References

Super Memory Formula

New Treatment of Memory Loss

Get Instant Access

1. Barre-Sinoussi F, Chermann JC, Rey F et al: Isolation of a T- lymphotrophic retrovirus from a patient at risk for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Science 1983;220:868-871

2. Gallo RC, Salahuddin SZ, Popovic M et al: Frequent detection and isolation of cytopathic retroviruses (HTLV-11) from patients with AIDS. Science 1984;224:500-503

3. Levy JA, Hoffman AD, Kramer SM, et al: Isolation of lymphotrophic retroviruses from San Francisco patients with AIDS. Science 1984;225:840-842

4. Coffin J, Haase A, Levy JA, et al: Human immunodeficiency viruses. Science 1986;232:697

5. Snider WD, Simpson DM, Nielsen S, et al: Neurological complications of acquired immune deficiency syndrome: analysis of 50 patients. Ann Neurol 1983;14:403-418

6. Levy JA, Shimabukuro J, Hollander H, et al: Isolation of AIDS associated retrovirus from cerebrospinal fluid and brain of patients with neurological symptoms. Lancet 1985;2:586-588

7. Ho DD, Rota TR, Schooley RT, et al: Isolation of HTLV-III from CSF and neural tissues of patients with AIDS-related neurologic syndromes. n Engl J Med 1985;313:1493-1497

8. Navia BA, Jordan BD, Price RW: The AIDS demential complex: 1. Clinical features. Ann Neurol 1986;19:517-524

9. Belman AL, Ultmann MH, Horoupian D, et al: Neurologic complications in infants and children with acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Ann Neurol 1985;18:560-566

10. Goudsmit J, Wolters EC, Bakker M, et al: Intrathecal synthesis of antibodies to HTLV-III in patients without AIDS or AIDS related complex. Br Med J 1986;292:1231-1234

11. Epstein LG, Goudsmit J, Paul DA, et al: Expression of human immunodeficiency virus in cerebrospinal fluid of children with progressive encephalopathy. Ann Neurol 1987;21:397-401

12. Epstein LG, Sharer LR, Oleske JM, et al: Neurologic manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus infection in children. Pediatrics 1986;78:678-687

13. Sharer LR, Epstein LG, Cho ES, et al: Pathologic features of AIDS encephalopathy in children: evidence for LAV/HTLV-III infection of the brain. Hum Pathol 1986;17:271-284

14. Gabuzda DH, Ho DD, de la Monte SM, et al: Immunohistochemical identification of HTLV-III antigen in brain of patients with AIDS. Ann Neurol 1986;20:289-295

15. Pumarola-Sune T, Navia BA, Cordon-Cardo D, et al: HIV antigen in the brains of patients with the AIDS dementia complex. Ann Neurol 1987;21:490-496

16. CDC: Revision of the CDC surveillance case definition for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. mmwr 1987;36(Suppl 1S):1-15

17. Levy RM, Bredesen DE, Rosenblum ML: Neurological manifestations of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS): experience

at UCSF and review of the literature. J Neurosurg 1985;62:475-495

18. Levy RM, Janssen RS, Bush TJ, Rosenblum ML: Neuroepidemiology of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. J aids 1988;1:31-41

19. Ho DD, Sarngadharan MG, Resnick L, et al: Primary human T- lymphotropic virus type III infection. Ann Intern Med 1985;103:880-883

20. Carne CA, Tedder RS, Smith A, et al: Acute encephalopathy coincident with seroconversion for anti-HTLV III. Lancet 1985;2:1206-1208

21. Denning DW, Anderson J, Rudge P, Smith H: Acute myelopathy associated with primary infection with human immunodeficiency virus. Br Med J 1987;294:143-144

22. Jannsen RS, Cornblath DR, Epstein LG, McArthur J, Price R: HIV infection and the nervous system: report from the American Academy of Neurology Task Force. Neurology 1989;39:111-122

23. CDC: Projections of the number of persons diagnosed with AIDS and the number of immunosuppressed HIV-infected persons-- United States, 1992-1994. mmwr 1992;41(RR-18):1-29

24. Levy JA: Pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus infection. Microbiol Rev 1993;57:183-289

25. Levy JA: HIV and the Pathogenesis of AIDS. asm Press, Washington, dc 1994

26. Wolfs TF, Zwart G, Bakker M, Goudsmit J: HIV-I genomic RNA diversification following sexual and parenteral virus transmission. Virology 1992;189:103-110

