Natural Childbirth Options

Bump To Birth

The experience that a woman has during childbirth shapes how the rest of her child-raising experience goes, in many ways. A good birth can have a huge effect on how good you feel about your child, whereas a bad birth can often lead to feelings of sadness or PDST-type symptoms due to the pain and struggle of the birth experience. However, you don't need to worry about that now, because the information in this book gives you ALL of the experience and expert advice that you need in order to have a really amazing birth, that really marked that day as the truly special day that it is. This book teaches you how to use natural, holistic remedies to heal yourself during pregnancy in order to make sure that you feel your best during the whole birth experience. You can also learn everything you need to know about natural birth Everything you need to know to have a great pregnancy and birth is in this guide! Read more here...

Bump To Birth Summary


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My Bump To Birth Review

Highly Recommended

All of the information that the author discovered has been compiled into a downloadable ebook so that purchasers of Bump To Birth can begin putting the methods it teaches to use as soon as possible.

When compared to other e-books and paper publications I have read, I consider this to be the bible for this topic. Get this and you will never regret the decision.

The Drama and Trauma of Childbirth

The onset of a mother's labor pains signals the near completion of a baby's biological task of becoming a separate person, a process begun in the third trimester of pregnancy. Under the best circumstances, birth represents an upheaval for the newborn. A first child takes an average of eight hours to make it through the birth canal. Though worn out, a bit bruised, and disoriented, most newborns make the journey without injury or permanent damage.

Trauma To The Birth Canal

The anaesthetist is often asked to provide anaesthesia for the repair of birth trauma. The full extent of the damage may not be known as it may not be possible to examine the woman without anaesthesia. The trauma may be extensive and involve disruption of the anal sphincter, which is classified as a third-degree tear. There may be considerable blood loss and it is important to assess this before performing regional anaesthesia. If there is an epidural in situ, this may be topped up for the repair. If there is no epidural, then a spinal anaesthetic is the technique of choice. Hyperbaric bupivacaine 0.5 in a volume of 1.5 ml provides good sacral analgesia.

Vaginal Birth after Cesarean

Transfundal Uterine Incision

A trial of vaginal birth after a previous cesarean delivery (VBAC) is an accepted method of delivery for most women with a prior low-transverse cesarean delivery. Factors that increase morbidity in VBAC should be understood so that practical decisions can be made regarding the best route of delivery for each patient. ACOG (2004) suggests the following criteria for selection of appropriate candidates one Most women with one previous cesarean delivery with a low-transverse incision are candidates for vaginal birth after cesarean (VBAC) and should be counseled about VBAC and offered a trial of labor (SOR A). Women who are most likely to have a successful VBAC are less than 40 years old, have had one prior cesarean delivery, undergo spontaneous labor, have a baby no greater than 4000 g, and had a prior cesarean section that was not for failure to progress or CPD in the active phase of labor. Based on the available data, the overall outcomes from TOLAC and ERCS are so similar that the two...

Spinal Meninges Big Picture

VThe epidural space is located between the dura mater and the vertebral canal. An anesthetic agent can be injected into the epidural space to anesthetize the spinal nerve roots, and is particularly useful for procedures involving the pelvis and perineum (e.g., during childbirth). To administer an anesthetic agent into the epidural space, a needle passes through the skin of the back overlaying the L4-L5 vertebrae and through the supportive ligaments between the adjacent vertebrae, such as the ligamentum flavum.

What Practitioners Say It Does

Naturopaths view naturopathic medicine as an alternative to conventional primary care, claiming to treat the same range of illnesses and referring patients to other conventional specialists as necessary. Naturopaths do not provide emergency care and they do not perform major surgery. Some naturopathic physicians practice natural childbirth in the home or at a birthing center However naturopathic medicine claims to treat almost the entire range of illness, from self-limiting and minor problems to AIDS and cancer.

Carol Jagger And Antony J Arthur

As few diseases or conditions present for the first time in later life, there are few treatments prescribed solely to older people. There is also little consensus on the definition of 'the elderly' since ageing can be considered a continuous process from birth to death. However the increasing likelihood of illness other than that under treatment and greater mental and physical frailty with ageing means that older people can be inherently different to younger adults and the numerous physiological changes that accompany the ageing process may alter the way in which older people respond to drugs.1

Modern Concepts of Ventricular Fibrillation

The experimental work of Allessie et al.76 78 in the 1970s gave birth to the so-called leading circle concept and was an essential initial step toward our current understanding of the phenomenon of functional reentry in cardiac tissue that is, reentry without the involvement of an anatomical obstacle. At about the same time, work conducted by Soviet scientists using the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction79 '80 and its numerical counterparts led to the idea that two-dimensional spiral autowaves could be a possible mechanism of cardiac arrhythmias.81' 82 Subsequently, the notion of spiral autowaves was brilliantly expanded into the third dimension by the Arthur T. Winfree,83-85 who in fact coined the term rotor to signify the actual vortex that generates the spiral (scroll) wave activity, which led to the virtual abandonment of the use of the term leading circle. Thereafter, much work focused on rotors as the underlying mechanism of ventricular tachycardia and VF.

The evolution of the brain gradually achieving complexity

A similar process of continuous change and selection has gone on in all aspects of life on earth, including the human brain. Just as languages are the product of sounds and grammatical rules copied into the speech regions of an offspring's brain, organisms are the product of genes and the genetic code copied into an offspring cell, which, for our purposes, results not only in a full organism, but also in its brain. In brains, more complicated wiring schemes provided an advantage in some situations, so they were sometimes selected. The primitive nerve-like cell gave rise to more sophisticated versions and to organisms with nerve networks, then ganglia and finally the complex collection of billions of nerve cells that we call a brain. At no point did a parent give birth to a new species but the small differences slowly added up. Because we can only see a snapshot of a continuous process, we see different species with their particular brains. This is a little like taking a cross-section...

Further Developmental Considerations

The adult mind is the result of development from birth onward. Although Freud initially underestimated the capacities of newborn infants, he recognized their helplessness, their dependence on others, and their need to develop. As mentioned earlier, he saw that development as the consequence of conflict resolution. This developmental component of psychoanalytic theory-was later elaborated by Edward Bibring 1941) After ego-resistances, etc., have been removed, the id's natural tendencies of development spontaneously act in the direction of cure. That is to say, at any age, psychoanalytic treatment can be seen to facilitate interrupted development.

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For most women, the muscles of the pelvic floor maintain sufficient tone or strength to keep these openings closed except when they open for their specific purposes, that is, for childbirth, urination, or defecation. However, stretching of the muscular diaphragm and injuries to the le-vator ani and coccygeus muscles can make the support system vulnerable. Resulting weakness can result in protrusion or herniation of the uterus, bladder, or rectum.

Developmental Structuralist Model and the Developmental Individual Difference Relationship Based Approach

The developmental structuralist model has given birth to the developmental, individual-difference, relationship-based (DIR) approach to assessment and treatment. The DIR model, which is a developmental biopsychosocial approach, attempts to facilitate understanding of children and their families by identifying and systematizing the child's essential functional developmental capacities. These include the child's 1) functional-emotional developmental level 2) individual differences in sensory reactivity, processing, and motor planning and 3) relationships and interactions with caregivers, family members, and others.

Symmetry and fractal properties in creativity

Fractals can depict the self-similar patterning of trajectories around chaotic strange attractors. Zausner notes how a person's creative periods also appear self-similar, with successive inventiveness and reflectivity this may account for associations between alternating mood states (including bipolar affective disorder) and creativity. In addition, works of art - as opposed to reproductions and cover versions - are unique fruits of creative process have unpredictable but not disorderly shapes. An artist's style is self-similar. Works bear family resemblances to each other, and this kinship reflects their birth process.

What It Can Do for You

Advocates suggest that the variety of flower remedies available today can help some people improve their sleep, reduce stress, calm fears, ease childbirth, reduce alcoholic tremors, and lessen skeletal and muscular aches. There are no scientific studies to support these claims, but flower remedies may evoke a placebo response. Flower remedies do not cure disease. As long as they are not used in place of needed professional care, they cause no harm and may provide a pleasant antidote to emotional stress.

