty figuring out which are the next good moves if one is to achieve celebrity. Thus, we have the formation of what Plato calls limocratic man, the lover of honor Republic VIII, 549c-550 cf. IX, 580d-581c).

The OKeeffe Years 19161946

Georgia O'Keeffe, then a struggling artist who was teaching school in Texas, had been aware for some time of '291' and the impressive, charismatic Stieglitz. Although she had not met him formally, she had visited the gallery with school chums from the Art Students League years before. She valued his opinions and artistry. Her school friend, Anita Pollitzer served as a conduit and brought to 291 some of O'Keeffe's drawings. Stieglitz was astounded by the beauty of the drawings and announced, or so the story goes At last a woman on paper. On 22 May 1916, Stieglitz exhibited ten O'Keeffe charcoal drawings in a group show. There was great enthusiasm for her work within the Stieglitz circle and in 1917 Stieglitz held the first solo O'Keeffe exhibition. He convinced her to join him in New York and offered her the opportunity to do nothing but paint and she grabbed the opportunity. She met Stieglitz when she was 29 and he 58. Some maintain, falsely, that this is when her life as an artist...

Prevalence of Specific Dsmiii Dsmiiir or Dsmiv Personality Disorders

The essential feature of this disorder is a ''pervasive pattern of grandiosity (in fantasy or behavior), need for admiration, and lack of empathy'' (APA, 1994). There has not been a great deal of empirical work done on narcissistic personality disorder in general, and very little epidemiological work in particular. Although there is considerable clinical interest in the disorder, it has only recently been included in official nomenclatures. Narcissistic personality disorder became part of the American nomenclature in 1980 with DSM-III and there is no counterpart to it in ICD-10.

Suicide as Subject of Creativity

In a comprehensive review of the iconography of suicide, Cutter identified six self-injury themes prevalent in the Western art after the Renaissance (i.e., after 1350). The heroic theme (1484-1844) presented suicide as a rational and reasonable solution to contemporary dilemmas and a good behavior affirmative of virtue. The viewers' reaction was admiration for the hero or the heroine, and they were encouraged to follow this virtuous example. This theme was based on historical or mythological accounts of suicide in the context of loss of a lover and such values as patriotism, self-sacrifice, devotion to ethics, honor, and dignity. The theme of suicide as a stigmatized act (1660-1854) seems to be an opposite of the heroic theme. However, both coexisted quite comfortably for almost two centuries. The stigmatized suicide was conceptualized, in line with the Church's view of suicide as a mortal sin, as an evil end befitting an evil life motivated by a pursuit of immoral goals. The intended...

Olszewski Kubilius Model

Olszewski-Kubilius developed a psychosocial model for the development of the creative person that takes into account Context Family Characteristics, Child Characteristics, Family Status (e.g., socioeconomic status (SES), marginality), Birth Position, Family Generational Influences, Physical Disabilities (domain preference and resources), Asynchronies in Child, and Gender Conditions Stress (parental loss, harsh parenting, parental dysfunction, neglect, abuse), Threat to Security, Feeling Out-of-Control, Isolation, Rejection, Feeling Different, Reduced Affiliation and Identification with Parents, Disruptions in Socialization, Unconventional Socialization, Need for Refuge, Emotional Disequilibrium and Characteristics (which include Intellectual Activities such as a rich fantasy life, voracious reading, skill development, and coping strategies for isolation). Creative people compensate for developmental defects and lacks, 'seeking to relieve loss, obtain love and admiration,' and the...

Adopting and Adapting Motivational Techniques

One of the great joys in life for me has been seeing patients change in both their physical appearance and their mental attitudes. Letters from patients and parents, and even comments from patients many years later, demonstrate that these motivational efforts did not fall on deaf ears.

Histrionic Personality Disorder Conversion or Somatic Symptoms

Patients with histrionic personality disorder have an emotionally expressive style, seek excessive attention, are often dramatic, and may present with a conversion disorder. Physicians may feel flattered, captivated, seduced, or sexually aroused by these patients. Alternatively, the physician may feel overwhelmed by the patient's exaggerated or excessive emotions, embarrassed by the sexual overtures, depleted, or confounded by unexplained physical symptoms, such as pseudoseizures, paralysis, and mutism. These patients may unconsciously use their symptoms to elicit attention or support from the physician (Bornstein and Gold, 2008). They may also use their sexuality to recruit others to satisfy their needs to be taken care of or romantically pursued. They fear that they are not desired and will lose the care or admiration of others.

