References

The Parkinson's-Reversing Breakthrough

Parkinson Disease Treatment

Get Instant Access

1. Gibb WRG, Lees AJ: Pathological clues to the cause of Parkinson's disease. In Marsden CD, Fahn S (eds): Movement Disorders, 3rd ed. Oxford, Butterworth, 1994, pp 147-16 6.

2. Jiminez-Casstellanos J, Graybiel AM: Subdivision of the dopamine containing A8-A9-A10 complex identified by their differential mesostriatal innervations of striosomal and extrastriosomal matrix.

Neuroscience 1987;23:223-242

3. Mayeux T, Marder K, Cote LJ, et al: The frequency of idiopathic Parkinson's disease by age, ethnic group, and sex in northern Manhattan, 1988-1993. Am j Epidemiol 1995;142:820-827

4. Bennet DA, Beckett CA, Murray AM, et al: Prevalence of parkinsonian signs and associated mortality in a community population of older people. n Engl j Med 1996;334:71-76

5. Koller W, Vetere-Overfield B, Gray C: Environmental risk factors in Parkinson's disease. Neurology 1990;40:1218-1221

6. Stacy M, Jankovic J: Differential diagnosis of Parkinson's disease and the Parkinsonism plus syndromes. Neurol Clin North Am 1992;10:341-358

7. Johnson WG, Hodge S, Duvoisin RC: Twin studies and the genetics of Parkinson's disease: A reappraisal. Mov Disord 1990;5:187-194

8. Polymeropulos MH, Lavedant C, Leroy E, et al: Mutation in the

- synuclein gene identified in families with Parkinson's disease. Science 1997;276:2054-2057

9. Jankovic J, Beach J, Schwartz K, Contant C: Tremor and longevity in relatives of patients with Parkinson's disease, essential tremor and control subjects. Neurology 1995;45:645-648

10. Rosenow F, Herholz K, Lanfermann H, et al: Neurological sequelae of cyanide intoxication--the patterns of clinical, magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography findings. Ann

Neurol 1995;38:825-827

11. Stacy M, Brownlee J: Treatment options for early Parkinson's disease. Am Fam Phys 1996;53:1281-1287

12. Seeman P, Van Tol HHM: Dopamine receptor pharmacology. Trends Pharmocol Sci 1994;15:264-270

13. Pappert EJ, Goetz CG, Niederman FG, et al: Liquid levodopa/ carbidopa produces significant improvements in motor function without dyskinesia exacerbation. Neurology 1996;47:1493-1495

14. Nutt JG, Holford NHG: The response to levodopa in Parkinson's disease: Imposing pharmacological law and order. Ann Neurol 1996;39:561-573

15. The Parkinson study group: Effects of tocopherol deprenyl on the progression of disability in early Parkinson's disease. n Engl j Med 1993;328:176-183

16. Lieberman A, Ranhosky A, Korts D: Clinical evaluation of pramipexole in advanced Parkinson's disease: Results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study. Neurology 1997;49:162-168

17. Tulloch IF: Pharmacologic profile of ropinirole: A nonergoline dopamine agonist. Neurology 1997;49(Suppl 1):S58-S62

18. Nutt JG, Woodward WR, Beckner RM, et al: Effect of peripheral catechol-O-methyl transferase inhibition on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of levodopa in parkinsonian patients.

Neurology 1994;44:913-919

19. Olanow CW, Kordower JH, Freeman TB: Fetal nigral transplantation for the treatment of Parkinson's disease. TrendsNeurosci 1996;19:102-108

20. Lozano Am, Lang AE, Galvez-Jimenez N, et al: Effect of Gpi pallidotomy on motor function in Parkinson's disease. Lancet 1995;346:1383- 1387

21. Lang AE, Lozano A, Montgomery E, et al: Posteroventral medial pallidotomy in advanced Parkinson's disease. n Engl j Med 1997;337:1036-1042

22. Koller WC, Silver DE, Lieberman A: An algorithm for the management of Parkinson's disease. Neurology 1994;44 (Suppl 10):S3-S52

23. Factor SA, Brown D, Mohlo EX, et al: Clozapine: A 2-year open trial in Parkinson's disease with psychosis. Neurology 1994;44:544-546

24. Uitti RJ, Ahlskog JE, Maraganore DM, et al: Levodopa therapy and survival in idiopathic Parkinson's disease: Olmsted County project. Neurology 1993;43:1918-1926

