Normal gait and posture depend on the normal function of various structures along the entire neuroaxis. This includes the cortical, subcortical, and spinal cord regions as well as the final common pathway of motor neurons, the neuromuscular junctions and the muscles they innervate. The anatomy and neurological examination of the motor, sensory, cerebellar, and basal gangliar components of normal gait and posture are addressed in specific chapters. This chapter integrates the function of those regions with the important spinal, subcortical, and cortical structures involved in gait and posture.
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