Pantothenic Acid Vitamin A and Vitamin D

Pantothenic acid is part of coenzyme A, an essential element of carbohydrate and fatty acid synthesis and degradation. Because of its ubiquity, no single neurological syndrome is known to be caused by pantothenate deficiency, with the exception of generalized malaise. y

Vitamin A, derived from beta-carotene, is necessary for normal vision and reproduction. Deficiency leads to night blindness and corneal ulceration. y Hypervitaminosis of 25,000 IU daily for 1 to 2 years may cause symptoms of pseudotumor cerebri, including raised intracranial pressure and visual disturbances. y , W Hypervitaminosis in pregnant mothers may lead to birth defects and learning disabilities.

Vitamin D is necessary for calcium absorption in the gut. Deficiency leads to osteomalacia, hypocalcemia, and hypophosphatemia. '55' The reason why muscle weakness occurs in such patients is unclear, and the phenomenon is explained only in part by low serum calcium. y , y

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