Pain and Temperature

Renato J. Verdugo Jose G. Cea Mario Campero Jose L. Castillo

History and Definitions Clinical History

Anatomy of Pain and Temperature Sensation

Receptors First-Order Neurons Second-Order Neurons Third-Order Neurons

Pain Control Mechanisms in the Central Nervous System Gate Control Theory

Examination of Pain and Temperature Sensory Systems

Directed Neurological Examination

Associated Neurological Findings

Associated Medical Findings

Evaluation Guidelines

Clinical Syndromes

Sensitization of C-Polymodal Nociceptors

Triple Cold Syndrome

Primary Sensory Neuropathy


Diffuse Sensory Neuropathy

Dorsal Root Ganglion Syndromes



Central Spinal Cord Syndrome: Syringomyelia Cauda Equina Versus Conus Medullaris Syndrome Combined Radicular and Myelopathy Syndromes Spinal Cord Hemisection Transverse Myelopathy Anterior Spinal Artery Syndrome

Central Post-Stroke Syndrome (Thalamic Pain Syndrome) Brain Stem Pain Loss Syndromes Cortical Pain Syndrome Insensitivity to Pain

Sensory Syndromes Associated with Psychogenic Sensory Loss Causalgia

General Management Goals Reviews and Selected Updates


Peripheral Neuropathy Natural Treatment Options

Peripheral Neuropathy Natural Treatment Options

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