Oxygen And Carbon Dioxide Abnormalities

Conditions causing hypoxemia include a low inspired oxygen (O2 ) concentration, ventilation-perfusion mismatch, right-to-left shunting, impaired diffusion, and hypoventilation;

those causing hypercapnia include the breathing of a carbon dioxide (CO 2 )-containing gas, ventilation-perfusion mismatch, and hypoventilation. Because neuromuscular dysfunction produces hypoventilation, which, in turn, produces both hypoxemia and hypercapnia, distinguishing which neurological features are related to which condition is difficult. Although isolated hypoxic encephalopathy is seldom seen in humans y (e.g., mountain sickness), an understanding of its pathophysiological basis is important. Thus, this section is divided into three parts: hypoventilation, hypoxia, and hypocapnia.

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