The Freefloating Individualistic Structure Of Identity

Some benefits have been associated with an individualistic identity structure. Among these are accelerated economic development, less likelihood of government corruption, increased creativity and innovation, and better responsiveness to situations that require change. Heightened creativity and greater flexibility are also possible when individuals are no longer bound by preordained cultural knowledge, goals, and routines. The cultural exile has greater freedom with which to magnify the number of opportunities that life offers. There is also a certain amount of romantic appeal to the prospect of a powerful individual prevailing over a dull fate of mindless following and spineless other-reliance. Several nineteenth-century philosophers fueled the notion that dumb society was the enemy of the noble individual, and that only cowards and weaklings allow themselves to be tyrannized by dreary convention. This attitude has given birth to more than a few ardent supporters of American-style...

Dissection of the Internal Carotid Artery in the Neck

A 23-year-old woman developed diarrhea and vomiting 4 weeks after childbirth. On the second day of illness she had a diffuse headache and felt discomfort in her right jaw and lower part of the face. She noted that her right eyelid was drooped, and she became aware of a whooshing sound in her right ear. It was difficult for her to pronounce some words. Examination showed normal vital signs the right eyelid drooped, and the right pupil was smaller than the left but reacted to light. Her right palate and right tongue were weak.

Trajectories of Population Aging

From the perspective of the early 21st century one can see an amazing revolution of demographic behavior that began slowly in Europe in the 18th century and accelerated around the world in the 20th century. All populations before the demographic transition, as the revolution is generally called, had to contend with high death rates. When half or fewer of all babies survived to adulthood, fertility was necessarily high or a population would not survive. Under these conditions of high fertility and high mortality, all populations were young by contemporary standards, with no more than 3 or 4 of any population being over age 65 years. Without entering into the discussion (and debates) about the causal mechanisms involved (Casterline 2003 Chesnais 1992), the basic description of what happened can be simply noted. Death rates and birth rates in Europe, North America, and Australia declined drastically between 1850 and 2000. During this transition, populations in these areas grew...

Girls Boys and Divorce

By adolescence, both boys and girls post-divorce are more likely to engage in negative conduct and experience bouts of sadness. Adolescent girls are likely to be involved in early sexual behavior, leading to a greater risk of teenage pregnancy and childbirth. This set of events can also have dramatic effects on their completion of school and their ability to enter the workforce and earn a satisfactory living. Adolescent boys are likely to spend more time with deviant peers and

The Echocardiogram

Transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography with Doppler interrogation and color flow imaging (Figs. 8-29, 8-30, and 8-31) permit segment-by-segment analysis of the ascending aorta, the aortic arch, the brachiocephalic arteries, the aortic isthmus, and the proximal descending aorta from birth to maturity.44,48,208 An echocardiographic diagnosis of coarctation can be made in utero.3 The suprasternal notch window with color flow imaging identifies the coarctation as a zone of localized accelerated flow and by providing the target through which the continuous wave Doppler beam can be aligned to determine the gradient (see Figs. 8-29A,B, 8-30, and 8-31).44,208 Peak systolic velocity reflects the maximum systolic gradient, and persistent high velocity diastolic forward flow reflects severity (see Figs. 8-29B and 8-31B).39'44'147'208 The Doppler pattern across the coarctation is affected by reduced proximal aortic compliance.81 Color flow identifies the precise level at which laminar...

Misoprostol In Practice

In a placebo-controlled, community-based trial in India, administration of 600 ig miso-prostol orally immediately after delivery significantly reduced postpartum hemorrhage (see Addendum). Research in Indonesia, Nepal and elsewhere is showing that community volunteers with minimal training can teach illiterate women to self-administer misoprostol effectively and responsibly1 (see Chapter 19). A 1000 g rectal dose of misoprostol can be used to treat postpartum hemorrhage, in situations where an appropriate technology exists to diagnose blood loss (such as blood-soaked sarong or 'kanga'), and where births are attended by traditional birth attendants (TBAs). In Tanzania, illiterate TBAs, with a brief training, used misoprostol to bring about a highly significant reduction in the number of women who needed to be referred to hospital or receive intravenous treatment2. Unfortunately, rapid population growth, economic collapse and the spread of HIV AIDS in some African countries and the...

Sex and the Single Narrative Development and Identity

Objects, it may be argued, arc present, albeit on the backburner, in classic psychosexual theory. The moment of genital union is also the moment of oedipal resolution, when, to use Kernberg's (1995) formulation, body-surface erotism and total object relations come together. Even if the oedipal narrative were an inevitable unfolding of biological destiny, still it accounts for psychosexual development in terms of critical object relations Fairbairn 1954). In Freud's view, sexual interests evolve from birth until they become the target of inhibitions during the fifth year then they reemerge in puberty, at which time they are not polymorphous but arc ready to enter reproductive service. This process is described by the oedipal narrative, which, as we have seen, can no longer be uncritically accepted as veridical account or accurate prediction of psyche, culture, or history.

Methods And Measures

While births are the event to be measured, the concept of an event exposure rate is fundamental to all demographic measurement. The additional key concept needed for rate calculation is the population at risk or person-years of exposure. The essential measurement task is to estimate the risk of a specific event (e.g., a birth, a first birth, a nonmarital birth). The accepted strategy utilizes a ratio of a count of events (births to a specified group) to an estimate of the person-years exposed to the risk of an event in a given time period (Preston, Heuveline, and Guillot 2001). In the year 2000, for instance, a woman who survives the full year contributes a full year at risk of a birth and thus adds one to the denominator of a year 2000 birth rate. There is a range of strategies for estimating years at risk (Preston, Heuveline, and Guillot 2001). Once rates have been estimated, how does one conceptualize social change In general, birth rates can be examined by alternative dimensions...

Evolutionary psychology designed to think and behave as we do

Human expressions are universally understood even people blind from birth make appropriate expressions, despite never having seen one. Everyone smiles with pleasure and cries with pain. Why are so many of us scared of spiders or heights or public speaking Why do we greet each other before interacting Why do people risk their lives for strangers Evolutionary psychology is a body of theory that attempts to answer these questions by regarding our thoughts and behaviour as a set of responses programmed into us by evolution because they were useful during our prehistoric past.

Other clostridial diseases

Patients with C. sordellii infection present with unique clinical features including edema, absence of fever, leukemoid reaction, hemoconcentration, and, later, shock and multiorgan failure.20 Often, C. sordellii infections develop after childbirth or after gynecologic procedures,40 although some cases involve sites of minor trauma such as lacerations. Unlike C. perfringens and C. septicum infections, pain may not be a prominent feature. The absence of fever and a paucity of signs and symptoms of local infection make early diagnosis difficult.20 The mechanisms of diffuse capillary leakage, massive edema, and hemoconcentration are not well established but clearly are related to elaboration of a potent toxin. Hematocrits of 75-80 have been described, and leukocytosis of 50100 000 cells mm3 with a left shift is common.12,40

Health Promotion Activities and Information for

Preparation for the birthing process is a key theme around which to discuss care issues and choices such as breastfeeding. Structured educational programs to promote breastfeeding have unclear effectiveness. Pregnant women should be counseled about the risks of possible teratogens, including smoking, alcohol, and drug use, including exposure to medications, prescriptions, OTC drugs, and herbal remedies. Good handwashing is always encouraged because this is one of the best ways to avoid community-acquired infectious diseases. Appropriate immunizations such as influenza and novel influenza A (H1N1) virus should be offered. Common exposures such as workplace conditions and use of hot tubs and saunas should be explored. Exercise should also be encouraged if there is no obstetric contraindication (Box 21-4). Intercourse during pregnancy should be actively addressed because some women are reluctant to discuss this topic even with their physician. Sexual activity can generally...

