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Creativity Consciousness and Culture

Most Asian, African, and Native American traditions also used creative imagination to enrich and enhance everyday life novel, original contributions were typically seen as gifts from deities or spirits who used humans as 'channels'. Yet in some of these societies an individual who produced something unprecedented (e.g., an unusual mask) was censured for breaking with tradition talented craftspeople were valued, but individuals with a flair for novelty were chastised. When the church's power was dominant, Western cultures tended to consider 'channeling' as demonic once 'enlightened' science and medicine prevailed, such forms of experience were cast in psychopathological terms. By contrast, traditional Eastern cultures such as Hinduism and Buddhism had intricate vocabularies to describe the spiritual aspects of changes in consciousness. Many tribal people go through the day in what Westerners would consider a well-organized hallucination, since the world they believe and live in bears...

The Historical Framework Of The Harvard Committee Proposal

An earlier draft of the Harvard paper was even more explicit about the second point and was discarded precisely because its wording exposed it to the obvious criticism that the new definition of death was merely instrumental in solving the problem of the scarcity of organs. It is useful to remember how the Harvard Committee was composed it was a 13-member committee with a majority of doctors, but with the crucial participation of one lawyer, one historian, and one theologian. It was chaired by Henry Beecher, a well-known physician whose seminal papers on the ethical problems of human experimentation were instrumental both in establishing a new legislation for these problems and in stimulating a new sensitivity to these aspects among medical professionals. As such, the Harvard Committee was a truly multidisciplinary body and encompassed those competences (in law, humanities, and theology) deemed necessary to confer on it the authority to make a proposal with a far ranging impact on...

Birth Order and Personality

Some of these contrasts are striking. Voltaire, the third of three children, had an acrimonious relationship with his elder brother Armand, who became a follower of the Jansenists, a fanatical Catholic sect. Voltaire was particularly repelled by Armand's belief in the need to forgo life's pleasures in order to win God's grace. As a leader of the French Enlightenment, Voltaire was especially noted for his relentless attacks on the Catholic Church. He chose literature as a profession partly to spite his brother, whom he had repeatedly bested in impromptu poetry contests devised by his family.

Birth Order Openness to Experience and Creativity

The responses of scientists to radical conceptual transformations show similar differences. The Copernican revolution challenged church doctrine by asserting that the earth rotates around the sun. During the first half-century of this debate, laterborns were five times more likely than firstborns to endorse this heretical view. Nicholas Copernicus himself was the youngest of four children. George Joachim Rheticus, the young colleague whose zealous efforts finally prodded the 70-year-old Copernicus into publishing his unorthodox theory, was also a lastborn. In Darwin's own era, younger siblings were ten times more likely than elder siblings to become evolutionists. Darwin himself was the fifth of six children, as was Alfred Russel Wallace, codiscoverer of the theory of natural selection (Figure 1).

The problem of equivalent conditions

Imagine we set up an experiment to test whether girls are better than boys at map reading. The first problem is deciding what we mean by 'map reading'. Reading a road map to get into town Reading an ordnance survey map to cross a moor There is not an easy answer to the question. We must make a choice and state it clearly. As we saw in Chapter 4, we must operationally define map reading ability for the purpose of our experiment, such as 'the time it takes a child to get from a specific church, across the fields to a specified post office, using an ordnance survey map only'. We have to attempt to arrange the conditions equally for the children, such as making sure that they are all unfamiliar with the route. And this highlights a second problem.

An Historical Perspective

To better understand the modern relationship between business and creativity, an historical perspective is needed. There is a long tradition of wealthy and powerful individuals providing patronage to creative artistic works. Examples of such support include wealthy Greek merchants, the Catholic Church (especially during the Renaissance), and Chinese and Japanese emperors. Such patronage usually took the form of these entities commissioning artists to create works glorifying an idea the patron wished promoted or the patrons themselves. While creative works were produced independent of this system, most enduring pieces from the ancient world come from this patronage system. When economies changed to a more capitalist approach, artistic support switched from patronage to market -based structures - artists would present their works to the broader public, and this public would fund future creative endeavors by purchasing existing works. In time, businesses and even whole industries emerged...

Photography and Alice

In 1855 Henry George Liddell became the Dean of Christ Church Oxford. He arrived with his wife, a son, Harry the eldest, and three daughters, Lorena, Alice, and Edith. Soon after the Liddells arrived, Charles met the children and was soon photographing them. He became a frequent visitor to the Liddell's home, apparently to see the children for there is little indication that he developed a friendship with either parent.

The contradictions between science and religion

Most cultures have been through similar, but not identical developmental stages that started with primitive taboos, animism, and polytheism. The evolution toward monotheism seems a major simplifying step. While replacing the complexity of polytheism in some cultures, it required a greater capacity for abstract thought. However, some religions that are considered monotheistic, such as Christianity, actually refer to a multitude of deities, including various saints and virgins, who are said to be specialized in solving specific problems or in helping to cure some diseases. In many churches, there are separate altars that allow people to pray directly to different saints. But, if everything else fails, it is still possible to prey directly to any member of the Catholic Holy Trinity, which includes the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost. But the idea of three persons existing in One Divine Being is a Catholic dogma that is not acceptable to Protestants. The Catholic Trinity has been...

Sociology of Mental Health

Generally speaking, social involvements of all sorts are associated with positive mental health. A huge literature, for example, indicates that married people have less distress than unmarried people (Mirowsky & Ross, 2003). The greater social integration married people gain through more supportive relationships and ties to community institutions largely account for this relationship (Umberson & Williams, 1999). In addition, marriage serves regulative functions that promote conformity to social norms, more conventional lifestyles, and lower levels of deviance of all sorts (Umberson, 1987 Horwitz & White, 1998). Moreover, because cohabitation has some, but not all, of the characteristics of marriage, it also has some, but not all, of the mental health benefits (Ross, 1995). Overall, people with more frequent contacts with family, friends, and neighbors report less distress (Lin, Ye, & Ensel, 1999). Likewise, people who are involved with voluntary...

Religious atrocities and shared psychotic disorders

Different churches and new sects start as small congregations that branch out from larger denominations, such as Judaism, Christianity, or Islam. Many developing sects incorporate elements from other religions. For example, Christianity began as a synthesis of Judaism and Greek religion which Unitarianism was a movement that emerged from the Reformation and favored a view of the scriptures as interpreted by reason. They did not believe in the Trinity or in the divinity of Christ. One of the first promoters of Unitari-anism was the Spanish physician and theologian Michael Servetus (Miguel Serveto), who discovered the circulation of blood through the lungs. He argued that there was nothing in the New Testament that contradicted the monotheism of the Jewish Scriptures 11 . For his denial of the Trinity, Servetus was burnt alive at the stake in 1553 by order of John Calvin. His execution provoked a justified reaction against punishing heresy with death, and this probably had a role in the...

The new religious movements and their apocalyptic predictions

Dissident sects or churches are usually recognized as legitimate, even though some are weird, by almost any standard. They are tolerated in the name of religious freedom, providing that they are not socially obnoxious. Sometimes these sects evolve into large denominations, despite certain odd features. An example are the Mormons, who were polygamous until 1890, or the Christian Scientists, discussed previously. More recently, several New Religious Movements, such as the Hare Krishna, The Unification Church ( Moonies ), the Divine Light Mission, and others, even though they were ephemeral, have created serious social and psychiatric problems because they have violated the civil liberties of certain cult members.

How Is a Cardiologist Chosen

Cardiologists are highly visible subspecialists, and, as a result, reputation is another common reason for referral. It is appropriate to ask your physician what other patients may have been referred to this cardiologist or to ask members of your social group or church about that cardiologist.

The Jehovahs Witnesses Society

Jehovah's Witnesses (JW) belong to the religious organization, the Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society. They number an estimated 6 million world-wide, of whom 145 000 live in the UK1. In Australia, a 2001 population survey showed that the 81 000 JW represented 0.4 of the population2. JW refuse blood transfusion with the 'primary components' of blood (see below for definition) and are prepared to die rather than be transfused. Until 2000, the church would have expelled any member who had been transfused with any prohibited component of blood. Such an individual would have been ostracized and shunned by the members of the church and their family, leading to social isolation. In 2000, rejection by the church was abandoned and it was left to the individual to revoke his own membership from the Society. Although this change in policy was seen as a relaxation of the JW policy on blood transfusion, the JW Society felt that no JW would wish to dissociate them-selves3. In practical terms, this...