25. Hauw J-J, Daniel SE, Dickson D, et al: Preliminary NINDS neuropathologic criteria for Steele-Richardson-Olszewski syndrome (progressive supranuclear palsy). Neurology 1994;44:2015-2019

26. Golbe LI, Davis PH, Schoenberg BS, et al: Prevalence and natural history of progressive supranuclear palsy. Neurology 1988;38:1031-1034

27. Riley DE, Fogt N, Leigh RJ: The syndrome of 'pure akinesia' and its relationship to progressive supranuclear palsy. Neurology 1994;44:1025-1029

28. Litvan I, Agid Y, Jankovic J, et al: Accuracy of clinical criteria for the diagnosis of progressive supranuclear palsy (Steele-Richardson-Olszewski syndrome). Neurology 1996;47:1-9

29. Burn DJ, Sawle GV, Brooks DJ: Differential diagnosis of Parkinson's disease, multiple system atrophy, and Steele-Richardson-Olszewski syndrome: Discriminant analysis of striatal 18F-dopa PET

data. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1994;57:278-284

30. Ghika J, Tennis M, Hoffman E, et al: Idazoxan treatment in progressive supranuclear palsy. Neurology 1991;41:986-991

31. Papp ML, Lantos PL: The distribution of oligodendroglial inclusions in multiple system atrophy and its relevance to clinical symptomatology. Brain 1994;117:235-243

32. Quinn N: Multiple system atrophy. In Marsden CD, Fahn S (eds): Movement Disorders, 3rd ed. Oxford, Butterworth Publications, 1994, pp 263-28 1.

33. Wenning GK, Ben Shlomo Y, Magalhaes M, et al: Clinical features and natural history of multiple system atrophy: An analysis of 100 cases. Brain 1994;117:835-845

34. Jankovic J, McDermott M, Carter J, et al: Variable expression of Parkinson's disease: A baseline analysis of the DATATOP cohort. Neurology 1991;41:1529-1534

35. Brooks DJ, Ibanez V, Sawle GV, et al: Striatal D2 receptor status in patient with Parkinson's disease, striatonigral degeneration, and progressive supranuclear palsy, measured with 11C-raclopride and positron emission tomography. Ann Neurol 1992;31:184-192

36. Polinsky RJ: Shy-Drager syndrome. In Jankovic J, Tolosa E (eds): Parkinson's Disease and Movement Disorders. Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins, 1993, pp 191-2 04.

37. Hughes AJ, Colosimo C, Kleedorfer B, et al: The dopaminergic response in multiple system atrophy. j Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1992;55:1009-1013

38. Jankovic J, Gilden JL, Hiner BC, et al: Neurogenic orthostatic hypotension: A double-blind placebo-controlled study with midodrine. Am j Med 1993;93:38-48

39. Rinne JO, Lee MS, Thompson PD, Marsden CD: Corticobasal degeneration: A clinical study of 36 cases. Brain 1994;117:1183-1196

40. Doody RS, Jankovic J: The alien hand and related signs. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1992;55:806-81( .

41. Lilienfield DE, Perl DP, Olanow CW: Guam neurodegeneration. In Calne DB, (ed): Neurodegenerative Diseases. Philadelphia, WB Saunders, 1994, pp 895-9(8.

42. Stacy M: Parkinsonism-dementia-amyotrophic lateral sclerosis complex of Guam. In Jankovic J (ed): Neurobase. San Diego, Arbor, 199t .

43. Klawans HL: Hemiparkinsonism as a late complication of hemiatrophy: A new syndrome. Neurology 1981;31:625-628

44. Lang AE: Hemiatrophy, junenile-onset exertional alternating leg paresis, hypotonia and hemidystonia and adult-onset hemiparkinsonism: The spectrum of hemiparkinsonism-hemiatrophy syndrome.

Mov Disord 1995;10:489-495

45. Brashear HR, Phillips LH: Autoantibodies to GABAergic neurons and response to plasmapheresis in stiff-man syndrome. Neurology 1991;41:1588-1592

46. Darnell RB, Victor J, Rubin M, et al: A novel antineuronal antibody in stiff-man syndrome. Neurology 1993;43:114-120

47. Yamamoto R, Xi L, Francke U, et al: Primary structure of human amphiphisin, the dominant autoantigen of paraneoplastic stiff-man syndrome, and mapping of its gene (AMPH) to chromosome 7p13- p14. Hum Mol Gen 1995;4:265-268

48. Thompson PD: Stiff people. In Marsden CD, Fahn S (eds): Movement Disorders, 3rd ed. Oxford, Butterworth Publications, 1994, pp 373-40 5.