Establishing empirical evidence of biases

Biases associated with particular characteristics of studies may be examined using a technique often known as meta-epidemiology (Naylor 1997, Sterne 2002). A meta-epidemiological study analyses a collection of meta-analyses, in each of which the component studies have been classified according to some study-level characteristic. An early example was the study of clinical trials with dichotomous outcomes included in meta-analyses from the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Database (Schulz 1995b). This study demonstrated that trials in which randomization was inadequately concealed or inadequately reported yielded exaggerated estimates of intervention effect compared with trials reporting adequate concealment, and found a similar (but smaller) association for trials that were not described as double-blind.

Methods And Measures Measuring Infant Mortality

Conception, irrespective of the duration of pregnancy, which after such separation breathes or shows any other evidence of life'' and death as the permanent disappearance of life any time after live birth has taken place'' (United Nations 2001 13). The infant mortality rate is conventionally measured as the number of deaths to infants under one year of age in a given year, per 1,000 live births in the same year. However, not all infant deaths occur in the calendar year of birth, so that the IMR as just defined is not a probability based on the population at risk. A true probability can be computed directly from birth cohort data of the sort routinely made available in the Linked Birth Infant Death Files by the US National Center for Vital Statistics (NCHS). Shryock and Siegel (1976) refer to the computation based on birth cohorts as the infant death rate. In the absence of substantial year-to-year fluctuations, the infant mortality rate and the infant death rate will be similar in...

Feline polycystic kidney disorder

In PKD a large number of fluid-filled cysts form within the kidneys (Feline Advisory Bureau 2004). The cysts are present from birth but increase in size until they damage the surrounding kidney tissue and cause kidney failure (Fig. 16.10). The cat will eventually die, despite supportive treatment. The disease is peculiar to Persian cats and any breed of cat where Persian genes have been included, such as the Tiffany.

Directions For Future Research

Additional analyses exploring the interrelationships between birth outcomes and their main and conjoint effects on infant mortality would seem to hold considerable potential for generating insights into variation in perinatal health. More population-specific studies based on deviations from birth outcome survival optimums are needed, as

Infant of a Diabetic Mother

Macrosomia is defined as a birth weight of more than 4000 grams or greater than the 90th percentile for gestational age. The problems associated with being an IDM relate to the effects of hyperinsulinism and macrosomia. IDMs have higher rates of perinatal mortality and morbidity. Macrosomia is a predisposing factor for a variety of birth trauma-related injuries, including shoulder dystocia, clavicle fracture, facial nerve palsy, and brachial plexus injury. Poor intrauterine growth occurs at a higher incidence in diabetic pregnancies than in the nondiabetic pregnancy. Women with severe preexisting diabetic vascular disease and decreased uterine blood flow are at significant risk to deliver a growth-retarded infant (Tyrala, 1996).

Models of Experimental Risk Factors

Perinatal complications such as Cesarean birth and anoxia during birth in rats have been reported to produce changes in limbic dopamine function. However, these studies are difficult to interpret since C-sections alone seemed to produce more debilitating effects than C-sections with anoxia.

Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

The NICU is a highly specialized setting for the medical care of critically ill newborn infants. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2008), more than half a million babies in the United States are born prematurely each year, and many of these infants require NICU hospital-ization for days, weeks, or even months. In addition to preterm and low-birth-weight infants, the typical NICU caseload includes babies with congenital anomalies and full-term newborns affected by prenatal or perinatal insults and or birth trauma, including preeclampsia, eclampsia, and asphyxia. Other distinctive features of the NICU include specialized medical equipment (e.g., isolettes, breast pumps, rocking chairs) and postpartum mothers and fathers who have typically not yet held or cared for their infants.

Targets of embolization

The prime target of embolization is the source artery of hemorrhage. Commonly, this is the uterine artery when the source of hemorrhage is in the myometrium, cervix or endometrium (Figure 2e). If the hemorrhage is due to laceration of the birth canal below the level of the

Distribution and Incidence

Conclusive studies indicating that race is a factor, though it has been suggested that black women in the United States are more likely to suffer from eclampsia than their white counterparts because of greater tendency to develop chronic hypertension on the one hand, and less opportunity for proper maternal care on the other. The disorder occurs in 6 to 8 percent of all pregnancies. Statistics show that it is more common in urban areas, though this association may reflect only the fact that urban women who experience eclampsia or preeclampsia receive more medical assistance in giving birth than rural women, and thus the condition is more frequently noted and reported. Indeed, it is difficult to determine the frequency of eclampsia in rural areas or Third World nations because women there seldom seek, have access to, or can afford regular prenatal care and a hospital delivery. In the United States it has been estimated that the incidence of toxemia is between 5 and 7 percent of all...

Clinical Case Vignette

Connie was married and in her mid-40s when she sought treatment with Mitchell. Her previous therapy, which had ended about 10 years earlier, was described as helpful in alleviating her chronic sadness that stemmed from the sudden loss of her mother in a fatal car accident when Connie was 5 years old. Connie returned to treatment because her sadness, connected with the mourning of her mother, never fully lifted. In fact, it worsened when she married in her late 30s and again when she gave birth to her son. At the start of her treatment with Mitchell, her son, who was then 5 years old, was experiencing considerable separation difficulties.

Demographic Research On The Level Of Inequality

One of the fundamental indicators of inequality in a population is its level of poverty, which is typically measured as the proportion of households whose income falls below some specified poverty threshold (i.e., the poverty rate).30 Because poverty thresholds vary by household size (and, to a lesser extent, composition), Bumpass and Sweet (1981) note that processes of family formation and change can have direct effects on the incidence of poverty. These demographic factors may also have indirect effects via consequent reductions in labor supply or earnings capacities. Households may thus leave or enter poverty as the result of such demographic changes as marital dissolution, aging, retirement, death, childbirth, remarriage, the departure of children from the household, and the formation of new households.

Description Of Social Patterns And Trends

Another part of the social demographic perspective is an appreciation of the significance of long-term population trends and differentials for understanding social change. The careful assembly of long-term trends in marriage, divorce, and remarriage (Cherlin 1992) and birth rates (Rindfuss and Sweet 1977) has provided important sociological insights about the economic and cultural changes in American society that produced the ''return of tradition'' in the 1950s and the tumultuous social changes of the 1960s and 1970s. The portrayal of cohort trends in educational attainment as the product of a series of continuation ratios from one grade level to the next is elegant and also a model that ''explains'' how the American educational system has changed over the 20th century (Duncan 1968 640 Mare 1995). One of the most famous articles in social demography Samuel Preston's (1984) comparison of diverging trends in the welfare of children and the elderly in the United States was prescient in...

Public Orientations Modern Voyeurism And Social Allergies

Although Internet consumption can be thoroughly asocial, it is also giving birth to a new voyeuristic interpersonal style wherein participants beguile themselves with the experience of being connected to the whole world. This heralds a turn of events in which the public has become the new extended family. Moderns are now seeking to forge relationships with far-off audiences, rather than those who inhabit their immediate surroundings. In fact, localness has become a disincentive for social investment, with some people concentrated almost exclusively on their relationship to the public. Evaluations of the self are reliant on ever larger recognition groups, as local heroics is no longer able to fortify identity.

Medical Overview and Epidemiology

Because SCD is a genetic condition present from birth, the disease is likely to interact with developmental factors in infancy or early childhood and therefore to have implications for cognitive and psychosocial functioning (Berkelhammer et al. 2007 Gustafson et al. 2006 Schatz and Puffer 2006). In this chapter, we summarize current knowledge about the brain bases of the psychological effects of SCD and psychological factors associated with adjustment and quality of life. Additionally, we review available evidence-based interventions for treatment adherence, pain coping and psychosocial adjustment, and cognitive and academic difficulties.

The Jugular Venous Pulse

Moderately restrictive and nonrestrictive ventricular septal defects with congestive heart failure are associated with an elevated mean jugular venous pressure and an increase in A and V waves. The jugular venous pulse in Eisenmenger syndrome is normal or nearly so, with small dominant A waves (Fig. 17-13). Large A waves are exceptional because right ventricular systolic pressure does not exceed systemic level, so the right ventricle requires little extra help from its atrium because systemic afterload exists from birth.

