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The ability to record, retain, and reproduce information constitutes memory functioning. Memory is not a unitary phenomenon, however. There are different forms of memory ( .Table.2Z:2. ) including memory requiring awareness (explicit memory) as well as memory that occurs in the absence of awareness (implicit memory) (see Chapters ). All standard clinical assessments of memory test explicit memory. Even within explicit memory there are different forms. Semantic memory represents the ability to learn information about the world in general. Episodic memory represents memories that are tied to specific episodes. For example, the knowledge that a bicycle has two wheels, pedals, a seat, and handlebars represents semantic memory; it is not possible to identify when this information was acquired. The memory of the first time one rode a bicycle is an example of episodic memory; the events surrounding that first ride are part of the memory trace. Most clinical neuropsychological tests of memory test a combination of semantic and episodic explicit memory. There are many different memory tests, both batteries and tests of single abilities.

Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R).y The WMS-R is a memory assessment battery composed of 13 subtests (see TableiZ-i. ). The 13 subtests include

TABLE 27.9.30-2 -- SUBTESTS OF THE WECHSLER MEMORY SCALE-REVISED THAT FORM THE SUBSCALES AND THE MEMORY FUNCTIONS THEY

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