Theoretical Considerations

More recently, the concept of social capital has been introduced to account for the effect of social networks in helping to match workers with jobs. Workers with relatively extensive social networks through their extended families, churches, classmates, and other links may have an advantage in the labor market in terms of shorter search times for work and in terms of finding better jobs (see Lin 2001 Lin, Cook, and Burt 2001 Field 2003).

Emphasis in Presentations

The ending is also a wonderful opportunity for emphasis, especially if the audience knows that the ending is upon them. Why is that As mentioned in the section on transitions, if the audience knows that the ending is near, they will sit up and concentrate, even if they have not understood everything up to that point. You can observe this phenomenon at church, especially in Protestant churches in the South in which the sermons go for thirty minutes or longer. In those sermons, the preacher usually gives the congregation a clue that the end of the sermon is close at hand As is sung in the hymn of invitation, number 343, 'On a Hill Far Away,' and so forth. At that moment, the congregation realizes that the sermon will end in a couple of minutes. In many a sermon at that point I have distinctly heard the creaking of pews as everyone sat up.

Competencies in Civil

Necessary to be exercised in the interests of humanity, and for the prevention of injury to those who cannot protect themselves (The Late Corporation of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints v. United States 1890 see Custer 1978). In contrast to parens patriae, interventions focused on the welfare and best interest of the individual are the police powers of the state, which are based on the state's responsibility to protect the general populace from the harmful conduct of the individual.

The Ancient Western View

Supernatural creativity as described above was the dominant view in the history of Western thought for a long period of time, probably until the time of the Renaissance and even beyond. During this period, it could be said the most important creative activities in the West were all religious or Church-related. Creative artworks at the time, such as painting, sculpture, architecture, and metalwork, were always based on themes from stories of the Bible or Greek mythology.

Pleasant Summer

Joan met Bob at a church social and knew immediately that he would be the man for her. An avid basketball player, he had soon seen that there are saner ways to make a living. He had moved up the corporate ladder in a large company in Georgia, but he wanted to go into business for himself. He decided to set up shop in a town in central Massachusetts. There the two of them settled down in a comfortable suburb and started a family and business. They flourished.

Ella Fitzgerald The Life

Her parents were William Fitzgerald and Temperance (Tempie), who were not married. Her birth father did acknowledge paternity however, he left her life when she was about three. Her mother began to live with a Portuguese immigrant, Joseph Da Silva and they moved north, following the streams of immigrations from south to north of the poor to find work. Her mother found a job as a laundress, and Da Silva worked at a sugar factory while living in one room at a rooming house. A half-sister, Frances da Silva, was born and they moved a few blocks away, to an apartment house. Ella went to elementary school at a public school nearby, where she was a good student. Although the school was integrated, and she lived in an integrated neighborhood, she was a cheery girl, dancing and singing constantly among her friends. Ella also had a chance to sing at the Bethany African Methodist Church.

Creativity and Politics

60 000-100 000 people, making it probably the most destructive earthquake in recorded human history. The tragedy occurred on All Saints Day, an important festival and holiday in the Christian Church's calendar giving rise to questions of God's immanence and ability to protect the innocent. The necessary theodicic revisions resulting from the chaos brought into question ecclesiastical authority and a consequent loss of faith of the populace in their pastors. Ultimately the effects of these revisions informed the Austrian Enlightenment and its influence on religious music which will be addressed later in this article.

Creativity and Musical Structure

On 21, January 1795, I dined at Dr Parsons', where a quarrel arose as to which of the three doctors, Parsons, Dupuis, or Arnold, should direct in the orchestra the Handel anthem at the marriage of the Prince ofWales. Dr Parsons is Kapellmeister of the Royal Chapel, the other two are Court Organists. But in England it is the organist who is chief director in all churches, and the singers are under him. Each of the three wished to conduct. As I was pressed to give my opinion, I said, Let the junior organist play the organ, the other direct his choir, and Dr Parsons the Instrumental Performers and because the singer always takes precedence over the instrumentalist, let him stand with his choir on the right, the other on the left (p. 29).

Paganism Versus Fundamentalist Religion The Greeks

Restrictive teachings of early Christianity or the otherworldli-ness' of the religion that caused inhibition of creative thought throughout the medieval period (the end of the fourth through the twelfth centuries), but its claim to exclusive validity. In its struggle to gain acceptance and then dominance, early Christianity was harsh in its rejection of deviant ideas, which were considered heretical. Beginning with the execution of Arias and continuing through the use of several forms of inquisition, the Church dealt harshly with the progenitors of such thinking. churches

The Renaissance and the Beginnings of Humanism

Greeks who took pride in all their creations, from the most minimal to the most spectacular. Painters again signed their artwork, abandoning pious humility for personal pride in their craft. Guilds were formed to foster the growth of individual crafts and skilled trades. The principal source of patronage was no longer the Church, but rather wealthy princes and merchants whose pride in artful possessions was no longer considered a sin. The emphasis in the work of the poets, painters, and philosophers was still on the glory of God, but as reflected in the countless joys of human existence. Also at this time we see widening criticism of what has been considered the acme of Church power, the inquisition. This tribunal, with its witch hunt for heretics and its infamously murderous 'auto-de-fe ( prove your love of God by admitting your guilt ) had exerted a chilling influence over independent thought for many years. As it lost its power, the Holy Roman Empire declined in importance and the...

Work and Learning Environment

The philosophy of the sponsoring organization and the residency program director determines whether the balance of resident work is tilted toward service or education. The size and scope of residency programs vary greatly from site to site. Sponsoring institutions may have a handful of specialty residency programs, while others might have more than 100 different programs medical school sponsors tend to have the most programs, an average of 35.5. There are numerous types of sponsoring organization (e.g., for-profit and nonprofit groups including government, church, or private ownership) with the majority being nonprofit (ACGME, 2007d).

Historical Background To Aromatherapy

Incense smoke from resinous plant material provided a more sacrosanct atmosphere for making sacrifices, both animal and human, to the gods. The incense was often mixed with narcotics like cannabis to anesthetize the sacrificial animals, especially with humans (Devereux, 1997). The frankincense extract in oils (citrusy odor) was entirely different to that burnt (church-like) in chemical composition (Arctander, 1960), and therefore would have entirely different functions.

Scented Plants used as Incense in Ancient Egypt

Anointing also involves incense (Unterman, 1991). Queen Elizabeth II underwent the ritual in 1953 at her coronation, with a composition of oils originated by Charles I essential oils of roses, orange blossom, jasmine petals, sesame seeds, and cinnamon combined with gum benzoin, musk, civet, and ambergris were used (Ellis, 1960). Similarly, musk, sandalwood, and other fragrances were used by the Hindus to wash the effigies of their gods, and this custom was continued by the early Christians. This probably accounts for the divine odor frequently reported when the tombs of early Christians were opened (Atchley and Cuthbert, 1909). The Christian Church was slow to adopt the use of incense until medieval times, when it was used for funerals (Genders, 1972). The reformation reversed the process as it was considered to be of pagan origin but it still survives in the Roman Catholic Church. Aromatic substances were also widely used in magic (Pinch, 1994).

Products of Lophophora williamsii

Lophophora williamsii was an important hallucinogen plant to the Ancient Aztecs and even today it is used by the Native American Church, as well as being subject to abuse in other parts of the world. It is a small, button-shaped cactus, known as the peyote, which grows in Mexico and the South-Western United States of America. This cactus rarely grows more than an inch above the ground, with the remainder of the plant being formed by a long underground root. Such cacti can take five to fifteen years to mature. The active compound, mescaline (3,4,5-trimethoxyphenethylamine) (6), is a potent hallucinogen. Under United Kingdom legislation, mescaline is a Class A drug under the Misuse of Drugs Act, 1971, although, as with Khat, there is no possession offence related to the intact plant. This contrasts with the United States where both the plant and the active component are classified as Schedule I drugs.