Toward The Invisible Parent

One overriding trend, the choice not to have children, is being reflected in rapidly declining birth rates throughout the Western world. The childless family will continue to gain in popularity as more and more people are swayed toward life-style creations founded upon maximal freedom as a vehicle for consumer heroics. This goal will also result in a continuation of the present trend away from marriage itself, which reflects the tendency of moderns to approach commitment on a purely experimental and exchangeable basis.

Relationships as Fundamental Motivators and Organizers

There is now consensus among development researchers that the relationship between infant and parent is the fundamental unit in which development takes place and that the creation and maintenance of ties to other people are central motivations for infants. Humans are prepared, from birth onward, to communicate so as to promote caregiving and the formation of significant emotional ties (see, e.g., Ekman and Fricsen 1969 Stern 1985). Over time, through evolving sequences of signals and responses, infants and caregivers continually influence and regulate each other's internal states and behaviors. Similar patterns of self-regulation, mutual regulation, and mutual influence apply in later childhood and adulthood, albeit in more sophisticated and complex forms. These early interaction patterns have been shown to exert an influence into adulthood (faffe et al. 2001 Main 2000). (For excellent reviews of die developmental research, see Schore 1994 Stern 1985 and Wallin 2007, among others.)

Symbols of Mother Dead and Archetypal

Frida painted how she imagined her birth in 'My Birth' (1932) created after her own mother's death, where she illuminates the suffering she endured in her relationship with her mother. In this painting, the baby is birthing herself from a dead mother, alone and unaided. On the wall is an image of the Virgin of Sorrows pierced by thorns, bleeding and weeping. This image seems to hold birth and death simultaneously. The mother wears a death's shroud and the baby emerges with a face of anguish.

Bleeding disorders coagulopathies and use of anticoagulants

Women with congenital hemorrhagic disorders such as von Willebrand's disease (quantitative or qualitative deficiency of von Willebrand factor), carriers of hemophilia A (factor VIII deficiency), hemophilia B (factor IX deficiency) and factor XI deficiency are at an increased risk of postpartum hemorrhage. Often, these abnormalities of the coagulation system are undetected until challenged by trauma, surgery or childbirth and so may be undiagnosed prior to pregnancy. These women are not at increased risk of antepartum hemorrhage15 but at significant risk of both primary and secondary postpartum hemorrhage. The risk of secondary postpartum hemorrhage may be even greater than primary postpartum hemorrhage as the pregnancy-induced rise in maternal clotting factors falls after delivery. The reported incidence for secondary postpartum hemorrhage in these conditions is 20-28 for von Willebrand's disease, 11 for hemophilia carriers and 24 in factor XI deficiency16-19. Postpartum acquired...

Blindness and the brain

Greater environmental awareness, through the development of other senses, notably hearing, smell and touch. This is not to pander to the stereotype of the blind piano tuner. The massive cortical power that would have been handed over to vision can be diverted and experiments suggest that this is most evident in those who are blind from birth, less so in those blinded later in life. This fits with other experiments that have led to the view that plasticity, the ability to reorganize brain function, is at its most efficient in the first two years of life. For someone who is blind, the sense of touch works at the speed of sight . This is clear when reading Braille at speed something few (or no) sighted people could achieve. Some experimental results suggest that the visual cortex is still being activated during this process in other words, the area programmed for vision has been recruited to process other sensory information instead.

Theories of attachment

We are born with 'signals' that have evolved to encourage attachment, so it is an evolutionary process that ensures survival. It is an instinct, and Lorenz (1937) found that animals will 'imprint' (follow the attachment object instinctively from birth) during a critical period, and that this is automatic and irreversible.

Group B Streptococcus Meningitis

Infection with group B Streptococcus (such as S. agalactiae) is the most common cause of neonatal sepsis and meningitis. One of every four to five pregnant women is a carrier of group B Streptococcus in the vagina or rectum. Group B streptococci can be acquired during childbirth after exposure to infected secretions from the mother's birth canal or rectum. Neonates born to women who are carriers are at very high risk (1 of every 100-200 babies) of developing invasive group B streptococcal disease, including sepsis and meningitis.36 Neonatal meningitis is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Synergistic treatment with penicillin or ampicillin, plus gentamicin, for 14 to 21 days is recommended for the treatment of group B strepto-

Postoperative care

The timing of the surgery in the bitch is quite important and they can either be spayed prior to their first oestrus or during anoestrus - usually 2-4 months after the bitch has been in season or 6-8 weeks after giving birth. The queen during the breeding season comes into oestrus every 3 weeks and it may be difficult to find a time when she is not in season. As a result, a veterinary surgeon will usually perform the operation at any time after the onset of sexual maturity at around 5 months of age.

The Clash of Moral Creativity with Private Interests

Indeed, the generation of effective novelty that contributes positively to the common good - moral creativity in the terms of this atricle - is not necessarily greeted with unrestrained approval by all parties concerned. Introduction of such novelty may conflict with private or narrow interests, and the two may clash. Sometimes selfish interests prevail, even when the effective novelty makes a massive and obvious contribution to the common good. In such cases, moral creativity is blocked by self-serving ways of looking at things. A historical example is to be seen in what happened to the Austrian obstetrician, Ignaz Semmelweiss. In 1840, he dramatically and rapidly reduced the incidence of death from puerperal fever in the lying-in hospital in Vienna simply by requiring the obstetricians under his supervision to wash their hands before touching women who had recently given birth, thus avoiding cross-infection, although this concept did not exist in Semmelweiss's time. However, this...

The Oestrus That Never

Their fitness by providing greater resources to their mates and offspring an important selective strategy given the relative helplessness of human infants, slow rates of development, and extended inter-birth intervals in the human species (e.g. Morris 1967 Alexander and Noonan 1979 Lovejoy 1981 Fisher 1982). It has also been posited that loss of oestrus and concealment of ovulation during human evolution might have provided females with increased opportunities to mate with additional males (i.e. to engage in extra-pair copulations), and thus to confuse paternity and reduce the risks that males might engage in infanticide (Hrdy 1981). However, the most peculiar line of reasoning that I have encountered in relation to explaining the concealment of ovulation during human evolution is due to Burley (1979). She advanced the hypothesis that concealment of ovulation would have prevented women from avoiding matings during the fertile period their motivation for such avoidance would have been...

Ecological Demography And The Demographic Processes

In a later ecological study of fertility, London (1987) focuses on the explicitly human ecological aspects of economic development and their influences on fertility. He examines the relationship between measures of the division of labor (Gibbs and Poston 1975) and the crude birth rate among the provinces of Thailand for the 1960 to 1970 period. He hypothesizes that the greater the complexity of the division of labor, the lower the fertility. At the bivariate level he finds support for his hypothesis. A review of the literature of ecological demography finds several analyses of mortality (for example, Gibbs 1959 Davis 1963 Friedlander 1969). The study by Gibbs (1959) of the relationship between changes in mortality and fertility and changes in sustenance organization is representative of this genre. He is interested in ascertaining whether human populations avoid an increase in mortality by reducing their fertility when confronted with organizational changes leading to decreases in...

Musical Aptitude Nature or Nurture

The nature or nurture issue on the development of musical talent has yet fully resolved, and this is particularly relevant to the question of musical geniuses, of which Mozart (17561791) is cited as a prime example. Mozart came from a family of musicians which could imply that he had some innate ability, but it also means that he was surrounded by music from birth, and even in utero. His father, Leopold, was a music teacher and a hard, even ruthless, taskmaster forcing his young son to practice for many hours a day. Anders Ericsson and colleagues have searched for strong scientific evidence for innate talent and giftedness, but as yet have not found rigorous reproducible outcomes that support this. Perhaps the debate should continue, with the provisional conclusion that nature and nurture might both have a part to play in musical development.

