Residues and Residue Removal

a. Types of residues: Physical and chemical properties such as solubility, hydrophobic-ity, and reactivity of residues affect the ease with which they are removed from surfaces. It is therefore important to first identify the substance to be cleaned.

b. Cleaning agents: It is necessary to know the ingredients of a cleaning agent. This is important because when cleaning agents are used to aid cleaning, their removal must also be demonstrated to ensure the proper cleaning of surfaces. Once the ingredients are known, validation personnel must then determine the worst-case ingredient in the cleaning agent.

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