Primary Small Brain Size

Nongenetic insults (prenatal, perinatal, postnatal) Infectious

Vascular disruption, hypoxic-ischemic insult Irradiation

Toxins and teratogens

Malnutrition

Metabolic

Trauma (including shaken baby syndrome)

Genetic conditions

Chromosomal disorders

Examples:

Trisomy 21

Trisomy 13

5p-(cri du chat) syndrome

Metabolic and degenerative conditions with onset before completion of brain growth

Examples:

Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome

Infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis

Chromosomal instability and premature aging disorders

Examples:

Bloom's syndrome

Cockayne's syndrome

Nijmegen chromosome breakage syndrome

Monogenic or sporadic "syndromic" disorders

Examples:

Cornelia de Lange's syndrome Meckel's syndrome Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome Also:

Microcephalia vera

Microcephaly "plus"

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