Lesions Within the Cranium or in the Region of the Foramen Magnum

A large number of different pathological processes in this region may impinge upon either the eleventh or twelfth cranial nerves. Additionally, other cranial nerves in the posterior fossa may be involved (CN IX and X). Platybasia and Paget's disease, indirectly through their effects on the bony structures in this region, may impinge upon these cranial nerves. Tumors, including glomus tumors, acoustic neuromas, meningiomas, and metastases to the skull base, may impinge on the eleventh or twelfth cranial nerves. A number of infectious processes, including syphilis and tuberculosis, y may result in dysfunction of CN XI and XII. Combined dysfunction of CN IX through XII may result in neck and tongue weakness, depressed gag, palatal paresis, and vocal cord paralysis.

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