This chapter focuses on the major structural malformations and associated problems related to the central nervous system (CNS) and surrounding structures. Although hydrocephalus is not a specific structural disorder, it is discussed in the first section because of the importance and frequency with which hydrocephalus occurs in many of the disorders that follow in the chapter. Furthermore, the evaluation and diagnosis of hydrocephalus plays a pivotal role in clinical management of many CNS malformations. Following hydrocephalus, disorders of development are discussed according to estimated gestational timing of the pathogenesis. Of course the developmental timing for many disorders is not known or only speculative, and therefore, disorders have also been grouped into major categories.
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