Beginnings of Gestalt Theory

A second early paper, in 1912, also on an ethnopsychologi-cal theme, concerned the thinking processes of aboriginal peoples about numerical problems and structures. Here again his admiration of the cognitive processes of so-called primitive people was evident. The numerical concepts and structures that people around the world use for particular purposes are often elegantly appropriate for the particular task at hand. The article is riddled with dozens of examples of how particular numerical usages are appropriate for their intended purposes the usages typically are structurally far more elegant than simply applying the abstract, piecemeal, abstruse, content-less western additive system to all numerical problems. It makes no sense, for instance, to count the number of grains of rice for a meal their overall bulk is what is crucial. And if I add two horses and two people, I may not have four - but two riders. In many contexts it is more appropriate to use such terms as 'a few' or 'many'...

Pay for Performance and Public Reporting for Demonstration of Quality

The invasive cardiologist community must also have a central role in crafting the initiatives surrounding public reporting of both hospital- and physician-specific outcomes related to PCI. Quality should not be a popularity contest. Lists of Best Hospitals, determined by administrative data combined with polling of cardiologist peers and published in widely circulated periodicals such as U.S. News and World Report, should not be the defining measuring sticks for quality. Williams and colleagues examined 41 of the institutions designated as the top 50 hospitals by U.S. News and World Report and found that 23 of them were better than average, 9 were average, and that 9 were actually worse than average, when evaluated by cardiovascular Joint Commission Core Measures.63 Moscucci and colleagues raised the important issue of negative unintended consequences of public reporting. They compared two large datasets from New York State, which has a hospital- and physician-specific public...

The Relationship of Physical Attractiveness to Occupational Success

In addition to general physical attractiveness, there are specific physical appearance factors, often related to attractiveness, that have been shown to be related to occupational success. At least two surveys have shown a relationship of height and weight to occupational success. Quinn (1978) used data from national surveys at the University of Michigan and found that taller men earned more money and held more prestigious jobs than shorter men. Also, men and women who were underweight and overweight earned less than those who were average in weight. Frieze, Olson, and Good (1990) surveyed 859 male MBAs and 355 female MB As who graduated from the University of Pittsburgh between 1973 and 1982. Weight and height were particularly important correlates of salary for the male MBAs, with the salary differences between overweight and normal weight employees increasing over time.

Attractiveness Bias as a Behavioral Effect

Both access and treatment bias have been found against persons who violate norms for physical attractiveness. Although the effects are typically small, I believe that these effects are more important than indicated in the effect sizes (Stone et al., 1992). Although appearance standards are sometimes needed, the standards used in many organizations appear unduly restrictive and serve to encourage unfair discrimination against groups such as racial minorities, people who are disabled, and older employees. Perhaps Thomas (1992) best expressed what needs to be done when he stated that Diversity does not mean that anything goes or that no assimilation will be required instead, it calls for assimilation only where absolutely necessary. The trick becomes that of identifying requirements as opposed to preferences, conveniences, or traditions (p. 310). We suspect that many physical appearance standards are mere preferences, conveniences, and traditions, that can be eliminated at little cost to...

Torus Palatinus Clinical Summary

Tori are benign nodular overgrowths of cortical bone. Although their physical appearance can be somewhat alarming to those unfamiliar with this entity, there is generally no need for concern. These bony protuberances occur in the midline of the palate where the maxilla fuses. Tori may also be located on the mandible, typically on the lingual aspect of the molar teeth. Tori are covered by a thin epithelium, which is easily traumatized and ulcerated. These ulcerations tend to heal very slowly because of the poor vascularization of the tori. Torus palatinus, in particular, is slow growing and may occur at any age

Psychosomatic aspects of atopic dermatitis

Significance Neurosecratory

Reduce concentration, and may lead to a worsening in school achievement. The altered physical appearance may also lead to an altered self-perception and a lowering of self-awareness.24 Whereas Ring et al21 found no psychometric differences in school children with AD when compared to a control group, Absolon et al23 found psychically conspicuous behaviour twice as often in children with an average or severe case of atopic eczema than was the case for children with only a slight case of neurodermitis or a healthy control group.

Patent Ductus Arteriosus

Hypertrophic Osteoarthropathy

A nonrestrictive patent ductus with Eisenmenger syndrome is complicated by the multisystem systemic disorders of cyanotic congenital heart disease (see Chapter 17).142,180,191,202 Isotonic exercise with an Eisenmenger ductus tends to cause leg fatigue without dyspnea because the exercise-induced increase in right-to-left shunt is channeled into the descending aorta (see Figs. 20-2 and 20-12), precluding hypoxia-induced stimulation of the respiratory center and the carotid body.9,54,142,179,191,202 Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy is confined to the lower extremities.52,137, 180,200 Left ventricular failure is absent because volume overload is curtailed. A dilated hypertensive pulmonary trunk may cause hoarseness by compressing the recurrent laryngeal nerve. Angina and syncope are not features of nonrestrictive patent ductus arteriosus and reserved shunt because right ventricular pressure cannot exceed sys-temic.202 Cyanosis escapes attention when the cyanotic feet are not examined (see...