Methodological Challenges

The cornerstone of anthropological methodology has long been participant observation. Since the time of Malinowski, the goal has been total immersion in a culture and in people's daily lives so that their understanding of the world and the nature of their social relations can be understood in holistic context. A corollary of this is a focus on the difference between what people say they do and believe on the one hand and what they actually do and (more problematically) what they actually believe on the other. The implications of this emphasis for a field like demography, which is heavily dependent on survey research methods, are enormous. A survey researcher can ask a respondent how often she goes to church but rarely checks this against actual church attendance. For an anthropologist, it is just this disjunction that is of particular interest. Nonanthropolo-gical demographers have sometimes turned to focus group methods to deal with some of these issues, but while a kind of informal...

Michelangelos Early Life and Works in Florence

In 1488, aged 13, Michelangelo became a part of that system when he prevailed upon his father and uncle (his mother had died seven years earlier) to let him be apprenticed to Domenico del Ghirlandaio, a leading Florentine painter. Unusually, Michelangelo drew a salary rather than having to pay for his indenture, suggesting he had already attained considerable skill - not surprising, in light of what followed. At this time, Michelangelo explored various artistic media, showing his technical versatility and hinting at his future greatness. Ghirlandaio introduced Michelangelo to fresco, probably the single most demanding painting medium several figures in Ghirlandaio's frescoes in the Cappella Maggiore of the Church of Santa Maria Novella are traditionally ascribed to Michelangelo. His early pen-and-ink copies of works by Giotto and Masaccio have a naturalness and sense of three-dimensional form exceeding even these great predecessors. Also recently attributed to the 13-year-old...

Michelangelo and Pope Julius II

With his own mighty force of personality and generous patronage, Pope Julius II (1443-1513) was a key figure in the development of the Roman High Renaissance, which would displace Florence from preeminence. He first brought Michelangelo to Rome in 1505 to design his tomb, which was to be placed in the Old Church of St. Peter's. Of the several designs Michelangelo had submitted, Julius chose one calling for a three-story freestanding structure with at least 24 statues. Michelangelo spent the next year quarrying marble and began carving. Work on the tomb was suddenly interrupted in 1506, when Julius commissioned Donato Bramante to build an enormous new Basilica of St. Peter's in the Vatican. Michelangelo, offended at the suspension of his commission, returned to Florence in a huff. Living up to his reputation as the 'warrior' Pope, Julius then executed a military capture of Bologna and forced the outflanked Florentines to send him Michelangelo, whereupon he commissioned a monumental...

Michelangelo After Forty

Back in Florence, Michelangelo was given several major commissions by Julius's successor, Pope Leo X, a son of Lorenzo de' Medici. The first was for the facade of the great Church of San Lorenzo. This occupied him for several years a wooden model of his design exists, but in the end it came to nothing - to this day, San Lorenzo's facade is bare. In 1519, Leo commissioned Michelangelo to design the Medici Chapel (or New Sacristy) and then the Laurentian Library (for which he provided a magnificent staircase), both in the San Lorenzo complex. Michelangelo died in Rome on 18 February 1564, probably of pneumonia, with the Dome of St. Peter's still only partly complete. His body was transported to Florence, and he is buried in the Church of Santa Croce, in the neighborhood where he spent his childhood. Inside the church, he lies near a monument designed by Vasari, his admiring biographer. His funeral was one of great pomp - an unprecedented honor for a visual artist, but fitting for the...

The Psychological Challenge Of Religious Surrogacy

Declining rates of church participation should also not lead us to conclude that modernity is somehow incompatible with spirituality. For example, whereas only 2 percent of people in Iceland attend church on a regular basis, 77 percent profess a belief in God and 75 percent believe in life after death.14 Similar patterns can be seen in other superficially irreligious societies such as Denmark, Belgium, and France. Mysticism is especially well suited to the conditions of modernity since this type of religious experience tends to be internal, free-floating, subjective, and relatively tolerant of rationalism and scientism.21 It responds well to the breakdown of traditional religious structures by releasing individuals to their inner freedoms, and to their compensatory predilection for personal experience and self-actualization. Rather than seeking to accommodate or transform the world, as members of churches and sects have tended to do, the modern mystic enjoys the option of remaining...

Research Exemplars

John Knodel, one of the members of the European fertility project who had analyzed the aggregate statistics for Germany during the 19th century (Knodel 1974), set out to explore the local features of fertility and mortality changes at the microlevel with the help of a remarkable source village genealogies compiled by local German historians and genealogists on the basis of official statistics and church records and encompassing the vital events of all families that resided in a particular village. The data analyzed by Knodel comprise 14 villages and cover over 11,000 couples married between 1700 and 1899, and their 55,000 children (Knodel 1988 20). They appear to be of high quality and completeness and allow remarkably detailed and sophisticated analysis on the basis of a large number of cases.

Historical Development of Music

Prior to about the year AD 500, music of the early Christian Church comprised monophonic liturgical plainsong such as the Gregorian chant, sung in unison. Toward the end of this period, the church musicians started to introduce some secondary lines to the melody, usually pitched at intervals of octaves or fifths (see 'The Harmonic Series'), first as a parallel to the melody but later with more freedom to interweave (polyphony). The development of written music (see 'Notation') enabled these arrangements to be preserved and copied.

C T Wohlmuth J Gumbs and J Quebral Ivie

The White Memorial Medical Center (WMMC) is a private community hospital located in East Los Angeles, California. Established in 1913 by the Seventh-day Adventist Church, the WMMC promotes its mission to provide quality health services, medical and health education, and outreach services to the Los Angeles community, with care and compassion. With a capacity of 369 beds, WMMC serves a densely populated community, with more than two million people living within a 5-mile radius of the Medical Center. The demographics of this service area reflect an ethnic homogeneity, whereby 70.7 of residents are Hispanic and 7.5 Asian. The population can be characterized as low income, with about 62 of households having an annual income of 25 000 or less1. As a direct result of this circumstance, government-sponsored health care is relied upon to a great extent and fully insured coverage is relatively uncommon.

Numerical Estimation and Reasoning in Animals

Figure 23.2A shows seemingly smooth increases and decreases in the probability that the mouse is making an anticipatory response (poking its head into the feeding hopper in anticipation of food delivery) on either side of the feeding latency. The smoothness is an averaging artifact. On any one trial, the onset and offset of anticipatory responding is abrupt, but the temporal locus of these onsets and offsets varies from trial to trial (Church, Meck, & Gibbon, 1994). The peak curves in Figure 23.2, like peak curves in general, are the cumulative start distributions minus the cumulative stop distributions, where start and stop refer to the onset and offset of sustained food anticipatory behavior. Rats, pigeons, and monkeys also count and remember numerosities (Brannon & Roitman, 2003 Church &Meck, 1984 De-haene, 1997 Dehaene, Dehaene-Lambertz, & Cohen, 1998 Gallistel, 1990 Gallistel & Gelman, 2000). One of the early protocols for assessing counting and numerical memory was developed by...

Numerosity and Duration Are Represented by Comparable Mental Magnitudes

Meck and Church (1983) pointed out that the mental accumulator model that Gibbon (1977) had proposed to explain the generation of mental magnitudes representing durations could be modified to make it generate mental magnitudes representing nu-merosities. Gibbon had proposed that while a duration was being timed a stream of impulses fed an accumulator, so that the accumulation grew in proportion to the duration of the stream. When the stream ended (when timing ceased), the resulting accumulation was read into memory, where it represented the duration of the interval. Meck and Church postulated that to get magnitudes representing numerosity, the equivalent of a pulse former was inserted into the stream of impulses, so that for each count there was a discrete increment in the contents of the accumulator, as happens when a cup of liquid is poured into a graduated cylinder (Figure 23.4). At the end of the count, the resulting accumulation is read into memory, where it represents the...

