Because one of the most common causes of orbital infiltration is thyroid disease, patients with orbital signs such as proptosis, chemosis and conjunctival injection together with abnormal ocular motility should be examined for goiter, pretibial myxedema, smooth moist skin, and loss of lateral eyebrows. y In thyroid disease, the extraocular muscles can develop edema, lymphocytic infiltration, and fibrosis, resulting in loss of elasticity more than loss of contractile strength. The diplopia that results from this restrictive feature is due to the tethering of the eye in an abnormal position by one or more shortened inelastic extraocular muscles.
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