Fractured femur paediatric gallows traction

This type of traction is used on children from birth to 12 months. Two projections, antero-posterior and lateral, are taken to assess bone alignment and new bone formation. The application of gonad protection and careful collimation of the X-ray beam are essential. Great care should be exercised to avoid disturbing the traction however, it is still usually possible to maintain traction and rotate the child so that the front of the suspended legs are facing the side of the cot, which can be lowered during exposure to avoid superimposition of the cot's vertical bars.

Other Health Benefits

Distracting attention from the discomfort through emotional engagement with the music, or by creating a feeling of control over the pain by having a technique to decrease its severity. Such applications can have far-reaching clinical applications, for example in recovery from, or tolerance of, pain of surgery, childbirth, accidents, or other medically related conditions. Paul Robertson describes studies that were carried out in a German hospital by Dr Ralph Spintage it was found that just 15 minutes of soothing music allowed the dosage of sedatives and anaesthetic drugs used to control the pain of operations to be reduced by 50 .

First Maternal Death Litigated 1905

Half (17) of 34 (i.e. 50 ) of the litigated cases involved a maternal death. The first of these occurred in the US. On 27 February 1905, Florence Westrup delivered her first child at home outside Newport, Kentucky. She had 'a great aversion to physicians', and planned a natural home birth. The birth of the child (at term) went well, but she began to hemorrhage. Despite her protests, her husband called the family physician. He arrived, examined her, and found a retained placenta. He went home to fetch his bag of instruments and returned, but 'by wilfully neglecting to furnish his wife . . . with such care and attention as were necessary during her confinement in childbirth, thereby causing her death'.

Stable Population Theory And Its Extensions

The renewal equation and stable growth. The continuous single-sex model of population dynamics is expressed as an integral equation. To obtain B(t), the number of female births at time t, women aged x to x + dx at time t ''at risk'' of childbirth are the survivors of those born x years ago. Denote the number of females born x years ago by B(t x) and the life table survival probability (for surviving from birth to age x) byp(x). Then this quantity is B(t x)p(x)dx, where x t. At time t, these women give birth to

Skin The Purpose of the Surface

Your skin is the largest organ you've got. It envelops your body in a waterproof protective covering that will take all kinds of abuse from birth through midlife crisis. Is there a price to pay You bet. According to traditional oriental theory, your skin reflects the inner workings of your body and spirit. Organs like the stomach, lungs, and bowels can greatly affect the texture, tone, and glow of your skin. Keep reading to learn some tips for stunning skin.

Unlicensed Practice Of Obstetrics 1963

Only two cases of postpartum hemorrhage have been litigated where a professional attendant at delivery was not licensed to practise obstetrics. Earlier, the 1907 case of Midwife Porn was discussed. The only other reported case was in 1963. Bernhardt and Lund were two doctors of chiropractic, but they held themselves out as competent in the management of childbirth. They supervised the delivery of Ladean Stojakovich at home, but unfortunately she had a postpartum hemorrhage and she died before she could be transferred to hospital. They were charged and convicted of breach of the Business and Professions Code (for practising medicine) and of manslaughter (for causing a death that was avoidable). Surprisingly, and for complex legal reasons, the Court of Appeals of California reversed both convictions, and it denied a request for retrial19.

Separation and Individuation

In 1924 Rank published what was to become an historically important book, The Trauma ofBirth. In it, Rank described birth as the prototype for anxiety and highlighted the patient's relationship with his or her mother as central to analytic work. Rank felt he was extending psychoanalytic thought into new territory. He didn't fully realize at the time that he was declaring his independence from Freud. Previous Freudian thinking emphasized the transference to the father in therapy (the unconscious way patients re-experience ambivalence toward the analyst who symbolically represents their father). At first The Trauma of Birth was welcomed by Freud, who only later criticized what we might today call the first 'neo-Freudian' approach. Rank was hurt by Freud's rejection of his thinking and by the cold response of Freud's associates who began to shun him. Being a rebel and an outsider was a familiar role for Rank, however, and over the next few years, while in his early forties, he...

Disappearing Baby 1999

In the late 1970s, I had a similar case in the UK a 14-year-old girl who presented in shock with heavy vaginal bleeding. She had a perineal midline tear, a widely open cervix, and an enlarged uterus, but there was no baby and no placenta. Her hemoglobin level was only 4 g dl, so she was transfused with blood. Her presentation was clearly consistent with recent childbirth followed by a major postpartum hemorrhage. Despite the overwhelming evidence, the girl and her parents firmly denied any pregnancy or recent delivery of a baby. The police were duly called in. They investigated the matter and searched the family home, but no baby was ever found. No charges were ever brought.

Postpartum Hemorrhage In A Female Dog 2006

February 2006 the Court of Appeals of Texas ruled on a case involving the management of postpartum hemorrhage in a female dog in the Bureau of Animal Regulation and Care in Houston in 1999. This facility takes around 20-30 000 animals a year. One of their veterinarians was Dr Levingston. He had made a number of complaints to his employers about the inhumane treatment of animals in their care, but on one particular occasion they accused him of the negligent care of animals, and they terminated his employment. They cited his alleged mismanagement of the care of a female Rottweiler dog who had given birth to nine puppies, and who had a postpartum hemorrhage from which she exsanguinated and died. They said he should have considered the possibilities of hysterectomy or euthanasia. He appealed his termination of employment and won his case. He was awarded damages in the lower court. His employers appealed the decision, and the case went to the Court of Appeals of Texas who dismissed their...

Phenomenological Studies of Constructs Related to Creativity

'Peak experiences' are defined as moments of highest happiness and fulfillment. Maslow (1971) and Laski (1961) provided accounts of such experiences in religious and non-religious contexts, such as during childbirth or athletic events, and while enjoying music, nature, or dancing. It has been argued that heightened creativity is a characteristic of peak experiences and that creative work is a common trigger of peak experience. Maslow (1962) stated that peak experiences release a person for greater creativity, spontaneity, expressiveness, idiosyncrasy (p. 101). Maslow (1971) also asserted that it is the power to evoke peak experiences that distinguishes great art from the inconsequential. Rollo May (1959) stated that ecstasy, the central feature of peak experiences, describes a level of consciousness that occurs during the creative act.

HIVAssociated Central Nervous System Disorders Children

The true incidence of pediatric HIV-1-associated CNS disease is not yet known. A review of the published literature is difficult to interpret because of differences in terminology, definitions, study populations, and study designs. An incidence of 13 to 28 percent is reported from prospective studies of children followed from birth to early childhood. y , y , y , y.5 , W A 23.8 percent rate was reported by Tovo and co-workers in their cohort of 433 HIV-1 perinatally infected children in Italy. 23 Blanche and colleagues reported a 15 to 20 percent incidence of HIV-1 encephalopathy by age 3 years in their patients followed prospectively from birth and a 10 percent incidence per year thereafter. y In contrast, cohort studies of infants and children, who had already developed AIDS- related complex or AIDS, show a higher prevalence rate. A still higher rate (31 to 75 percent) is reported from cohorts of children who already developed AIDS.y , y 1 , 127 The...

Historical Perspective

In the middle of the 19th century, maternal mortality was around 6 per 1000 live births, and, of those deaths, about one-third were related to puerperal sepsis, and the remainder were classified as 'accidents of childbirth', which included ante- and postpartum hemorrhage and deaths from obstructed labor. Table 1 shows birth and death rates in England and Wales from 1847 until 1901. It is evident that there was no real improvement in deaths from sepsis during this period, in contrast to a relative improvement in the deaths from other causes. Table 1 Mortality in childbirth in England and Wales 1847-1901 (a period of 55 years), in General Lying-in Hospital, London Table 1 Mortality in childbirth in England and Wales 1847-1901 (a period of 55 years), in General Lying-in Hospital, London accidents of childbirth childbirth accidents of childbirth childbirth Year born alive accidents of childbirth diseases childbirth accidents of childbirth diseases childbirth Year born alive accidents of...

The Loneliness Of The Obstetrician

The major challenge in the 21st century in this field is to narrow the inequalities of health-care provision in childbirth. It is hoped that this textbook, the first ever to discuss the topic of postpartum hemorrhage in a comprehensive manner, will go a long way in helping health-care providers to achieve this goal, for it should be obvious, even to the most neophyte reader, that the problems related to postpartum hemorrhage are not confined to one country or to one region. They are indeed world-wide, and their control will be facilitated by collaborations and partnerships, as seen in this textbook in which several chapters present details of what is being done in the developing as well as the developed world.