27. Dear ES, Moudgil T, Meyer Rd, Ho DD: Transient high levels of viremia in patients with primary human immunodeficiency virus type I infection. n Engl J Med 1991;324:961-964

28. Ho DD, Neumann AU, Perelson AS, et al: Rapid turnover of plasma virions and CD4 lymphocytes in HIV-I infection. Nature 1995;373:123-126

29. Pantaleo G, Graziosi C, Demarest JF, et al: HIV infection is active and progressive in lymphoid tissue during the clinically latent stage of disease. Nature 1993;362:355-358

30. Pantaleo G, Fauci A: New concepts in the immunopathogenesis of HIV infection. Ann Rev Immunol 1995;13:487-512 .

31. Adleman LM, Wolfsy D: T-cell homeostasis: implications in HIV infection. J aids 1993;6:144-152

32. Kleet IP, Vos AH, deGoede RE, et al: Prognostic value of HIV-1 syncytium-inducing phenotype for rate of CD4+ cell depletion and progression to AIDS. Ann Intern Med 1993;118:681-68i

33. Koot M, Vos AH, Keet RP, et al: HIV-I biological phenotype in long-term infected individuals evaluated with an MT-2 cocultivation assay. aids 1992;6(1):49-54

34. Stevenson M, Meier C, Mann AM, et al: Envelope glycoprotein of HIV induces interference and cytolysis resistance in CD4+ cells: mechanism for persistence in AIDS. Cell 1988;53:483-496

35. Amandari A, Gallo P, Zamarchi R, et al: IgG oligoclonal bands in sera of HIV-I infected patients are mainly directed against HIV-I determinant retroviruses. aids Res Hum 1990;6:581-586

36. Andiman WA, Mezger J, Shapiro E: Invasive bacterial infections in children born to women infected with human immunodeficiency virus type-1. J Pediatr 1994;124:846-852

37. CDC: Recommendations of the U.S. Public Health Service Task Force on the use of zidovudine to reduce perinatal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus. mmwr 1994;43(No RR-11)

38. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report. Mid-year edition 1994, Oxford University Press, New York 1996;6:1-2.

39. Jannsen RS: Epidemiology and Neuroepidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus infection. In Berger JR, Levy RM (eds): AIDS and the Nervous System, 2nd ed. Lippincott-Raven, Philadelphia- New York, 1996, pp 13-38.

40. Mofenson LM, Wolinsky SM: Current insights regarding vertical transmission. In Pizzo PA, Wilfert CM (eds): Pediatric AIDS: The Challenge of HIV Infection in Infants, Children and Adolescents, 2nd ed. Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins, 1994, pp 179-203

41. Boyer PJ, Dillon M, Navaie M, et al: Factors predictive of maternal- fetal transmission of HIV-1: preliminary analysis of zidovudine given during pregnancy and/or delivery. jama 1994;271:1925-1930

42. Burgard M, Mayaux MJ, Blanche S, et al: The use of viral culture and p24 antigen testing to diagnose HIV infection in neonates. n Engl J Med 1992;327:1192-1197

43. Connor EM, Sperling RS, Gelber R, et al: Reduction of maternal- infant transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 with zidovudine treatment. n Engl j Med 1994;331:1173-118C

44. DeRossi A, Masiero S, Giaquinto C, et al: Dynamics of viral replication in infants with vertically acquired human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. j Infect Dis 1996;173:574-578

45. Duliege AM, Messiah A, Blanche S, et al: Nautural history of HIV- 1 infection in children: prognostic value of the laboratory parameters on the bimodal progression of the disease. PediatrInfect Dis j

1992;11:630-635

46. Lyman WD, Kressy Y, Kure K, et al: Detection of HIV in fetal central nervous system tissue. aids 1990;4:917-920

47. Mayaux MJ, Burgard M, Teglas JP, et al: Neonatal characteristics in rapidly progressive perinatally acquired HIV-1 disease. jama 1996;275:606-610

48. Report of a consensus workshop, Siena, Italy, January 17-18, 1992: Early diagnosis of HIV infection in infants. aids 1992;5:1169-1178

49. St. Louis ME, Kamenga M, Brown C, et al: Risk for perinatal HIV- 1 transmission according to maternal immunologic, virologic, and placental factors. jama 1993;269:2853-2859

50. Vigano A, Principi N, Villa ML, et al: Immunologic characterization of children vertically infected with human immunodeficiency virus, with slow or rapid disease progression. j Pediatr 1995;126(3):368-

374.