49. DiFiglia M, Sapp E, Chase KO, et al: Aggregation of huntintgin in neuronal intranuclear inclusions and dystrophic neurites in brain. Science 1997;277:1990-1993

50. Nance MA: Huntington's disease another chapter rewritten. Am J Hum Genet 1996;59:1-6

51. Ritchfield EK, Maguire-Zeiss KA, Vonkeman HE, et al: Preferential loss of preproenkephalin neurons from the striatum of Huntington's disease patients. Ann Neurol 1995;38:852-861

52. Penney JB, Young AB. Huntington's disease. In Jankovic J, Tolosa E (eds): Parkinson's Disease and Other Movement Disorders, 3rd edition. Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins, 19 98.

53. Huntington's Disease Collaboration Research Group: A novel gene containing a trinucleotide repeat that is expanded and unstable on Huntington's disease chromosomes. Cell 1993;72:971-983

54. Demirkiran M, Jankovic J: Paroxysmal dyskinesias: Clinical features and classification. Ann Neurol 1995;38:571-579

55. Bennett DA, Goetz CG: Acquired paroxysmal dyskinesia. In Joseph AB, Young RR (eds): Movement Disorders in Neurology and Neuropsychiatry. Oxford, Blackwell Scientific Publications, 1992, pp 548- 5 56.

56. Stacy M, Jankovic J: Rare movement disorders associated with metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases. In Robertson MM, Eapen V (eds): Movement and Allied Disorders of Childhood. Chichester, John Wiley & Sons, 1995, pp 177-198

57. Stacy M, Jankovic J: Differential diagnosis and treatment of childhood dystonia. PediatrAnn 1993;22:353-358

58. Lew H, Jordan C, Jerger J, Jankovic J: Acoustic reflex abnormalities in cranial-cervical dystonia. Neurology 1992;42:594-597

59. Jankovic J, Brin MF: Therapeutic uses of botulinum toxin. n Engl J Med 1991;324:1186-1194

60. Cardoso F, Jankovic J, Grossman RG, Hamilton WJ: Outcome after stereotactic thalamotomy for dystonia and hemiballismus. Neurosurgery 1995;36:501-508

61. Swaiman KF: Hallervorden-Spatz and brain iron metabolism. Arch Neurol 1991;48:1285-1293

62. Olanow CW: Hallervorden-Spatz syndrome: An iron storage disease. In Calne DB (ed): Neurodegenerative Diseases. Philadelphia, W.B. Saunders, 1994, pp 807-82 3.

63. Jankovic J: Tics in other neurological disorders. In Kurlan R (ed): Handbook of Tourette's Syndrome and Related Tic and Behavioral Disorders. New York, Marcel Dekker, 1993, pp 167-1 82.

64. Singer HS: Neurobiology of Tourette syndrome. In Jankovic J (ed): Tourette syndrome. Neurol Clin N Am 1997;15:357-38 0.

65. Leckman JF, Peterson BS, Anderson GM, et al: Pathogenesis of Tourette's syndrome. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 1997;38:119-142

66. Tanner CM, Goldman SM: Epidemiology of Tourette syndrome. In Jankovic J (ed): Tourette syndrome. Neurol Clin N Am 1997;15:357- 38 0.

67. Kurlan R: Tourette's syndrome in a special education population: Hypothesis. Adv Neurol 1992;58:75-81.

68. Tourette Syndrome Classification Study Group: Definitions and classification of tic disorders. Arch Neurol 1993;50:1013-1016

69. Kurlan R: Tourette's syndrome. In Jankovic J (ed): Neurobase. San Diego, Arbor Publishing, 199> .

70. Jankovic J: Stereotypies. In Marsden CD, Fahn S (eds): Movement Disorders, 3rd ed. Oxford, Butterworth Publications, 1994, pp 503- 5: 7.

71. Clayton-Smith J: Clinical research on Angelman syndrome in the United Kingdom: Observations on 82 affected individuals. Am J Med Gen 1993;46:12-15

72. Dressler D, Thompson PD, Gledhill RF, Marsden CD: The syndrome of painful legs and moving toes. Mov Disord 1994;9:13-21

73. Goetz CG, Buchman AS: Painful legs/moving toes syndrome. In Joseph AB, Young RR (eds): Movement Disorders in Neurology and Neuropsychiatry. Oxford, Blackwell Scientific Publications, 1992, pp 557-5 64.

