Carotid Cavernous Fistula

A carotid-cavernous fistula is an abnormal communication between the carotid artery and the veins of the cavernous sinus, creating a high-pressure, high-flow system. There is often a history of trauma. Patients may present with an audible bruit and progressive pulsatile proptosis with chemosis, restricted eye movement, and progressive visual loss in late stages (see TabM...^-^ ). The diagnosis is made by cerebral angiography, but a CT scan with contrast, MRI, or magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) may show the lesion (see T§ble.n.212n-3 and Chapter.23 ).

Alcohol No More

Alcohol No More

Do you love a drink from time to time? A lot of us do, often when socializing with acquaintances and loved ones. Drinking may be beneficial or harmful, depending upon your age and health status, and, naturally, how much you drink.

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