Evaluation of Vision within First 4 Months of Life

Parents may report that their baby does not appear to look at them. This statement requires the physician to document a history of prematurity, fetal distress, anoxia, or birth trauma carefully. A failure to reach developmental milestones may indicate neurologic abnormalities. A history of seizure disorder, cerebral palsy, or chromosomal abnormalities helps identify potentially serious causes. In this case, visual acuity or the child's ability to fixate must be assessed. Normal newborns follow faces. By age 2 or 3 months, infants normally follow light and high-contrast objects. Assessment of vision can be achieved by using an optokinetic nystagmus drum. Oculomotor disturbances may be the underlying cause of the child's apparent visual inattention. Bilateral cranial nerve III palsy, congenital fibrosis syndrome, or partial cranial nerve III palsy may give this impression as well.

Two Approaches to the Integrative Effort

As shown by Caspi and Moffitt 2006), the gene may have less of a stranglehold on our destiny than has been assumed through the past century. The authors set out to explore the relationship between genes and environment in the generation of adult pathology'. They followed a prospective sample of 1,037 families in Dunedin, New Zealand, evaluating the children in these families every 2 years from birth until age 26. A subgroup of the children carried a gene coding for monoamine oxidase A (MAOA that was a variant from that of the majority. Of the population under study, some of the children had been seriously physically abused by their parents. Either the gene theory or the environment theory might predict that those children would become violent abusers. However, it turned out that those who had been abused and had the variant iMAOA gene were more likely to become sociopathic and violent as adults, whereas those who did not have the genetic variant were not more likely to show such...

History and Ocular Examination

In patients with pediatric cataracts, the physician should determine the age when the cataract or decreased vision occurred. A detailed history of maternal intrauterine infections should include rubella, toxoplasmosis, herpes simplex, cytomegalovirus, and varicella. Drug and medication use during pregnancy and birth trauma should be ruled out.

Obscurity and Darkness

Few friends visited Schumann at Endenich except for Joachim and Brahms. While Schumann was hospitalized, Clara gave birth to their eighth and last child, a boy called Felix in memory of Mendelssohn. Missing the stimulating presence of his family, Schumann hallucinated an imaginary community of his own. In a deplorable psychotic state, Schumann declined rapidly. He became bedridden and refused to eat, and was unable to control his twitching limbs. On July 29, 1856, Schumann took leave of this world.

Care Following A Postpartum Hemorrhage

Intensive monitoring often means that other aspects of care important to women following childbirth are neglected3. Care provided by midwives also needs to include the psychological well-being of women and the integration of the family unit who may be bewildered by the goings-on after the delivery3,24. Women who are conscious need to have contact with their babies and feel central in any decision-making around

Carotid Cavernous Sinus Fistulas

A carotid-cavernous sinus fistula (CCF) is an abnormal communication between the cavernous sinus and the carotid arterial system. CCFs usually develop after head trauma but can occur spontaneously. CCFs are classified into direct and dural types. y The most common type is the direct type (70 to 90 percent) in which there is a direct connection between the intracavernous portion of the ICA and the cavernous sinus. This is a high-flow type often caused by a traumatic tear of the arterial wall. The other dural types are communications between the cavernous sinus and meningeal arterial branches of the ICA, of the external carotid artery, or of both. They develop spontaneously or in the setting of atherosclerosis, systemic hypertension, collagen vascular disease, and during and after childbirth. These fistulas usually are of the low-flow type and almost always produce symptoms and signs spontaneously without antecedent trauma. '77

General Considerations

As of 2007, the average birth rate for the world is 20.3 live births per year per 1000 total population, which for a world population of 6.6 billion amounts to 134 million babies born per year. In 2007, in the United States, the birth rate was 14.16 per 1000 total population. The lower birth rate in the United States reflects primarily the current smaller proportion of women of childbearing age as baby boomers age and Americans are living longer. The lowest birth rates worldwide, less than 8.5 per 1000, were recorded in Japan, Germany, Singapore, Hong Kong and Macao. The highest birth rates, 49.0 or more per 1000, were recorded in Niger, Liberia, Guinea-Bissau, and Democratic Republic of the Congo. Childbearing among teenagers has been on a long-term decline in the United States since the late 1950s, except for a brief, but steep, upward climb in the late 1980s through 1991. The 2004 birth rate (41.2 births per 1000 teenagers from 15 to 19 years of age) is 1 lower than in 2002 and 33...

Specific Psychopharmacologic Considerations

Case Example Appropriate Medication Treatment for Bipolar Affective Disorder Presenting as Depression. Dr. L, a married female internist, had experienced lifelong insomnia, agitation, and moodiness that were exacerbated by hormonal interventions associated with attempts at in vitro fertilization. She had a history of serious childhood emotional and physical trauma, with aspects of both neglect and abuse at the hands of her self-absorbed mother. Dr. L had coped with this history by devoting herself to her studies work, by entering into sadomasochistic relations with others that reflected the relationship with her mother, and via her fantasies of giving birth to and raising her own children in a healthy, loving environment. The infertility and lack of success with in vitro fertilization led to a serious suicide attempt using overdoses of the two antidepressants she had been prescribed.

Suspected Determinants Of Drug Dependence Prevalence

Dependence and the survivorship of cases, with a resulting downward impact on prevalence values. Second, mortality rates together with birth rates can affect the broad age structure of human populations, and certain changes in age structure can yield either dramatic increases or dramatic declines in the number of cases of drug dependence over spans of 10-20 years, even when there is no change in other factors that influence risk or duration of drug dependence. For example, as discussed in the following section on age-specific risk and prevalence of drug dependence, the number of cases of drug dependence in many countries will increase dramatically between 1990 and 2010 solely as a result of demographic shifts in the population of these countries, due largely to high birth rates and declining mortality rates. These increases will occur unless there are compensatory changes in the other determinants of prevalence, including such factors as more effective prevention or treatment...

Objectives of Small Area Analysis

Small-area analyses are also undertaken to inform public policy. Small-area data can be used to allocate government funds, determine eligibility for entitlement programs, delineate political and electoral boundaries, monitor the effectiveness of public policies, select sites for public facilities, and develop program budgets. Examples include using population estimates by traffic analysis zone for political redistricting (Serow et al. 1997) using block-level population and household projections for choosing sites for fire stations (Tayman, Parrott, and Carnevale 1997) constructing school enrollment projections by grade for a public school district (McKibben 1996) and calculating teenage birth rates by ZIP code to identify areas in need of adolescent pregnancy prevention programs (Gould et al. 1998). These studies may advance scientific understanding, but their primary purpose is to improve governmental decision making.

Return to the United States The 1890s

His father who had already returned to the States a few years before began to think, perhaps, he was having too good a time and called him back to the duties life tasks of a young adult. His younger sister had recently died in childbirth and the family needed to regroup and reestablish family bonds. Coping with the loss, reinforced the seriousness of life it was time to marry, to settle down, to start a business. And Stieglitz did. In 1893 he married Emmeline Oppenheimer, his best friend's sister, ten years younger than he was. Emmeline admired him greatly but never shared his passion for adventure, art, and new ideas. She enjoyed the conventional life of a wealthy young woman in New York - fine clothes, traveling first class, and a well run bourgeois household. Retrospectively, the marriage was a fatally bad choice. Still it was primarily her wealth that provided Stieglitz with the resources to rent gallery space, to publish magazines, and to entertain poets, artists, and critics in...

Estimates and Projections

Most objective methods can be grouped into three basic categories trend extrapolation, structural, and cohort-component. Trend extrapolation methods express the future as a continuation of historical trends. Some methods are very simple, such as those in which past growth rates are projected to remain constant. Others are much more complex, such as those based on time series models. Trend extrapolation methods are often applied to the population as a whole, but can also be applied to particular population subgroups (e.g., a racial or ethnic group), individual components of growth (e.g., births or birth rates), or data expressed as ratios (e.g., county shares of state population). The defining characteristic of trend extrapolation methods is that a variable's projected values are based solely on its historical values.

