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Jackson's syndrome

Schmidt's syndrome

Tapia's syndrome

Vernet'syndrome

Collet-Sicard syndrome

Villarets syndrome

Wallenbergs syndrome (lateral medullarysyndrome)

visceral efferent fibers of cranial nerves X and XI, which together with cranial nerve IX innervate the muscles of the pharynx and larynx.

UPPER MOTOR NEURON, SUPRANUCLEAR CONTROL

The nucleus ambiguus receives bilateral input primarily from the precentral gyrus of the cerebral cortex. These corticobulbar fibers travel through the internal capsule and brain stem in association with the corticospinal tract and terminate on reticular formation neurons, which transmit signals to the nucleus ambiguus.

LOWER MOTOR NEURON, PERIPHERAL PATHWAYS

The motor fibers emerge from the medulla in a groove between the inferior cerebellar peduncle and the olive as part of the rootlets comprising the glossopharyngeal nerve. The nerve travels laterally through the posterior fossa and exits the skull through the jugular foramen together with cranial nerves X and XI. The fibers to the stylopharyngeus muscle travel downward in the neck deep to the styloid process and reach the muscle around its posterior margin.

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