The tragic consequences of blind faith

There is obviously a wide spectrum of sects and cults. In the extreme cases, the cult leader is eccentric, with bizarre ideas, demanding absolute obedience. The leader becomes the self-appointed interpreter of God's will, and demands absolute faith, which may have tragic results. These leaders manage to convince the converted individuals to abandon their families, or bring them into the sect community, to which they must subsequently donate all their possessions. The followers often live in an unconventional manner under the guidance of an authoritarian and charismatic leader. In some cases, when the leader makes apocalyptic predictions such as the catastrophic end of the world with the salvation of the righteous, or the Second Coming of Jesus, they are prone to violence, which usually ends in tragedy when the predictions do not materialize. This is what happened with the mass murder-suicide of the People's Temple sect in Jonestown, Guyana in 1978, when more than 900 US citizens died....

Physical Attractiveness in Performance Appraisal and Promotions

Physical appearance may be one of the few attributes on which decision makers agree. The importance of appearance in determining appraisals and promotions was demonstrated by Nykodym and Simonetti (1987) in a survey of managers from Fortune 500 companies. Personal appearance was ranked eighth in importance for surviving and succeeding in organizations, below items such as excellent performance record, personality, communication skills, technical skills, human relations skills, work experience, and ability to stay cool, but above items such as your health and energy, ability to judge people, power, a sponsor, an MBA degree, willingness to relocate, high identity organizational activities, and working long days.

Antisocial Personality Disorder Malingering and Factitious Disorders

Common physician reactions to a patient with antisocial personality disorder are feelings of being used, exploited, or deceived. This can lead to physician anger and wishes to be free of the patient, uncover lies, and punish or imprison the patient. These patients fear that they will become vulnerable, lose respect or admiration from others, and become easy prey to manipulation when they become ill. They expect to be exploited, demeaned, or humiliated. Like the narcissistic patient, they often have low self-esteem, excessive self-love, compensatory feelings of superiority, grandiosity, recklessness, emotional shallowness, and show a lack of concern for others. They often react to medical care with entitled demands for special treatment. When caught in dishonesty, they may angrily attack or devalue the physician. They may resort to other psychopathic manipulations of deception, lying, cheating, or stealing. In fact, their friendly, facile, slick, superficial charm, and intelligent...

Unfair Discrimination

Individuals are stigmatized (i.e., bear stigmas or marks) to the extent that there is a negative (discrediting) discrepancy between their virtual social identity and their actual social identity (Goffman, 1963 Jones et al., 1984). A virtual social identity is a perceiver's conception (e.g., prototype, stereotype) of what a target should be like in terms of a host of factors, including race, physical appearance, moral character, religious beliefs, sexual orientation, nationality, and personality. It generally reflects what the perceiver considers to be acceptable, normal, or desirable.

Becks Cognitive Therapy

In between episodes of emotional disorders such as depression or anxiety, Beck has proposed that dysfunctional schemas are inactive and lie dormant they become activated only when appropriate matching stressors occur (see Figure 4.3 above). Part of the reason for this proposed latency of dysfunctional schemas has been to immunise the theory against the failure to find elevated levels of dysfunctional attitudes and automatic thoughts during recovery. That is, the theory might well have predicted that dysfunctional schemas were active even between episodes of depression and anxiety, but unfortunately the initial empirical research suggested otherwise (e.g., Power, 1990). However, it seems unlikely that such important concerns for the individual become inactive that, when well, the individual is no longer concerned with issues about failure and rejection, about success, love, and admiration. One alternative possibility is that the dysfunctional schemas remain active but that during...

Decision Making in Esthetic Implantology Cases

Selecting a particular treatment method, specific surgical protocols, and particular materials, and they can influence the treatment's final outcome. Factors that affect the decisions in any treatment plan involving dental implant therapy are numerous, including time, cultural and ethnic background, physical appearance, age, profession, cost, lifestyle requirements, personality of the patient, intraoral condition, facial condition, skill-fulness of the clinician, available modern diagnostic tools, and many others (Stein and Kuwata 1977, Frush and Fisher 1958).

The Jugular Venous Pulse

Physical appearance of a 15-month-old boy with complete transposition of the great arteries. Birth weight was 9 pounds 2 ounces. The child's head is large, although his body and arms have lost the robust appearance with which he was born. Physical appearance of a 15-month-old boy with complete transposition of the great arteries. Birth weight was 9 pounds 2 ounces. The child's head is large, although his body and arms have lost the robust appearance with which he was born.