Nonhuman Animals Reason Arithmetically

Boysen and Berntson (1989) taught chimpanzees to pick the Arabic numeral corresponding to the number of items they observed. In the last of a series of tests of this ability, they had their subjects go around a room and observe either caches of actual oranges in two different locations or Arabic numerals that substituted for the caches themselves. When they returned from a trip, the chimps picked the Arabic numeral corresponding to the sum of the two numerosi-ties they had seen, whether the numerosities had been directly observed (hence, possibly counted) or symbolically represented (hence not counted). In the latter case, the magnitudes corresponding to the numerals observed were presumably retrieved from a memory map relating the arbitrary symbols for number (the Arabic numerals) to the mental magnitudes that naturally represent those numbers. Once retrieved, they could be added very much like the magnitudes generated by the nonverbal counting of the caches. (For further evidence...

Listing Pleasurable Activities

(Examples taking a walk, going to a church or synagogue group, playing a musical instrument, walking the dog, watching a TV program, going to the library, talking on the phone to a friend, talking to a therapist, playing a sport, watching a comedy movie, having sex, riding a bicycle, visiting the Humane Society, listening to music, practicing a hobby, sitting in a cafe, cooking, driving, sewing, dancing, working at a homeless shelter, writing in a journal, taking photographs, taking a class, painting or drawing, soaking in the bathtub, eating at a restaurant, listening to a relaxation tape, shopping, hiking, gardening, praying, meditating, going for a swim, eating lunch outside, attending a lecture, washing your face or hair, lying out in the sun, playing with a pet)

Conclusion Drawing from and Reflecting Back to the Social Science Core of Theory and Research

Despite the variety of theoretical debates and policy priorities outlined above, a number of conclusions about stigma would seem to be clear-cut. First, stigma continues to surround mental illness, and its existence is widely acknowledged. Correspondingly, individuals with mental health problems, their families, providers, and policymakers report deep, wide and continuous experiences of stigma and discrimination. In other words, stigma-based criticism and rejection are commonplace in communities, families, churches, workplaces and treatment systems (Chernomas, Clarke, & Chisholm, 2000 Hinshaw & Cicchetti, 2000 Pescosolido et al., 2000 Wahl, 2000).

Impact Study Methodology

Whatever studies are done, it is clear that for anxiety disorders, researchers need to extend their reach if they seek to make an impact on the great majority of individuals who suffer from these conditions. Methods need to be devised to study patients in primary care and specialty medical settings, dental offices, churches, schools, community centres, and a range of other community service or support settings (e.g. domestic violence or homeless shelters, or even highly utilised commercial operations such as supermarkets7 or department stores). The use of such settings to deliver care may be particularly relevant for patients with anxiety disorders who have phobic restrictions, and are unable to travel outside a restricted area. In working in almost any non-mental health community setting, the investigator must address stigma and self-criticism that can be associated with the idea of having a mental disorder. Researchers need to take steps to minimise the difficulties that may be...

Creativity as Changing Judgment

Works are precious and revered icons of Western music, Sal-ieri's relegated to oddities only known to the public by virtue of their place in Peter Shaffer's play about Mozart life and death. Galileo Galilei was condemned for heresy by the Catholic Church for supporting Copernicus' theory that the earth rotates around the sun 350 years later the Church admitted that errors had been made, but did not apologize for its condemnation of Galileo. What may be recognized as a prodigy's achievement may also change with time some gymnastics and figure skating moves that were amazing 30 years ago are routine today. Doing these things would have meant world-wide recognition only a few decades ago, while they are considered journeyman accomplishments in contemporary competitions.

Psychosocial Adjustment

Ramritu and Croft (1999) interviewed parents (27 mothers and 7 fathers) of 28 children with acquired brain damage (7 with meningitis) an average of 2 years after the child had been acutely ill. The investigators found that the sudden onset and critical nature of illnesses such as meningitis interfered with parents' ability to mentally and psychologically prepare. After the child became seriously ill, parents experienced shock and fear related to the uncertainty of their child's survival. In all phases (i.e., acute and rehabilitation), parents found it important to have regular contact with the medical team. The parents stated that it was particularly useful to be regularly informed about the diagnosis, treatment plan, prognosis, and any anticipated changes in their child's behavior. This contact with the medical team helped to reduce parental anxiety, distress, and fear. Social support such as a spouse, family members, other parents with children in the hospital, a church minister,...

Jurisprudence and Debauchery Student Years in Leipzig and Heidelberg

To alleviate his restlessness and recurring bouts of depression, Schumann decided to move to Heidelberg. In letters to his mother, he expressed growing concerns, My lodgings face the insane asylum on the right and the Catholic church on the left, so that I'm really in doubt whether one is supposed to go crazy or become Catholic. Though he wrote glowingly about his law studies, in truth he was relying on drinking beer to cope with loneliness and frustration. Twice he fell asleep with a cigar, setting his bed on fire.

Marriage and Symphonies

Awaiting the verdict of the high court in Dresden, Schumann chose the day before Clara's 21st birthday, September 12, 1840 for their marriage in the village church of Schoenefeld, near Leipzig. They began writing a household and marriage diary together and collaborated on The Springtime of Love (opus 37).

Religion or Spirituality

For good reason we go to church, temple, or mosque regularly and at aimed at helping us remain conscious of spiritual ideas and values . . . There are two ways of thinking about church and religion. One is that we go to church in order to be in the presence of the holy, to learn and to have our lives influenced by that presence. The other is that church teaches us directly and symbolically to see the sacred dimension of everyday life.5 Perhaps understandably, some people abandon religion because of disappointments or hurts. Maybe it was hypocrisy or excesses among those who should know better. Perhaps it was disappointment in themselves. Since humans will always be fallible, the view of a church temple mosque as a hospital for the sinner can sometimes help us view shortfalls more compassionately.6 Religion does not guarantee perfection in people or a life free of suffering. However, religion affords hope that people might improve, help in bearing up under suffering, and a sense that...

Professional Addictionrelated Organizations

Since the 1960s, the JI has addressed barriers to AOD prevention, treatment, and recovery by promoting intervention, a method that penetrates denial and helps addicts accept professional help. From a church study group, JI's founders challenged the idea that alcoholics could not get help until they reached a bottom (a state of surrender after family, job, finances, or other supports had evaporated). JI has trained thousands of counselors, pioneered in workplace employee assistance programs, and addressed family and youth aspects of AOD.

Suicide as Subject of Creativity

In a comprehensive review of the iconography of suicide, Cutter identified six self-injury themes prevalent in the Western art after the Renaissance (i.e., after 1350). The heroic theme (1484-1844) presented suicide as a rational and reasonable solution to contemporary dilemmas and a good behavior affirmative of virtue. The viewers' reaction was admiration for the hero or the heroine, and they were encouraged to follow this virtuous example. This theme was based on historical or mythological accounts of suicide in the context of loss of a lover and such values as patriotism, self-sacrifice, devotion to ethics, honor, and dignity. The theme of suicide as a stigmatized act (1660-1854) seems to be an opposite of the heroic theme. However, both coexisted quite comfortably for almost two centuries. The stigmatized suicide was conceptualized, in line with the Church's view of suicide as a mortal sin, as an evil end befitting an evil life motivated by a pursuit of immoral goals. The intended...

Freud and Group Psychology

The psychoanalytical starting point for the understanding of the mentalities and behaviors of human beings in groups is Freud's (19211 paper Group Psychology and the Analysis of the Ego ' In this paper Freud drew substantially on the work of Gustav Le Bon, an early theorist of crowd and mass behavior, quoting his descriptions of group behavior as impulsive, changeable and irritable and led almost exclusively by the unconscious p. 77). Freud described the profound alteration in mental activity (p. 88) that takes place through the influence of the group, with emotions intensified and intellectual abilities diminished. He said it is characteristic of groups to divide the emotion of love, which is attached to fellow members of the group, and of hatred, which is directed toward outsiders. He approvingly referred to the ideas of a well-known contemporary, Wilfred Trotter, on the herd instinct, to give a biological grounding to his own psychoanalytical approach. He made use of the concept of...

Research Evidence to Date

There is a commission of the Roman Catholic Church that authenticates the miracles said to occur at the famous Lourdes shrine. Numerous miraculous cures are claimed by the approximately one hundred million visitors to the shrine. The Church committee, however, using its extremely strict guidelines, has rejected the authenticity of most, and validated only 65 miracle cures in the 150 years since people have flocked to this shrine. Given the number of visitors over that period of time, this number of miraculous cures is far fewer than the expected rate of spontaneous remission.