Regional Anaesthesia For The Parturient

The common indications for anaesthesia for parturients are cae-sarean section, forceps delivery, retained placenta and suturing of trauma to the birth canal. Regional anaesthesia is the technique of choice. Anaesthesia is discussed under the following headings trauma to the birth canal

Global Rates Of Outofhospital Deliveries

Home births in developing countries Ethiopia-southern Sibley et al.33 Examples for planned home births are found in the following two studies. In a prospective study designed to evaluate the safety of home births in North America, all home births involving certified professional midwives across In the Netherlands, approximately one-third of births are planned home deliveries, attended by midwives. In this cross-sectional study, maternal demographics associated with home birth included multiparity, age above 25 years and living in small as opposed to large cities32. The condition is quite different in undeveloped countries. In these areas, home birth with unskilled attendants is the norm, and maternal and neonatal mortality rates are high. Unfortunately, the rates and outcomes of these out-of-hospital births are grossly underreported. The causes for this situation include inadequate emergency care and home-based care by attendants who are poorly equipped or educated to respond to...

Early Loss of a Child Miscarriage and Perinatal Deaths

Parental loss of a child, as discussed in Chapter 4, is one of the most difficult and intense losses to cope with. The age of the child will bring unique issues along with it however, one of the most unrecognized losses within the broader category of parental loss is miscarriage, stillborns, and other early deaths following childbirth. These losses have been called 'lonely' because often the mother has been left to grieve the death of her child alone. Often parents must say goodbye to their child before they even say hello. If the father has not bonded with the child during pregnancy, it is often difficult for him to grieve, or to understand what his wife is experiencing. For all, the grief process is more difficult because what is being grieved often is a dream. How one grieves and the specific issues to be addressed will relate strongly to how the parents had fantasized the child. A wished-for child may have represented various hopes and expectations. Many pregnancies are...

Toward Ecological Modernity

Although EMT may be basically correct in claiming that sociopolitical responses are triggered by ecopathologies as they arise, its advocates do not comprehend fully either the source of environmental threats or the level at which change must take place. EMT is naive in assuming that economic institutions learn from their ecological blunders and that they activate the deep changes that could prevent future repeats of the problem. In reality, even if they participate in the rectification of their damaging practices, they continue to operate on the same underlying principles of indifference, profit, and growth. Regardless of the degree of ecological harm done by one project, the next project will bear the signature of the same values and capitalistic assumptions that gave birth to the previous calamity.

Anthropological Contributions to Conceptions in Psychoanalysis

One major anthropologist, though rarely thought of as a psychoanalytic anthropologist, has nonetheless integrated many of Freud's concepts and those of other psychoanalysts deeply into his thought and even contributed to transformations within the psychoanalytic field. Claude Levi-Strauss's most significant, and perhaps most consequential, commentary on psychoanalysis is his paper on the psychological working of a Cuna shamanic song, The Effectiveness of Symbols (Levi-Strauss 1949a . He shows how the text of the chant for a difficult childbirth evokes a cosmic scene in which the shaman leads a spiritual expedition to free the parturient woman's soul held hostage by the spirit of her womb. The shaman's song draws the woman into the play, identifying herself with this cosmic landscape and her own birth canal with the path the shaman's helpers follow in their struggle with the errant womb-spirit. Imagery in the text evokes the widening of the canal, inducing her to relax her uterine...

Science Systems and Creativity

The human person is a form in constant process of change. From birth to death, that process is a creative one. It partakes of the creative process in all Nature. It is evolutionary as the forms of Nature are. In the individual case we speak of development and growth, in the general case we speak of evolution, but both are aspects of creativity. Indeed, psychogenesis is best understood in the context of cosmogenesis. (1995 30)

The Life Course Perspective

Parallel with the growing interest in the dimension of place and contexts, researchers have increasingly sought to understand the patterns of population health and health disparities along the dimension of time. The life course approach relates to how health status at any given age, for a given birth cohort, reflects not only contemporary conditions but also embodiment of prior living circumstances, in utero onward (Krieger 2000). Detailed presentations of this perspective have been articulated elsewhere (Kuh and Ben Shlomo 1997 Hertzman 1999).

Call Your Doctor Or Midwife

Produce about 1 litre (2 pints) of milk per day. Problems soon after childbirth are often associated with establishing breast-feeding. However, these problems are usually shortlived. In most cases, breast-feeding is still possible and is the best option for the baby (see Feeding your baby, below).

The Epidemiological Transition

One area of common interest to both demographers and epidemiologists is to describe and forecast global patterns of health. Originally, demographers found it useful to describe stages in the demographic transition'' to refer to the change from high fertility and high mortality rates in ''traditional'' societies to a pattern of low fertility and low mortality rates in ''modern'' societies (Thompson 1929 Notestein 1945). Subsequently, Omran (1971) extended this framework to describe three stages in the ''mortality transition'' consisting of (1) the age of pestilence and famine, associated with the predominance of mortality from epidemic infectious diseases, malnutrition, and complications of pregnancy and childbirth (2) the age of receding pandemics, during which mortality fell and life expectancy increased5 and (3) the age of noncommunicable diseases, during which mortality came to be dominated by chronic degenerative diseases such as heart disease, stroke, and cancer. A fourth stage...

Skilled Attendants At Delivery

Evidence concerning the effect of skilled attendants at delivery is somewhat confused by different definitions and by variations across countries. The training of midwives and the regulations governing the procedures they are permitted to perform vary considerably. In 2004, WHO, the International Confederation of Midwives, and the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics issued a joint statement with a revised definition of skilled attendant 'A skilled attendant is an accredited health professional - such as a midwife, doctor or nurse - who has been educated and trained to proficiency in the skills needed to manage normal (uncomplicated) pregnancies, childbirth and the immediate postpartum period, and in the identification, management and referral of complications in women and newborns.' Wide variation exists in the extent to which skilled attendants are supported and supervised in the broader health system. This is also true for the number of deliveries that skilled...

The Aofog Pph initiative

The Asia Oceania Federation of Obstetrics and Gynaecology (AOFOG) has launched a program called the AOFOG PPH Initiative14. This program focuses on the active management of the third stage of labor in areas with skilled birth attendants and in areas where misoprostol is available but without skilled birth attendants. This effort is in support of the FIGO ICM joint statement on the management of the third stage of labor to prevent postpartum hemorrhage. The focus is on training of trainers in the national societies of those countries whose maternal mortality ratio exceeds 100 100 000 live births. (2) To train the service providers (doctors, midwives, nurses, family welfare visitors) in the institutes to perform active management of the third stage of labor for all women giving birth

Implementation Results

Crude birth rate (Dorbritz and Fleischhacker 1999).18 Singapore, as already mentioned, designed a policy to reduce fertility that was at first very successful but that eventually went too far, hence the pronatalist turn-around of the authorities. Arguably it is much more difficult to increase fertility when it is low than to decrease it when it is high. Furthermore, the fine-tuning of population policies to obtain very precise levels of fertility, for instance replacement fertility, seems virtually impossible. Couples in many industrialized countries have opted for low fertility regimes because of the change in values and women's roles (now often more educated than their male counterparts) and the economic crisis and structural unemployment. It is difficult for policy interventions to overcome these trends, particularly as measures to increase fertility require that actions be taken concomitantly in many different areas fiscal adjustments, family subsidies, urban planning to...

P Rezai A Beigi and A Jamal

In 2005, the official 'Statistical center of Iran' cites Iran's population as 60 055 488. The number of registered live births 961 572 in 20051. During these years, approximately two-thirds of births took place in urban areas and one-third in rural communities, villages or in the countryside. The 1996 live birth rate per 100 000 population was 37.4, placing Iran in a transitional zone between developing countries (200 per 100 000) and industrialized nations (20 per 100 000).