The Changing Understanding of Creativity

Fine art, literature, performing arts, music, and similar artistic esthetic domains, but also included fields such as business, manufacturing, technology, medicine, administration, education, even defense, anti-terrorism, and law enforcement. Its products are sometimes abstract and essentially psychological, such as communication of a feeling, arousal of esthetic admiration, provocation of a new way of looking at such things, or development of new understandings of experience or existence (mainly artistic esthetic or philosophical). However, they may also be concrete such as the making of works of beauty or imagination on the one hand, or on the other the design and construction of novel devices, machines, or structures, processes or systems for producing them, operating procedures, even enhancement of profits or preservation of national security. This interest has been fuelled by the perceived role of creativity in promoting social growth and justice, economic advancement, social...

Clinical Features

Although any body part or aspect of physical appearance may be a source of concern and several body parts may be involved simultaneously, concerns generally focus on the patient's face or head (e.g., size or shape of the nose, eyes, lips, teeth, or other facial features thinning hair excessive facial hair acne wrinkles scars). Individuals may spend hours per day checking their appearance, engage in excessive grooming or exercising to minimize or erase the defect, and or become housebound. sions of patients with OCD are not restricted to concerns about physical appearance. Those individuals with BDD who are successful in obtaining surgery may continue to be concerned about the perceived defect or may shift the focus of attention to other aspects of their appearance (Phillips 1991).

Applications Of Computergraphic Facial Reconstruction

Its physical appearance and its perception by others act together powerfully to set us a real challenge in identifying an individual. This is particularly so when we try to reconstruct a face from a skull of unknown provenance. We start with the not insignificant difficulty of trying to achieve a recognition from an acquaintance of the deceased, when we have no idea who the person was to begin with or how they were remembered during life - were they happy and smiling, sad or angry Did they have a condition which in some way characterized their facial appearance - we know that chronic pain or severe mental disorders such as schizophrenia can significantly alter facial affect in a person. Nevertheless, despite these obstacles, identifying an individual from their facial appearance remains a fascinating challenge for us worthy of serious academic study and development.

Marcus M Stewart University of Georgia

Drawing upon these principles, Byrne (1961, 1971) offered a model of interpersonal attraction and presented a set of variables that were thought to affect the inclination for individuals to be drawn to one another. The most important of these variables was perceived similarity. Perceived similarity to others is said to be important for interpersonal attraction because it helps individuals to make sense of their environments more effectively by way of validation (Festinger, 1954 Newcomb, 1961 Rand & Wexley, 1975). To the extent that a person offers consensual validation by demonstrating similarity to us in some way, such an interaction will be perceived as being rewarding and lead to positive feelings toward this individual (Rand & Wexley, 1975, p. 536). Early studies have supported this contention (Baskett, 1973 Golightly, Huffman, & Byrne, 1971 Pulakos & Wexley, 1983 Rand & Wexley, 1975) and support Byrne's (1961,1971) paradigm. Several studies in relational demography have used the...

Classical Antiquity The Golden

It is said that as he spent his last months of life in Babylon, Alexander the Great considered the conquest of Rome, a state just then beginning to become prominent in Mediterranean affairs (Bos-worth 1988). Alexander died short of his thirty-third birthday without having affected Rome other than through the latter culture's admiration of him. Rome then began perhaps the most impressive expansion in all of world history. In order to gain some insight into the disease ecology of the Roman world, it is instructive to consider the Second Punic War, which established Rome as the most important power in the western Mediterranean. This war, fought at the end of the third century B.C. (ending in 202 B.C.), gives glimpses of both a very highly populated Italy and a military strategy that excluded any significant impact secondary to epidemic disease.

Aspirin and Clopidogrel

The Clopidogrel for High Atherothrombotic Risk and Ischemic Stabilization, Management, and Avoidance (CHARISMA) trial investigated the safety and efficacy of long-term administration of aspirin (75 to 162 mg day) and clopidogrel (75 mg day), compared with aspirin alone, in patients with established atherosclerotic disease or with multiple CV risk factors.111 In the large diabetic population enrolled (n 6556), no benefit of the combination therapy was observed after a median follow-up of 28 months, whereas the

Clinical and Pathologic Characteristics

Marfanoid Facial Features

The outstanding clinical features of MEN 2B comprise the near-pathognomonic physical appearance (Figs. 83-3 and 83-4). Patients afflicted with this syndrome possess a tall, slender, marfanoid habitus with varying degrees of muscle wasting. The face is generally elongated neuromas cause enlarged and nodular lips as well as thickened eyelids. Slit-lamp examination may reveal thickening of corneal nerves. Skeletal abnormalities are also characteristic and may include genu valgum, pes cavus, and kyphoscoliosis. Significantly, these characteristic physical features are often recognizable in infancy or even at birth, affording the careful clinician the opportunity to diagnose the disorder before the thyroid and adrenal neoplasia have become clinically manifest.

Correlates of Psychosocial Adjustment

Marfanoid Facial Features

Studies of demographic parameters, such as gender, age, and age at illness onset, have yielded mixed findings with regard to child adjustment (Wallander et al. 2003) however, studies that focus on temperamental and cognitive factors have yielded more consistent results. Difficult child temperament, such as very high child activity level or reactivity, is associated with more behavior problems in children with cerebral palsy and spina bifida (Wallander et al. 1988). In terms of cognitive factors, perceived stress (Kovacs et al. 1990), negative perception of physical appearance (Westbrook et al. 1992), and depressive attributional style (Mullins et al. 1997) are related to poorer adjustment. By contrast, the many studies conducted on health locus of control that is, to what a person attributes the power to influence his or her health have yielded mixed findings (R.J. Thompson et al. 1992, 1993).

What Is 75f Systolic Murmur

Jugular venous pulse in, 524, 525f physical appearance in, 524, 524f precordial movement and palpation in, echocardiogram of, 74-75, 77-78, 77f-78f electrocardiogram of, 70-74, 71f-74f history in, 66-68, 67f jugular venous pulse in, 68 physical appearance in, 68 physiologic consequences of, 65 precordial movement and palpation of, 68, 68f physical appearance of, 40 physical appearance of, 37 physical appearance in, 49 physical appearance in, 242, 245f

Physicochemical characterization

The physical appearance of MNPs has been captured using transmission electron microscopy (TEM negative staining with phosphotungstic acid Figure 2.3) as well as freeze-fracture electron microscopy (FFEM Figure 2.4). The TEM image captures the internal emulsion droplets, while FFEM shows oil droplets as well as micelles (tiny nubbles spread throughout the image approximate size 8 nm). Particle size analysis (using dynamic light scattering) confirms the coexistence of micelles and oil-in-water (o w) emulsion droplets (Figure 2.5). It is worth noting that particles fall into two fairly tight peaks of uniform size, with a peak at 8 nm representing the micelles and the second peak at 110 nm representing the oil droplets. Furthermore, particle size can be modulated via alterations to the manufacturing process or the formulation.

Social Identity and Self Categorization Theories

Some researchers used a combined perspective from both the similarity-attraction paradigm and social identity and self-categorization theories to examine relational demography processes (e.g., Zenger & Lawrence, 1989). For example, Tsui et al. (1992) noted that such theories should be treated as complimentary. In their study of organizational attachment, they suggested that for an employee who is demographically different from others, lower organizational attachment may be a consequence of two possible processes (1) social isolation and lower interpersonal attraction due to attitudinal differences associated with demographic dissimilarity, and (2) incongruence stemming from one's self-categorization of the group and its actual demographic composition (p. 554). Their results showed that race and age dissimilarity were both negatively related to organizational attachment (lower intentions to stay in the organization). They also found that race dissimilarity was negatively related to...

Aesthetic Products

An aesthetic product excites admiration in the mind of a beholder. The qualities that produce the admiration can be purely aesthetic such as 'exquisiteness,' 'gloriousness,' or 'gracefulness,' but they may also be formalist (e.g., 'unity,' 'harmony,' or 'complexity'), or technical (e.g., 'high quality of construction,' 'skillfulness,' or 'professional finish'). These qualities can be closed in the sense that they are narrowly defined, or open (a wide variety of states might, for instance, elicit the aesthetic judgment 'exciting,' according to the point of view of the particular beholder). However, as the eighteenth century philosopher Frances Hutcheson wrote, aesthetic qualities involve a 'subjective fact,' not an 'objective' one. This refers back to two general problems in the area of aesthetics and creativity already mentioned above subjectivity (aesthetic judgments depend upon the person making the judgment) and relativity (the judgments differ from society to society and even from...


Murmurs that occur in the absence of either morphologic or physiologic abnormalities of the heart or circulation have been called normal, innocent, functional, physiologic, or benign. Normal is perhaps the best term because it is unambiguous.25 Normal murmurs are common, are virtually ubiquitous in children, and can with few exceptions be diagnosed by the physical examination alone. The index of suspicion is the murmur itself. Auscultation is otherwise normal, and the history, physical appearance, arterial pulse, jugular venous pulse, precordial palpation, electrocardiogram, chest x-ray, and echocardio-gram are normal.17

Life in Baroda

Sri Aurobindo's admiration for the Indian tradition grew, and it became increasingly clear to him that the Indian civilization could not regain its full stature as long as India was under foreign occupation. Interestingly, at that time, this was not at all a common view the Indian elite of those days had widely accepted the superiority of the English culture, and Sri Aurobindo would become the first Indian intellectual who dared proclaim publicly that complete independence from Britain should be the primary aim of Indian political parties.

Early Years

While playing in Liverpool, the group came to the attention of Brian Epstein who managed a local record store. After hearing them play in the Cavern night-club, Epstein offered to be their manager. He tidied up their presentation, and approached a number of record companies in pursuit of a recording contract. All the companies rejected them, an indication that there was nothing special about the Beatles or their music at this stage. As a last resort, Epstein approached the EMI comedy label Parlophone. The label was managed by George Martin who although, specializing in comedy, was on the lookout for a musical act. Like the other record companies, Martin was unimpressed by their demo-tape, but he felt they had potential and was particularly struck by their charisma. He was not impressed by their song-writing ability as their early compositions showed no indication of what would come. Their best song Love Me Do was very simple, and they did not have enough marketable material to fill an...


While the groups competed with each other, there was also a strong degree of admiration. Both analyzed each other's output. The Beatles were particularly impressed by the Beach Boy's album Pet Sounds with its unusual use of instruments and intricate harmonies. This inspired the Beatles to raise their standards yet again on their next album, Sgt Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band.

Criticisms of Kant

Many reject Kant's contention that genuine moral worth is grounded in a purely rational activity of the will married to an impersonally calculable logical consistency. Kant does not try to hide this. And yet, his view of intentionality, though rigorous, fails to capture much of what we admire as moral motivation, such as the admiration of maternal instinct judiciously applied.


Choreographers are first trained as dancers, although most express an interest in making dances as well as performing dance early in their career. Today there are choreographic training programs offered in conservatories, universities, and professional dance companies however, many choreographers still learn to create dances by witnessing others in the process. Unlike composers and playwrights, choreographers generally do not write a score or a text, although some choreographers will have their dances notated after the work is set. The majority of choreographers compose new works on the mobile bodies of dancers who will then share in maintaining the memory of the new work. Since this process is collaborative, dancers frequently join in the creation of the dance. The quality of how they move, the technical skills that they possess, and their unique physical appearance all influence the creation of a dance work most choreographers will cast dancers with these elements in mind. The...


Yet there is a drive for accomplishment and recognition, a need to form alliances, a desire for attention, praise, and support, and there may also be an emotional expressiveness, charisma, honesty, and courageousness. These dualities may be temporal aspects, according to Jock Abra and Gordon Abra, who stated that creators have time periods when there is greater need for relationship and feelings of intimacy, and other times for alone-ness, although there is considerable individual variation.


Leadership has been defined many different ways. Some of these definitions have greater scientific utility than others do. On the one hand, we might identify leadership with some mysterious property that only certain great persons possess, such as charisma, dynamism, or magnetism. These highly romantic conceptions of leadership have immediate appeal, capturing as they do some popular myths about great leaders. However, such notions do not have much precision. Accordingly, these ideas do not lend themselves to measurement, and if scientists cannot measure an attribute, they cannot really study it.


Nonetheless, this inclusive definition might seem too inclusive. After all, might not a criminal mastermind' count as a genius if the crimes displayed domain-specific expertise, intelligence, originality, and inspired numerous imitators Although the answer would have to be affirmative, given the conditions, the criminal would be considered a genius of a special type, namely an 'evil genius.' More critically, we would not assert that the hypothetical individual exhibited greatness. That ascription cannot be applied because greatness presumes that the products of genius fulfil widely shared values. That is, the achievements represent contributions to society to a whole and not to some small group or individual that has what might be deemed a parasitic relationship with the larger society. Accordingly, the person credited with the accomplishment can be broadly taken as a role model for many others to follow. Stated differently, the genius who attains genuine greatness can be proclaimed...


What then are the critical features of leader or supervisory behavior Many of the important components are part of a transformational style of leadership, which motivates individuals to perform beyond expectations. Transformational leaders have charisma in the sense of being strong role models in terms of ability, standards, persistence, values, and willingness to take risks. They inspire by motivating followers to a shared vision, high goals, and a sense of optimism. They encourage innovation and creativity and refrain from public criticism. They are sensitive to the unique characteristics and needs of each group member and provide the appropriate level of directive or nondirective support.

Key thinkerstheories

There are a number of biological factors that initially determine gender, including inheritance from the father of either the X or Y chromosome and the subsequent hormone production in this neonatal stage. They believed that after birth, however, the child would adopt the identity given to them by other social agents in response to their physical appearance genitalia. As the child becomes aware of this, a basic gender identity is formed. Thus the model specifically combines biological development with the social processes that lead to gender development.

Child Adjustment

Research examining social functioning has suggested that SCD symptoms, such as lethargy and pain crises, affect children's ability to participate in academic and extracurricular activities as actively as their peers (Bonner et al. 1999 Eaton et al. 1995 Gil et al. 2000 Noll et al. 1996). In a series of studies, Noll et al. (1992, 1996, 2007) reported that children with SCD were rated by peers as having fewer friends and being less athletic than other classmates females were also rated as being less well liked and as having fewer leadership qualities (Noll et al. 1996). However, other studies in younger children with SCD have not found evidence of parent-, teacher-, or self-reported social problems, suggesting that social competence in young children may serve as a protective factor against disease-related stress (Lemanek et al. 1994). However, social skills for complex peer interactions may be particularly difficult for children with central nervous system and neurocognitive effects...