Coping Skills and Adaptive Problem Solving

After the relationship with her father. After her physician discussed her somatic and avoidant coping style, he suggested that she could use his help and talk openly and directly about her safety concerns and needs. Denise's use of a new help-seeking and informational style enabled her to develop a safety plan, prepare to leave her home, and utilize church members to help get her child to a local shelter for battered women. She also was able to tell her parents about her fears and ask for their support and help.

Prayer and Spirituality

Some recent studies claim that prayer can have a positive effect on health, although critics point to serious shortcomings in the research methods employed. Some groups now advocate prayer as a complement to medical therapy, while others, such as the Christian Science Church, use it in place of conventional medical treatment even for serious illnesses.

What Practitioners Say It Does

Some groups, such as Christian Scientists, rely on prayer in lieu of conventional medical therapy, claiming that prayer alone can heal disease. Christian Science practitioners attribute illness to spiritual rather than organic causes. Most mainstream religious groups, however, do not reject conventional medicine. Indeed, the earliest European hospitals were developed and run by the Church, and many Christian and Jewish groups have founded, operated, and or financially supported hospitals and clinics throughout the world.

Schizodoxia contributes to religious tolerance and maintenance of complex societies

Despite the contribution of schizodoxia in maintaining temporarily complex societies, the practice of schizodoxia by extremists allows them to make outrageous and frankly delusional statements that defy reason, common sense, and simple compassion, all in the name of some supernatural power. What I have in mind is a group of extremists led by Fred Phelps, the founder of Westboro Baptist Church in Topeka, Kansas, who have disrupted several funerals of soldiers, whether or not they were gay, proclaiming that God is killing Americans in Iraq to punish us for condoning homosexuality. The grieving soldier's relatives have been suing Mr. Phelps for disrupting the soldier's funerals with signs that say, Thank God for dead soldiers , God hate fags , etc. The case was presented to the Supreme Court on October 6, 2010 3 . Thus, even though our complex society may temporarily function better by accepting both political and religious deceptions, such contradictions will no doubt generate many...

Supernatural explanations are not logically acceptable

The impact of science and medicine on our lives and on sexual freedom during the last 50 years cannot be ignored. Some have therefore suggested that religious dogma should be modified to suit the new reality and personal taste. The most difficult issues are those related to contraception, abortion, and sexual preferences. Catholics in the USA have quietly rebelled against the Church regarding contraception, which some Americans practice without inhibitions. This indicates that they do not take the details of their religion seriously, or that they do not understand that religious dogma cannot be changed to satisfy personal needs or the fashion of the times. However, groups of conservative fundamentalists and militant Christians still oppose early-term abortions, sometimes violently, because they believe that the human soul is created and embodied by God in every egg when conception occurs. Some militant Christians have not hesitated to kill doctors who perform abortions because they...

Understanding And Management Of Back Pain

Edwin Smith 3500 Monografia

It to Europe after the Dark Ages, but Islamic laws largely limited them to the preservation of the ancient writings. Medical thought almost ceased during the Dark Ages as patient care moved into the hands of the church. Monks saved the ancient writings but only in degenerate forms. Back pain was a matter for folk medicine. The Welsh shot of the elf and the German witch's shot reflected beliefs that pain was due to external influences.

Urinary Incontinence The Solutions

Holistics Antiandrogen

The true efficacy of Kegel exercises for men apparently has never been formally tested, so recommendations vary widely. Some urologists advise doing them ''at least every hour for five minutes,'' while others suggest much less often. Some urologists say they should only be done standing up, while others urge doing them in any position, ''while watching TV, driving a car, sitting in church, or anywhere at any time.'' Intriguingly, some claim that ''Kegel exercises are also great for improving virility and achieving greater ejaculation and arousal control.'' In 2004 the National Institutes of Health funded a research project that is studying the best way to teach men to do Kegel exercises.4

Accounting for Amniocentesis

Complex responses to these routinized services based, in large measure, on the individual and social experiences that frame each pregnancy. Here, I parse the technological routine whose action the rest of this book follows in order to offer an account of its historical development. At the center of this account lies my conviction that the technologies of prenatal diagnosis, like all technologies, are produced at multiple intersections where the work of particular scientists, research clinicians, and health service providers engages social relations far beyond the purview of their laboratories, clinics, and consulting rooms. What come to count as the technologies of prenatal diagnosis, now and in the past, are shaped by large-scale transformations of biomedical knowledge, our legal structure, widely shared and sometimes contested cultural values, and the social identities within which service providers and patients encounter one another. In other words, I will argue that an...

History of Public Health and Sanitation in the West before 1700

The organization of basic health services within a community involves the provision of medical care to all members of that community and a conscious attempt to prevent or minimize disease. A relatively recent innovation is the appropriation of communal resources for hospitals devoted principally to medical intervention, that is, to hospitals that are something other than a refuge for the sick, the poor, or pilgrims. The earliest hospital in the modern Western sense was probably the Ospedale Maggiore of Milan. It was built in the mid-fifteenth century, funded by church properties, and managed by a lay board of governors, who in turn were appointed by state officials. Most medieval cities acknowledged the need for city hospitals, symbols of good Christian governance, and thus hospitals became as characteristic of this society as the aqueducts had been of Rome. The major cities of Italy and Spain provided the prototype in medicine for the northern European cities of the seventeenth and...

The Autoerotic Factor In Religion

Concentrated fervor of thought rarely known to the Greek and Roman writers of the best period. 387 As Christian theology developed, the minute inquisition into sexual things sometimes became almost an obsession. So far as I am aware, however (I cannot profess to have made any special investigation), it was not until the late Middle Ages that there is any clear recognition of the fact that, between the religious emotions and the sexual emotions, there is not only a superficial antagonism, but an underlying relationship. At this time so great a theologian and philosopher as Aquinas said that it is especially on the days when a man is seeking to make himself pleasing to God that the Devil troubles him by polluting him with seminal emissions. With somewhat more psychological insight, the wise old Knight of the Tower, Landry, in the fourteenth century, tells his daughters that no young woman, in love, can ever serve her God with that unfeignedness which she did aforetime. For I have heard...

Middle Ages Use of Aromatics and Quacks

In the twelfth century, the Benedictine Abbess Hildegard of Bingen (1098-1179) was authorized by the Church to publish her visions on medicine (Causae et Curae), dealing with the causes and remedies for illness (Brunn and Epiney-Burgard, 1989). The foul smell of refuse in European towns in the seventeenth century was thought to be the major cause of disease, including the plague (Classen et al., 1994), and aromatics were used for both preventing and in some cases curing diseases herbs such as rosemary were in great demand and sold for exorbitant prices as a prophylactic against the plague (Wilson, 1925). People forced to live near victims of the plague would carry a pomander, which contained a mixture of aromatic plant extracts. Medical practitioners carried a small cassolette or perfume box on the top of their walking sticks, when visiting contagious patients, which was filled with aromatics (Rimmel, 1865). Some physicians wore a device filled with herbs and spices over their nose...

Increase in Allergic Contact Dermatitis in Recent Years

A study of 1600 adults in 1987 showed that 12 reacted adversely to cosmetics and toiletries, 4.3 of which were used for their odor (i.e., they contained high levels of fragrances). Respiratory problems worsened with prolonged fragrance exposure (e.g., at cosmetic perfumery counters) and even in churches. In another study, 32 of the women tested had adverse reactions and 80 of these had positive skin tests for fragrances (deGroot and Frosch, 1987). Problems with essential oils have also been increasing. For example, contact dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) caused by tea tree oil has been reported, which was previously considered to be safe (Carson and Riley, 1995). It is unclear whether eucalyptol was responsible for the allergenic response (Southwell, 1997) out of seven patients sensitized to tea tree oil, six reacted to limonene, five to a-terpinene and aromadendrene, two to terpinen-4-ol, and one to p-cymene and a-phellandrene (Knight and Hausen, 1994).

