Enteroviruses Echoviruses and Coxsackieviruses

Epidemiology and Risk Factors. Enteroviral infections occur primarily in the summer and autumn months in temperate climates; infants, young children, and immunocompromised patients are at greatest risk of infection. The enteroviruses comprise a total of 68 distinct serotypes of human pathogens, but the most common enteroviruses that cause aseptic meningitis are the coxsackieviruses B5, B3, B4, and A9; the echoviruses 30, 11, 7, 9, 6, 4, and 18; and enteroviruses 70 and 71. y , y The clinical signs and symptoms observed during enterovirus CNS infection depends to some extent not only on the patient's age but also on the state of the individual's immune system. Neonates are at greatest risk for severe infection, either meningitis or meningoencephalitis. Enteroviral infection in agammaglobulinemic individuals may cause a chronic meningitis or meningoencephalitis. Enteroviral CNS infection in infants older than 2 weeks of age and in children and adults is rarely associated with severe disease and is most often an aseptic meningitis.

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