Influencing Others

Leader's appraisal of problems and ideas, however, must ultimately be referenced against a set of technical objectives. The technical objectives being pursued in a creative effort are commonly referred to as a mission. A mission is similar to a vision. It differs from the visions discussed in theories of transformational and charismatic leadership in that emotionally evocative personal identity is not invested in a mission. Indeed visionary leadership, while motivating, may undermine creativity. Missions, however, by defining a significant technical and professional problem capitalize on, and activates, the professional orientation of creative people serving as a framework for formation of the shared mental models that promote team creativity and participation in the production of new ideas. In keeping with these observations, qualitative studies of successful leaders of research and development teams have found that mission definition and ongoing articulation of the mission was...

Benefits to Mentees

Some mentors do not explicitly teach a certain academic skill, but rather attempt to push the mentee to discover his her own creative talents. Sometimes mentors even help mentees discover talents that they were not aware of or simply never had the chance to use. Outstanding mentors tend to be nonjudgmental and flexible in their interactions with their mentees. Mutual respect is descriptive of a mentor-mentee relationship, where one listens to the other with admiration, and values the other's thoughts and ideas.

Immoral Creativity

Robbery, which is often cited in the relevant literature as an example of a criminal breakthrough with the wow' factor. Ronald Biggs, probably the most famous of the Great Train robbers, showed enormous ingenuity in escaping and successfully evading capture for many years, until old age and physical infirmity persuaded him to surrender. Despite the fact that one of the train personnel was severely beaten and died after seven years as an invalid, Biggs and his colleagues were widely regarded with sympathy or even admiration, and Biggs was subsequently pardoned by the UK Government in 2009.

Postoperative Stage

Posttransplant, patients can experience acute mental status changes (e.g., delirium) and side effects from immunosuppressant medications that can affect physical appearance, emotional functioning, and sleep and eating patterns. Any posttransplant medical complications are understandably stressful. Once patients are medically stable, patients and families commonly experience a honeymoon period, followed by the reality of living with a new chronic illness. Although families are hopeful about an eventual return to a normal life, they often experience anxiety about leaving the safety of the hospital environment, because posttransplant care can appear overwhelming. In a study in which parents of pediatric heart transplant recipients completed questionnaires, nearly 40 of parents indicated moderate to severe posttraumatic stress symptoms relating to communication about the child's illness, balancing of various role demands, emotional strain, and supervision of the child's medical care...

Medical Overview

Medical therapies for the disease include corticosteroids with or without immunosuppressant drugs such therapies in and of themselves may be accompanied by significant physical (e.g., short stature, weight gain, cushingoid features) and psychiatric (e.g., depressive symptoms, emotional lability) sequelae. The course of SLE is variable, and the symptoms have wide-ranging effects including fatigue, malaise, and functional limitations (Kone-Paut et al. 2007). Because environmental factors play a role in the prevention and exacerbation of symptoms, some accommodations must be made by the patient. These include avoiding certain substances (e.g., hair dyes, ultraviolet light) as well as getting sufficient rest, maintaining regular exercise to prevent muscle atrophy, and appropriately managing stress. Finally, there are a host of other demands on the patient with SLE, including adherence to treatment regimens, frequent medical care contacts, and negotiation of psychosocial issues that may...

Self Psychology

Although Kohut's model also puts too much emphasis on die envmmment to the neglect of other factors, his focus on the importance of early attachment figures treating the child as a psychological agent with wishes, desires, and ambitions is congruent writh research on the importance of parental reflective functioning and attachment research more broadly Fonagy et al. 2007). However, with some important exceptions Banai et al. 2005), the vast potential of self psychology remains largely untapped in research, and the legacy of self psychology currently lies first and foremost in providing a model for the understanding and treatment of narcissistic pathology. Self psychology moreover proposes a close parallel between the development of narcissism and its treatment by suggesting that treatment should lead to a reactivation of narcissistic wishes for idealization and admiration and to the unfolding of various self-object transferences. Because of the analyst's empathie mirroring attitude,...


Psychoanalysts have often been drawn to the arts as the sphere of human activity for which they feci the most admiration and affinity. This may be because psychoanalysis is itself a practice devoted to the understanding of symbolic expression. There have been many significant writings, from Freud's essay on Leonardo da Vinci Freud 19101 onward, in which the meanings of works of art have been interpreted from a psychoanalytical perspective. The internalization of good objects is important in the development of artists and scientists. However, whereas psychoanalysts from Freud onward have tended to focus on artists' identifications 111 their

Jos Brunner

While Hume thought that humans would learn self-restraint by experience, Rousseau assumed that control over unruly passions could only be established by the intervention of a charismatic leader, who would teach the people the principles of a disinterested, higher form of legislation. In his chapter 'On Law' in The Social Contract, Rousseau explained that just civil law i.e. the rule of law has to be composed of principles ordained by the whole people for the whole people. They have to be abstract and cannot refer to any particular object or represent a particular will (Rousseau 1968 1762 81). However, Rousseau did not believe that 'a blind multitude, which often does not know what it wants' could discover the principles of universalistic legislation. Therefore he assumed that there was a need for a 'lawgiver', towering above the common people and capable of understanding 'the passions of men without feeling any of them'. For Rousseau, the rule of law can arise only in a 'superior...