Childhood indoctrination

Despite the countless contradictions produced by faith, religions permeate our culture. Most of us have had some religious education at home, from bedside stories to explicit answers to our questions. We may also have been sent to churches or temples for specific religious indoctrination, or to religious schools that teach religion as part of their curriculum. Thus, we were essentially born into a particular religion or cult, without realizing until many years later that we were not given a choice (see Chap. 3). Our religious beliefs were therefore determined by the faith of our ancestors, many of whom could not be seen as particularly knowledgeable or wise, if we look far enough back. Most individuals, however, will never question their parents' choice, because they have been irreversibly imprinted before they become aware of the imprinting, and only occasionally switch to different religions, usually of similar denominations. Besides, almost everybody will agree that parents have an...

Early Mortality Data Sources and Difficulties of Interpretation

In the United States, although the availability of early church records, genealogies, and epigraphic evidence is impressive, particularly in New England (Vinovkis 1972) and Mormon Utah, vital registration got off to a late start. Beginning with the seventh census of the United States in 1850, questions regarding deaths in the household during the previous year were included in the compilation (a similar system was adopted in nineteenth-century Canada). The decennial U.S. Censuses of Mortality are the main source of nationwide mortality data from 1850 to

Spirituality Religion as a Healing Pathway for Survivors of Sexual Violence

Spirituality that emphasizes the individual's relationship with ecology or nature and (3) a humanistic spirituality highlighting human potential and achievement.2 LaPierre noted that a spiritual experience may have several components including a search for meaning and ultimate truth, sense of community, and personal transformation.3 Similarly religion assists individuals in finding meaning and community as well as addressing their ultimate concerns. However, religion is often viewed as an institution that encourages certain behaviors and practices based on doctrines, creeds, and values.4,5 A person's religious experience might be organized (e.g., attending church services) or nonorganized (e.g., praying at home).6 Although many psychologists distinguish between religiosity and spirituality, some argue that the separation might be artificial7 and insignificant since the majority of Americans maintain active religious beliefs and practices8 and consider religiosity and spirituality to...

The Cognitive Approach In Psychology

As with any approach, there are a number of distinct churches residing under the same ecumenical roof, which offer substantially different approaches to believers and non-believers alike. Even key cognitive psychologists can be followed as they shift churches themselves for example, Ulric Neisser (1967) wrote one of the key books in cognitive psychology in which he espoused a philosophical idealism known as constructivism where the individual perceives the world based in part on existing mental representations of the world. By 1976, however, Neisser had abandoned this extreme constructivism for an approach closer to philosophical realism which he called constructive realism . In this approach the individual is seen to be struggling towards mental representations that bear semblance to reality the testing out of representations and predictions about reality should for most individuals lead to modification of those representations. This constructive realism does, we believe, make sense...

Paganism Versus Fundamentalist Religion The Medieval Europeans

Such contributions notwithstanding, the situation in the Western world in the fifth century was rather grim, as Christopher Dawson so succinctly describes it. He disagrees with Hadas' position that fundamentalism was the major cause of the lack of creative output, however. After all, he argues, the Moslems were as rigidly fundamentalist as the Christians and yet the Moslems made many creative contributions. He ascribes the superiority in creative output of the Greek and Moslem cultures over the medieval Christian culture rather as the result of the Christians having been reduced to a simple agrarian culture by the invasions of numerous outsiders. It may well have been the case that the tight grip of the Church on the minds of the population was welcomed as a consoling relief from the fear of vandalism and starvation alike. In fact, as is so often the case at the macrosocial level, establishing causation is a perilous pursuit. For example, it could well have been that the...

Inhibition and facilitation

There are a number of points within the SPAARS model at which inhibitory forces might operate from the initial interpretation-appraisal, to the expression of the emotion, to subsequent cycles of appraisal. Route 1, the appraisal route (see Figure 11.1), can be temporarily blocked because it may be inappropriate to express the emotion in a particular situation, for example to laugh in church or to get angry with your boss. The capacity to temporarily suppress an emotion but express it later appears to be healthy. Vaillant (e.g., 1990) reported, from a 50-year follow-up study of college men, that use of the defence of suppression was predictive of good mental and physical health and stable relationships over that time period. In contrast, Vaillant found that use of the defence mechanisms of repression, reaction formation, and dissociation was less healthy. These defence mechanisms represent different types of inhibition within the SPAARS model. We have considered dissociation at length...

Patient Encounter 2

BB, a 34-year-old white woman with generalized SAD is transferring her care to your clinic. She has been maintained on diazepam 10 mg twice daily for the past 4 years for her SAD. She states that her current therapy has her anxiety under control, and she is performing her duties as an office manager without problems. She has joined a gym recently and is attending a church social for single women once monthly. She has noticed she has difficulty thinking sharply and is more forgetful. She occasionally feels sad and becomes tearful but is usually able to pick herself up. She is moderately overweight (BMI 29) with no other current medical problems. Denies ethanol or other substance use.

The Later Middle Ages

Plague left Europe, indeed most of the world, in a catastrophic state. In Venice 75 percent of the nobility was dead (Archivio 1348 Ell 1980). Cities routinely lost over 50 percent of their populations (Carpentier 1962a, 1962b). Strange heresies arose, such as the Flagellants, who traveled about, beating themselves unconscious with whips to repent the sins that had brought the epidemic. Medicine, as usual, was powerless to do anything to stop the disease. More damning, the Church failed to offer much real comfort or practical relief. Infant mortality and the loss of elderly adults are most easily absorbed by any society however, plague tends to affect young adults and children over 5 years old (Ell 1984a, 1985). Yet careful local studies have not always borne out such a pattern in European plague epidemics of this period. The exact epidemiology remains unclear, or perhaps varied from place to place. When plague left infants and the elderly relatively untouched, but decimated the rest,...

Nutrition and Disease

Hunting diminished as population increased and the forests yielded to the plow. Presumably, as the forest dwindled, poaching penalties became more severe, though the trapping of small animals must have remained common. Freshwater fish filled mill ponds, of which England had 5,624 in 1086 according to the Domesday Book, and ocean fish became far more available after the salting of herring was introduced in the thirteenth century or soon after. Rabbits spread northward slowly across northern Europe from Spain in the early Middle Ages, reaching England by 1186 at least (White 1976). Nevertheless, it was only after the agricultural revolution produced food surpluses that could sustain food livestock, as well as humans and horses, that animal protein became readily available. That this was the case by the early fourteenth century is evidenced by the fact that the church saw fit to urge abstinence from eating flesh on fast days, indicating that regular meat consumption must have become an...

History and Geography

Identified as the King's Evil, and it was believed curable by the touch of a king. The essence of the medieval ceremony of touching in order to dispel the evil was that it demonstrated the quasi-sacerdotal nature of the office of kingship. The political advantages were clear, for a king, in performing the cure, showed that he was king in accordance with God's will. This was the important point in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, when the nature of scrofula was most energetically explored The power of curing by the Royal Touch was a power vouchsafed by God only to the true line of kings. It could therefore be used to legitimate claim and accession to the throne. The kings of France continued to touch until the Revolution, and were emulated by other monarchs. In France and pre-Reformation England, the religious nature of the ceremony cemented the relationships and mutual stability of church and throne. It was a ceremony too miraculous for the taste of some Protestants, although...

Geography History and Background

Although Korea was epidemiologically not as isolated as Japan, and the development of immunities within the population must have set in earlier and more intensively, the long periods of unrest, poverty, and famine during the wars of unification must have favored the outbreak of epidemics and famine-related diseases. Social reforms during the Koryo Era (918-1392) may have improved this situation. Relief programs, sponsored by the government and by the Buddhist church, were implemented granaries were built as a precaution against years of drought infirmaries were created and a system of medical care in the countryside was established. Despite all these efforts, however, the vast majority of the population stayed in poverty and, consequently, remained particularly vulnerable to contagious diseases.

Early Christian Era East and West

After the collapse of the Roman Empire, Western medicine experienced a period of retrenchment and decline. Healing became an important act of Christian charity, a divine gift freely provided within the framework of the new church and not restricted to professional physicians. Given this religious orientation, Christians healed through the confession of sins, prayer, the laying on of hands, exorcisms, and miracles, occasionally performed by saints or church fathers. Faced with a growing population and adverse economic conditions, the early Christian church created a number of philanthropic institutions. The provision of shelter and food for the poor and for strangers was extended to several forms of health care in houses called xenones (hostels) and more specifically nosokomeia (places for the sick). Among the first was an inn built by Bishop Basil around 375 in Caesarea, which was apparently staffed by nurses and physicians. Two decades later similar institutions opened their doors in...

Relevance and Role of Neurophysiological Data

The independence of computational level argument is a general argument against the necessity of appealing to neurophysi-ology to capture the generalizations necessary to explain human mental life. The general idea is that liberation from neuro-physiology is one of the great virtues of the cognitive computational revolution. It gives us the best of both worlds. It allows us to use an intentional vocabulary in our psychological theories, and if this vocabulary meets certain (computational) constraints, we get a guarantee (via the Church-Turing hypothesis) that some mechanism will be able to instantiate the postulated process.3 Beyond this, we don't have to worry about the physical. The psychological vocabulary will map onto the computational vocabulary, and it is, after all, cognitive computational structure, not physical structure, that captures the psychologically interesting generalizations.


Cover photographs (Top) Richard Feynman, Nobel prize winner in physics, lecturing on quantum mechanics (courtesy of the Archives, California Institute of Technology, photo 1.10-118). In this photo, Feynman demonstrates the value of communicating with gestures. Gestures and other aspects of delivery are discussed in Chapter 5. (Bottom left) Lightning demonstration at the Deutsches Museum in Munich, Germany (courtesy of the Deutsches Museum). In this demonstration, a lightning bolt strikes a church that is not well grounded. Because the church is not well grounded, a second stroke occurs between the church and a nearby house. Demonstrations and other visual aids are discussed in Chapter 4. (Bottom right) Poster presentation of capstone design projects at Pennsylvania State University (courtesy of the Learning Factory, Pennsylvania State University, 2001). The design of posters is discussed in Appendix B.

Velocityechem Br12

'Despite his achievements, Faraday was subject to the whip of religious discipline. When he accepted an invitation to visit Buckingham Palace to receive an award from Queen Victoria, and missed a religious service, his church told him that he had preferred Mammon to God and ought to leave the church

General Preface

This secrecy has not always been maintained. When the Catholic Church was at the summit of its power and influence it fully realized the magnitude of sexual problems and took an active and inquiring interest in all the details of normal and abnormal sexuality. Even to the present time there are certain phenomena of the sexual life which have scarcely been accurately described except in ancient theological treatises. As the type of such treatises I will mention the great tome of Sanchez, De Matrimonio. Here you will find the whole sexual life of men and women analyzed in its relationships to sin. Everything is set forth, as clearly and as concisely as it can be--without morbid prudery on the one hand, or morbid sentimentality on the other--in the coldest scientific language the right course of action is pointed out for all the cases that may occur, and we are told what is lawful, what a venial sin, what a mortal sin. Now I do not consider that

Arabic Influence

Medical practice and knowledge, surgical as well as medical, were far advanced. This practice and knowledge, as a matter of course, it seems, included concern about ethics within that practice. The Arab-Jewish philosopher Maimonides, whose oath is frequently used even today, wrote in many respects more in the spirit of Scribonius Largus than of Galen. During the Middle Ages much of what the Arabs had accomplished was, under the influence of the Roman Catholic church, buried, lost, or entirely ignored. Only lately have we come to appreciate the importance of the contribution of Arabs and their time.3

Medieval Times

The influence of Galen permeates the medieval period. His views, adopted early on by the Church, became near dogma to be learned and memorized in medical schools, not to be challenged. Attitudes toward health and disease profoundly affected ethical positions. In one view, God sent disease as punishment (a just affliction sent in retribution for some sin) or as a test in either case, the problem is outside man's province and jurisdiction. If we are to follow the Sermon on the Mount, are we not like the fowl of the air or the lilies of the field, cared for without our efforts by our Father Such problems had been argued in the Talmud and had been clearly adjudicated in favor of healing God intended physicians to heal just as He expected farmers to till the soil. God no more intended the Earth to lie fallow and men to starve than He did disease to go untreated. In Christian circles, ambivalence toward medicine (the physician as opposing God's will, or the physician as instrument of God in...

Western religions

Christians believe in Jesus Christ as their main deity and in the writings of the New Testament. Jesus is thought to be the Son of God, who was sent to Earth to save humanity. Christianity spread rapidly in different countries and regions, so it is no surprise that Christians eventually divided up into several groups. And since they spread in three different directions, they split into three main subgroups Roman Catholic, the Eastern Orthodox Church, and Protestants. These later subdivided further into various churches. In America, there is a diversity of local traditions and religious beliefs that are thought to be intrinsically respectable and that are never openly criticized by political leaders, even though they contradict each other, and even though, in the best of cases, only one of them could be completely true. In the average American city and in the countryside, there are many competing churches showing that religious freedom and practice, within socially acceptable limits,...

The Us Constitution

Nevertheless, the Constitution has been the foundation for many decisions affecting public school education, including the right to equal educational opportunity, student rights in the school setting, and church-state-school relationships. Portions of the Constitution most pertinent to education law are shown in Exhibit 2-1. The 10th, 14th, First, and Fourth Amendments are discussed in the following paragraphs.

Freedom of Religion

The First Amendment also ensures the basic right to free exercise of religious choice, and, under the 14th Amendment, both Congress and the states are prohibited from passing laws respecting an establishment of religion. As Reutter (1994) notes, the First Amendment is the source of two types of church-school-state cases those involving the use of public funds for parochial schools and those involving school policies or classroom procedures objected to on religious grounds. In general, court interpretations of the First Amendment suggest that the state is not allowed to provide funds directly to parochial schools. However, under the child benefit theory, the state may provide some educational services for pupils attending parochial schools as long as those services directly aid the pupil and are not used for the purpose of religious instruction, and no impermissible entanglement of church and state exists. In Wolman v. Walter (1977), the Supreme Court was asked to rule on the...

Theories of concepts

The concept of a bachelor fares no better. Suppose we attempt to analyze 'bachelor' as 'unmarried adult male' then as Lakoff (1987) and others have pointed out this definition applies to many instances that we are otherwise reluctant to count as bachelors. Examples include gay men in permanent relationships, and other individuals, such as the head of the Roman Catholic Church, who are not in a position to marry (Coulson 2001). Although it is sometimes claimed as a virtue of the classical theory of concepts that it explains analytic inferences such as Smith is unmarried therefore Smith is a bachelor, it may reasonably be objected that this inference is suspect unless we know that Smith is neither gay nor the pope. The same background information that controls our application of the concept in these cases may also operate when we draw inferences, undermining the supposed 'analytic inferences'. What we need is a theory of concepts that incorporates this background information.


Charles demonstrated considerable skill in mathematics and in 1851 he entered Christ Church, Oxford, as a student. He spent the rest of his life there. In keeping with the family tradition he entered Oxford with the plan to be ordained. However, his diary entries indicate considerable ambivalence regarding the matter. He was ordained a Deacon but finally in 1862 he made the official decision to not take the priestly orders. As faculty at Oxford he had difficulty as a teacher probably due in part to his stammer. His diary entries indicate his interest in theater and he published parodies in various magazines under the name of Lewis Carroll. During his early years at Oxford he also developed an interest in photography that he maintained for 25 years. At the time photography had been in existence for 17 years and Charles was 24 years old. He was a pioneer in this new field and he published articles and stories about the subject. Charles had public exhibitions of his photographs and he...


This perspective encourages questions around the client's relationship with God or a higher being. This does not necessarily mean that a client will be affiliated with an organized religion. Questions posed range from directly asking a client if he or she believes in God and an afterlife and if this loss has affected or changed their relationship with God, to indirect questions about their conception of sin and punishment, to questions about possible affiliations within a church community. For example 'What type of support are you presently getting from your church what would you like to get from your church what rituals (through your church) have you used that have been meaningful and helpful what religious beliefs sustain you the most during these times has your religion or spiritual convictions helped you through past losses and are you presently experiencing any personal conflicts between your thoughts and emotions and your spiritual beliefs ' Again, it is necessary to state that...


Recovery, the cessation of all psychoactive substances, occurs when addicted clients acknowledge that the mood-altering substance is not their support, as they had supposed, but the cause of their increasing problems. Though betrayed by their chemical elixir, they grieve the loss of their drug lifestyle. Gradually, one small step at a time, they replace this presumed best friend with more healthy activities and networks at home, school, work, church synagogue mosque, and in recreational settings.

Your Core Circle

Complete the exercise that follows, Identifying Your Core Circle. You may be surprised at your list For some people, the core circle consists of members of a church or synagogue, or a group devoted to a particular hobby (as was the case for Candace). Other people regularly rely on and socialize with just a few friends or family members. It isn't simply the number of people in your life that protects you from a drop in your mood but the quality of these relationships and the regularity of the contact.

Exemplary Cases

Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) was considered a criminal for extending Nicolaus Copernicus's idea that the Earth was not the center of the universe. Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543), the noted Polish astronomer, outlines his theory that the Earth revolves around the Sun in his great work, De Revolutionibus, which was published in the last year of his life. For this reason, it is quite likely that he avoided societal repression, which is not the case for Galileo. Galileo had a history of confrontation as well as being an independent thinker. As a child he was an annoyance to his teachers he questioned and contradicted at every turn. His father wanted him to be a physician but the youthful Galileo chose science. As a scientist, he entered Pisa University as a student in 1581. At 19 years of age he observed a swinging lamp in the cathedral at Pisa which led him to investigate the properties of a swinging pendulum. When only 25, he taught math at the University of Pisa. After three years he...


Affected phenomena in human existence can occur at different levels. This has been disclosed in a small-scale study of the beta-thalassemia genetic screening programs on Cyprus, long presented by professionals as a successful genetic population screening program. In that community genetic education by health authorities and health professionals involved the creation of a web of social pressure to increase compliance with the screening. Besides health professionals, church authorities were also involved, demanding that people planning marriage show evidence that they had been screened for beta-thalassemia. Also, it was not only the burden of the condition on the patient and parents which constituted an argument for genetic screening (and the subsequent option of prenatal diagnosis and termination of pregnancy in the case of a positive test result) the burden of this disease on the community was also an important reason for the population screening programs, and this was a new element....

Frederick Erickson

If teachers stray too far from their lesson plan, students do not learn the material. Likewise in musical performance, if improvisation diverges too far from the theme, it becomes ineffective. It was a recurring criticism of J. S. Bach's organ playing during church services that he improvised so much when playing the preludium that introduced a hymn that the congregants could not tell what the melody of the hymn was. Highly dissonant or atonal jazz (e.g., Ornette Coleman) has likewise been criticized as too unstructured, by those listeners who prefer the clear foundational harmonies of New Orleans jazz - in which the succession of chords (the changes ) stays pretty much the same across iterations of the theme - or the simple structure of the twelve bar blues, where the chord sequence is almost exactly the same across iterations, despite much variation in the melody line. In most improvisational genres, some features of the theme stay constant across all iterations in a performance...


He first went over to the playhouse, inspecting all the rooms. Then he talked about pictures in the rooms in the playhouse. He described his own house and wanted to know what was outside a door in my office. There was a lot of interest in the office-house being a big house. He wanted to know if it could be a church.


There are, however, certain features of a social demographic perspective or orientation that characterize much (but probably not all) of the research work by those trained in the field. Perhaps most common is an understanding of the interplay of cohorts and period in social change. Norman Ryder's (1965) essay on ''The Cohort as a Concept in the Study of Social Change'' is a canonical reading in social demographic training. The classic applications of the cohort perspective have been in studies of fertility trends (Ryder 1969 Rindfuss, Morgan, and Swicegood 1988), but there have also been illuminating cohort studies of life-cycle events, political attitudes, church attendance, and many other topics (Abramson 1975 Alba 1988 Uhlenberg 1969). To some extent, the application of the cohort perspective has been inhibited by methodological obstacles and the impossibility of obtaining independent estimates of

Support Groups

These groups meet monthly or more often in a meeting room made available to them by a local hospital, community center, church, or synagogue. Some are led by professionals, usually a nurse or social worker, while others are led by the members themselves. Some groups are restricted to men only, whereas others include wives and partners. Groups may specialize in one area, such as men who have been recently diagnosed, men with recurrent cancer, or men with problems of incontinence or impotence.

Health Related coping

Another mechanism associated with coping is religion and or spirituality, although this has not been studied frequently in pediatric populations. Limited research has suggested that spirituality is viewed as a strength and that praying can be conceptualized as a coping mechanism (Barbarin 1999 Harrison et al. 2005). Indeed, Barbarin (1999) noted that religion and spirituality, including a relationship with a community church and a personal relationship with God, were important resources in helping families and children adjust to SCD. In this study, a greater proportion of families with children who have SCD reported being religious compared with a group of control families, and a number of adolescent patients mentioned religion in their ability to understand and cope with their diagnosis (Barbarin 1999).

Early days

In the Middle Ages the Church taught of the relationship between physical and spiritual health and also supplied most of the healthcare provision outside the home. This resulted in the Church having control over many aspects of medicine, such as giving support to Galenic teaching. Thus, the belief in the theory of laudable pus persisted and little advancement was made until the nineteenth century. But, there were a few glimmers in the darkness.

Future Prospects

During the 19th century (McQuillan 1999). The study presents hypotheses based on the doctrinal differences between the traditional position of the Catholic Church toward the married state as an inferior status and Luther's recognition of sexuality as a fundamental human value. It attempts to test these hypotheses by using a combination of nominative and aggregate techniques in a carefully selected sample of villages. It investigates the history of pastoral practices and of the relations between church and state in the educational systems of the two communities. It concludes that doctrinal differences (particularly with respect to marriage) were less important in shaping the behavior of the Lutheran and Catholic communities than the openness of the hierarchies to modernity in the former and the conservatism of the latter. This accounts for a later decline of fertility in Catholic villages, a development that may have its parallels in other countries of mixed confessions like Ireland...

Case Study

Ellie is a twenty-three-year-old Hispanic female Veteran who was raised in a small Southwestern community by both parents and with one younger brother. She was sexually abused by an uncle (mother's older brother) from the age of eight through eighteen. The abuse began as fondling and developed into vaginal rape by the time she was in her teens. She reported that the sexual abuse assault occurred about once or twice a month when she and her brother would stay with her uncle and aunt at their house or when the uncle and aunt would come to her house to babysit. The aunt would leave her alone with the uncle while she took the brother to church. Ellie tried to tell her mother when Ellie was about ten, but was not believed. Her father was away from home frequently and when he was home, he drank heavily. Ellie joined the military to get away from home but was raped by another soldier. Since her discharge, she has been completely isolated and no longer dates. Her only close relationship is...

And Being Dead

Sudden death meant that one was incapable of performing the social and religious rituals of death and dying that were felt necessary to having had a successful life. One could not say one's good-byes, ask for and offer forgiveness, etc. Until the Middle Ages, the catholic church did not provide burial in sacred ground to those who died suddenly even when they were murdered The ancient and modern practice of blessing and giving absolution to those going into battle (a strange practice, indeed) may have originated in this. Odd as it seems, persons often seem to have chosen their own time of death, prepared everything for the occasion and then, having apparently done all this in fair health, lay down and died. A person who died suddenly (just as one who was murdered) was suspect and, for a time, burial in hallowed earth was not given to persons who died suddenly or to those who were the victims of violence. Death was a communal affair just as was living the...

Selfhelp Croups

Another great way to strengthen your recovery process outside the treatment setting is to attend self-help (support) groups. These can be found on college campuses, as adjuncts to in-patient or out-patient therapy programs, as informal groups of people in varying stages of recovery, or as components of existing Overeaters Anonymous programs, and so on. Self-help groups meet in a variety of settings, including rented space at local churches, hospitals, or members' homes. Typically, participants include people who are in recovery from some form of eating disorder (and perhaps additional psychological or addictive challenges) and their families or friends.