Impact of Specific Prevention Strategies on Disease Incidence

The average age at presentation was 62 with a quarter of cases occurring in men under 50 years of age. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) publishes the estimated and projected demographics, broken down by country.36 Their data are based on birth rates, mortality, and immigration. From these they derive the projected data comparing population distribution according to age for the years 2000 and 2050 (Fig. 16.2).

Research Priorities Of The Handbook Of Population

In addition to changing definitions of marriage and family connected with cohabitation and homosexuality, Waite notes that future research should focus on racial disparities in family patterns. Black men and women have not experienced the same patterns in age at marriage as whites, resulting in blacks having lower ages at marriage than whites (Fitch and Ruggles 2000). In addition, whites marry at approximately twice the rate of blacks (Waite 1995), with the rates of black women predicted to decline and those of white women to remain high (Goldstein and Kenney 2001). In addition to marital differences, the birth rate of unmarried women is three times higher for blacks than for whites (Martin et al. 2002). Future research should be directed toward explaining these differences between marriage and family patterns of blacks and whites. Technological developments are also likely to play a role in future fertility developments and, thus, future research. Morgan and Hegewen write that...

Management Of Postpartum Hemorrhage

Here also, these concepts are dealt with in detail in chapters that follow. Ideally, every woman in labor must be closely monitored after childbirth for symptoms and or signs of postpartum hemorrhage, although this is not yet possible in Nigeria. In addition, steps should be taken to eliminate the unnecessary procedures that contribute to the high incidence of postpartum hemorrhage such as episiotomy or operative vaginal delivery without clear indications. Apart from medical management of postpartum hemorrhage, the surgical approach is well documented and discussed in detail elsewhere.

Content and characteristics of intrusive memories in depression

Birrer, Michael, and Munsch (2007) recently compared intrusive images in patients with PTSD and depressed patients with and without trauma and found few differences between these groups. Although depressed patients without trauma were less likely to report their intrusion in a visual sensory modality and were less likely to report an accompanying sense of nowness compared to PTSD patients, intrusions were experienced similarly across the diagnostic groups in terms of other sensory modalities, intrusion duration, and frequency. In line with previous research (e.g., Brewin, Dalgleish, & Joseph, 1996 Ehlers & Clark, 2000), a range of identifiable triggers was also noted. The most commonly reported trigger across all three diagnostic categories was rumination, which highlights the need to assess for internal as well as external triggers in both depressed and PTSD patients (Birrer et al., 2007). Finally, intrusive images relating to critical life events (childbirth, divorce, etc.) reported...

Prevention Of Postpartum Hemorrhage

Because postpartum hemorrhage is unpredictable, it is pertinent in countries such as Nigeria to advocate for the promotion of the routine active management of the third stage of labor with oxytocin and the availability and use of misoprostol when oxytocin is not available. Training and re-training of skilled birth attendants on active management of labor will help to reduce maternal hemorrhage-related morbidity and mortality. Extensive governmental campaign efforts should be directed at sensitizing the community to institutional deliveries where adequate monitoring is ensured such that prolonged labor is avoided

Pumps For Patientcontrolled Analgesia

Patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) offers a relatively simple alternative to traditional as-needed medication. The results are a consistently improved quality of pain relief for the patient and a reduced nursing workload. In childbirth, PCA offers pain control without sedation during labor and postoperatively. PCA allows interaction with patients and multimode flexibility, including the possibility of providing patient-activated bolus, clinician-controlled continuous infusion, and combined continuous delivery-bolus for baseline maintenance and patient modification. An intravenous route for PCA provides a lower total dose than an intramuscular route, with equianalgesic effects. For greater convenience, milligram-based dosing eliminates volume-to-milligram conversion.

Clinical Manifestations and Pathology Trachoma

Severe forms of conjunctivitis include ophthalmia neonatorum, due to infectious discharges in the birth canal follicular conjunctivitis, which is often confused with the early stages of trachoma phlyctenular conjunctivitis, which may lead to ulceration in the cornea and a highly infectious hemorrhagic conjunctivitis, which affected 15 to 20 million in India in 1981 (Thomson 1984). Gonococcal conjunctivitis, due to Neisseria gonorrhea, infects newborns as well as children and adults. Whereas newborns acquire the eye disease in the birth canal from their mother's vaginal secretions, others may contract the disease by direct or indirect contact. Although there may be nonvene-real transmission - especially in the tropics - the disease is now transmitted mainly by sexual intercourse. In infants the eyelids may be very swollen, and ulceration of the cornea often follows. Ocular gonorrhea infection used to be one of the principal causes of blindness in Europe until the 1880s, when a silver...

Syndromes of Lesions Involving Peripheral Branches of Cranial Nerve V

Various pathological processes including tumors, aneurysms, infarctions, trauma, and infections can damage the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve. y Superior orbital fissure involvement is characterized by numbness, paresthesias, or pain in the distribution of V1 and within the orbit, Horner's syndrome, and ophthalmoparesis. Involvement of the optic nerve suggests extension into the orbital apex. If, on funduscopic examination, there is evidence of venous congestion, cavernous sinus thrombosis is likely. Cavernous sinus thrombosis is almost always caused by spread of an infection from the face, nose, or mouth. Patients may initially complain of fever, malaise, and frontal headache, but they subsequently develop proptosis, ptosis, ophthalmoparesis, and vasocongestion. Initially the CSF test result may be normal, but findings characteristic of meningitis may occur if treatment is delayed. Mortality is linked to spread of bacteria to the meninges, which warrants early and...

Oral Antioxidant Therapy

As outlined in Chap. 23, many studies have been conducted examining the effect of a wide variety of different antioxidant combinations on sperm function and pregnancy outcome. Table 16.2 summarises the outcomes of the various antioxidant treatment regimes tested in a placebo controlled setting. In January 2011, the Cochrane collaboration, widely perceived as the definitive authority on evidence-based medicine, published a review on the effect of oral antioxidant therapy on sperm quality and pregnancy outcomes 178 . This review identified 34 randomised placebo controlled studies examining the effect of antioxidants on sperm quality and pregnancy outcomes in couples seeking fertility assistance. While 15 trials examined the effect of antioxidants on pregnancy rates, unfortunately only 3 studies examined live birth rate, the most meaningful clinical outcome. Further compounding the effective performance of a meta-analysis was the fact that dozens of different antioxidant combinations for...

Urinary Incontinence The Solutions

Holistics Antiandrogen

Most urologists encourage patients undergoing prostate cancer treatment to do Kegel exercises to increase continence. These exercises were developed by Arnold Kegel in the 1940s for use by women who wanted to strengthen the muscles in the pelvis after childbirth. The difficulty is locating the correct muscles to be exercised. One set is used to stop urine flow halting the flow in midstream and holding it for several seconds is the recommended way to identify these muscles. The other set is used to tighten the buttocks. One author suggests imagining that ''you're trying to hold a quarter between your cheeks,'' while another, perhaps to greater effect, suggests the following

Intradural Intramedullary and Intradural Extramedullary Lipomas Unassociated with Spinal Dysraphism

Spinal cord lipomas are uncommon, with approximately 200 reported cases, predominantly of the intradural or extra-medullary type, having been identified in the cervical and upper thoracic spine since the first report by Gowers in 1876.12 Spinal cord lipomas account for 0.6 to 1 of all intraspinal tumors.10,12 They are found with equal frequency in males and females and are presumed to be present from birth. However, because of their benign, slow-growing nature, these lesions often do not present until the second or third decades of life.12,23 As with other lipomatous tumors, the diagnosis may be suggested with the use of plain radiographs, but CT or MRI is the study of choice.

Pregnancy And Childbirth

Pregnancy And Childbirth

If Pregnancy Is Something That Frightens You, It's Time To Convert Your Fear Into Joy. Ready To Give Birth To A Child? Is The New Status Hitting Your State Of Mind? Are You Still Scared To Undergo All The Pain That Your Best Friend Underwent Just A Few Days Back? Not Convinced With The Answers Given By The Experts?

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