Freud expressed admiration for creative writers who he said were far in advance of everyday people, because they draw on sources which have not yet opened in science. Freud wrote about the life of DaVinci which served as the prototype for the psychobiography, a format in which key psychological elements in an author's life, which theoretically influenced their work, are presented. Psychobiographies are almost always made without the subject's participation. Critics of this methodology complain there is a great deal of unproven speculation involved, as analyses are not based on experiments or independent evidence. The psychoanalytic method may reduce life to psychological processes, ignoring social, economic, or political forces. More recent researchers in creativity, such as Howard Gardner, concluded that Freud's characterizations apply to noncreative as well as creative individuals and thus do not distinguish the effective artist or scientist from the banal one. Others believe that...

Stable Angina

Mpi Myocaridal

Clopidogrel (Plavix), an ADP-receptor antagonist, is a potent irreversible antiplatelet drug. In the Clopidogrel versus Aspirin in Patients at Risk of Ischaemic Events study (CAPRIE Steering Committee, 1996), Clopidogrel was slightly but statistically more effective than aspirin in reducing cardiovascular events in high-risk patients with a history of stroke, MI and peripheral vascular disease (8.7 relative risk RR reduction p 0.043). The combination of aspirin and clopidogrel in stable angina patients with no recent unstable coronary syndrome is unknown and currently being tested in the Clopidogrel for High Atherothrombotic Risk and Ischemic Stabilization, Management, and Avoidance (CHARISMA) trial (Bhatt and Topol, 2004). Clopido-grel is an effective alternative to patients who are unable to take aspirin.

Case Illustration

Melania has developed strengths and inner resources that were not evident at the Time 1 assessment. She has come to terms with painful experiences from the past, finding meaning in, and growing from, these experiences she has become more articulate and better able to express herself in words she has a newfound ability to appreciate and respond to humor she is more capable of recognizing alternative viewpoints, even in matters that stir up strong feelings she is more empathic and sensitive to other's needs and feelings and she is more likeable.

Coarctation Emotion

Coarctation of the aorta will not be overlooked if attention is paid to the upper and lower extremity arterial pulses and blood pressure during routine physical examination. The diagnosis is entertained in patients with systemic hypertension and reduced or absent femoral pulses. Disproportionate systolic hypertension heightens suspicion. Minor symptoms include headache, epistaxis, and leg fatigue. Major complications include congestive heart failure, especially in infants, rupture or dissection of the paracoarctation aorta, infective endarteritis, and cerebral hemorrhage due to rupture of an aneurysm of the circle of Willis. The physical appearance of patients with XO Turner

Fragile X

Because it is an X-linked disorder, fragile X affects males and females differently. In boys, fragile X is associated with variable presentations of mental retardation, difficulties with visuospatial and memory functioning, gaze avoidance, stereotypic behaviors, hyperactivity, and abnormal speech patterns, including echolalia, high-pitched speech, poor articulation, and dysfluency. Aggression and self-injurious behaviors are prominent in some individuals. Persons with fragile X commonly have a characteristic appearance that includes an elongated face, a large protruding jaw, large ears, enlarged testicles, and accentuated secondary sexual characteristics. In girls who are heterozygous for the fragile X full mutation, the syndrome is associated with a normal physical appearance, variable cognitive functioning that ranges from normal to mildly mentally retarded, and difficulties with mathematics, attention, social communication, and the regulation of anxiety (Reiss et al., 2000a)....

Eating Disorders

In the last 100 years, unlike in previous centuries, Western culture has put a premium on thinness, many believe to an extreme. Most adolescent girls are not satisfied with their physical appearance, and many diet to control their weight. One unfortunate result is the increased number of eating disorders primarily affecting teenage girls and women. According to recent research, approximately 1 of 100 adolescent girls is anorexic, two to three times as many are bulimic, and 1 in 5 are overweight. Researchers believe that adolescents inherit emotional tendencies that make them more vulnerable to eating disorders. These can combine with the low self-esteem and high level of stress experienced by many teenagers and affect their eating habits. For many adolescents with an eating disorder, food is one of the only things in their lives they feel they can control.

The Power Of Charisma

The Power Of Charisma

You knowthere's something about you I like. I can't put my finger on it and it's not just the fact that you will download this ebook but there's something about you that makes you attractive.

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