74. Findley LJ: Tremors: Differential diagnosis and pharmacology. In Jankovic J, Tolosa E (eds): Parkinson's Disease and Movement Disorders, 2nd ed. Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins, 1993, pp 293-3 14.

75. Benabid AL, Pollack P, Gao D, et al: Chronic electrical stimulation of the ventralis intermedius nucleus of the thalamus as a treatment of movement disorders. J Neurosurg 1996;84:203-214

76. Tanzi RE, Petrukin K, Chernov I: The Wilson's disease gene is a copper transporting ATPase with homology to the Menke's disease gene. Nat Genet 1993;5:344-350

77. Demirkiran M, Jankovic J, Lewis RA, Cox DW: Neurologic presentation of Wilson's disease without Kayser-Fleisher ring. Neurology 1996;46:1040-1043

78. Shannon K: Hemifacial spasm. In Jankovic J (ed): Neurobase. San Diego, Arbor Publishing, 199> .

79. Auger RG, Whisnant JP: Hemifacial spasm in Rochester and Olmsted County, Minnesota, 1960 to 1984. Arch Neurol 1990;47:1233-1234

80. Pappert EJ, Goetz CG: Treatment of myoclonus. In Kurlan R (ed): Treatment of Movement Disorders. Philadelphia, JB Lippincott, 1995, pp 247-3■ 6.

81. Delecluse F, Waldmar G, Vestermark S, et al: Cerebral blood flow deficits in hereditary essential myoclonus. Arch Neurol 1992;49:179- 182

82. Fahn S, Sjaastad O: Hereditary essential myoclonus in a large Norwegian family. Mov Disord 1991;3:237-247

83. Quinn NP: Essential myoclonus and myoclonic dystonia. Mov Disord 1996;11:119-124

84. Matsumoto J, Hallett M: Startle syndromes. In Marsden CD, Fahn S (eds): Movement Disorders, 3rd ed. Oxford, Butterworth, 1994, pp 418-43 3.

85. Matsumoto J, Fuhr P, Nigro M, Hallett M: Physiological abnormalities in hereditary hyperexplexia. Ann Neurol 1992;32:41-50

86. Shiang R, Ryan SG, Zhu Y, et al: Mutations in the alpha 1 subunit of the inhibitory glycine receptor cause the dominant neurological disorder hyperexplexia. Nat Genet 1993;5:351-357

Thomas Klockgether

History and Definitions Hereditary Ataxias

Chapter 35 - Ataxias

Autosomal Recessive Disorders

Autosomal Dominant Disorders

Nonhereditary, Idiopathic Cerebellar Ataxia

Reviews and Selected Updates

References

The degenerative and congenital ataxias comprise a wide spectrum of disorders in which ataxia is the leading symptom. The neuropathological hallmark of these diseases is degeneration or malformation of the cerebellar cortex and the spinal pathways. In many cases, the brain stem and the basal ganglia are also involved.

Traditionally, classifications of ataxia were based on neuropathological criteria. Thus, Holmes (1907) distinguished between spinocerebellar degeneration, degeneration of the cerebellar cortex, and olivopontocerebellar atrophy (OPCA). [1] More recently, a clinical classification introduced by Harding (1983) has gained wide acceptance (.,Xakje.,.3.5.-..1.. )[2] This classification distinguishes between hereditary and nonhereditary ataxias. Hereditary ataxia is further subdivided into ataxias with autosomal recessive inheritance such as Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA), and ataxias with autosomal dominant inheritance. In recent years, a number of genes for hereditary ataxias have been localized, and their mutations have been identified( ,X§bJe,3.5.:2. ). The nonhereditary ataxias include both diseases with an unknown etiology (e.g., idiopathic cerebellar ataxia [IDCA]) and symptomatic ataxias with a known cause. Symptomatic ataxias, many of which are due to alcoholism or malignant disease, are covered in other chapters.

PreviousNext

Was this article helpful?

0 0
Peripheral Neuropathy Natural Treatment Options

Peripheral Neuropathy Natural Treatment Options

This guide will help millions of people understand this condition so that they can take control of their lives and make informed decisions. The ebook covers information on a vast number of different types of neuropathy. In addition, it will be a useful resource for their families, caregivers, and health care providers.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment