NREM Sleep

Sleep spindles usually arise from the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic neurons in the reticular thalamic nucleus. These neurons have intrinsic oscillations with spontaneous slow depolarization on which rhythmical spikes are superimposed and serve as drivers for thalamocortical projection neurons. Dissection of the reticular thalamic region from the thalamocortical region or specific kainic acid lesions of reticular thalamic nuclei eliminates spindles. On scalp recordings, spindles occur maximally over the frontal and vertex areas. Depth electrode recordings in humans show that thalamic spindles are earlier and more frequent than those recorded on the scalp. Spindles occurring in the frontal leads may also originate in the supplementary cortex. y

The defining feature of Stages 3 and 4 sleep is the delta or slow wave. Thalamocortical cells are capable of generating delta waves, but other areas are involved as well, as shown by lesions of the anterior hypothalamus, preoptic region, and basal forebrain, all of which can abolish delta waves.

Diabetes 2

Diabetes 2

Diabetes is a disease that affects the way your body uses food. Normally, your body converts sugars, starches and other foods into a form of sugar called glucose. Your body uses glucose for fuel. The cells receive the glucose through the bloodstream. They then use insulin a hormone made by the pancreas to absorb the glucose, convert it into energy, and either use it or store it for later use. Learn more...

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