51. American Academy of Neurology AIDS Task Force: Nomenclature and research case definitions for neurologic manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Neurology 1991;41:778-785

52. Blanche S, Mayaux MJ, Rouzioux C, et al: Relation of the course of HIV infection in children to the severity of the disease in their mothers at delivery. n Engl j Med 1994;330:308-312

53. Landesman SH, Kalish LA, Burns DN, et al: Obstetrical factors and the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 from mother to child. The Women and Infants Transmission Study. n

Engl J Med 1996;334:1617-1623

54. Mayaux MJ, Blanche S, Rouzioux C, et al: Maternal factors associated with perinatal HIV-1 transmission. The French Pediatric HIV Infection Study Group. j aids 1995;8:188-194

55. World Health Organization: Current and future dimensions of the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Geneva: World Health Organization Global Programme on AIDS; transmission by heterosexual contact is stable or increasing. July 1994;2:1-11

56. Gwinn M, Pappaioanou M, George JR, et al: Prevalence of HIV infection in childbearing women in the United States. jama 1991;265:1704-1708

57. Chin J: Current and future dimensions of the HIV/AIDS pandemic in women and children. Lancet 1990;336:221-224

58. Hein K, Dell R, Futterman D, et al: Comparison of HIV+ and HIV- adolescent risk factors and psychosocial determinants. Pediatrics 1995;95:96-104

59. Grubman S, Gross E, Learner-Weiss N, et al: Older children and adolescents living with perinatally acquired human immunodeficiency virus infection. Pediatrics 1995;95:657-663

60. Allain JP, Paul DA, Laurian Y, Senn D: Serologic markers in early stages of human immunodeficiency virus infection in heomophiliacs. Lancet 1986;2:1233-1236

61. Cumming PD, Wallace EL, Schorr JB, Dodd RY: Exposure of patients to human immunodeficiency virus through the transfusion of blood components that test antibody-negative. n Engl j Med

1990;321:941-946

62. Penderson C, Londhardt BO, Jensen BL, et al: Clinical course of primary HIV infection consequences for subsequent course of infection. Br Med j 1989;299:154-157

63. Lifson AR, Rutherford GW, Jaffe HW: The natural history of human immunodeficiency virus infection. j Infect Dis 1988;158:1360-1367

64. Horsburgh CR, Ou CY, Jason J, et al: Duration of human immunodeficiency virus infection before detection of antibody. Lancet 1989;2:637-640

65. Hendriks JCM, Medley GF, van Griensven GJP, et al: Treatment- free incubation period of AIDS in a cohort of homosexual men. aids 1993;7(2):231-239

66. Barnhart HX, Caldwell MB, Thomas P, et al: Natural history of human immunodeficiency virus disease in perinatally infected children: an analysis from the Pediatric Spectrum of Disease Project.

Pediatrics 1996;97:710-716

67. Kourtis AP, Ibegbu C, Nahmias AJ, et al: Early progression of disease in HIV-infected infants with thymus dysfunction. n Engl j Med 1996;335:1431-1436

68. McKinney RE, Maha MA, Conners EM, et al: A multicenter trial of oral zidovudine in children with advanced HIV disease. n Engl j Med 1991;324:1018-1025

69. Burger H, Belman AL, Grimson R, et al: Long HIV-1 incubation periods and dynamics of transmission within a family. Lancet 1990;336:134-136

70. Persaud D, Chadwani S, Rigaud M, et al: Delayed recognition of human immunodeficiency virus infection in preadolescent children. Pediatrics 1992;90:688-669

71. CDC: 1994 revised classification system for human immunodeficiency virus infection in children less than 13 years of age: official authorized addenda--human immunodeficiency virus infection codes and official guidelines for coding and reporting ICD-9-CM. mmwr 1994;43(No rr-12)

72. Gaines H, van Sydow M, Pehrson PO, Lundbergh P: Clinical picture of primary HIV infection presenting as a glandular fever-like illness. Br Med j 1988;297:1363-1368

73. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Clinical Practice Guidelines: 1. Managing early HIV infection, Number 7. 2. Evaluation and management of early hiv infection ahcpr Publication No. 94-057-2 January, 1994.

74. Volberding PA: Antiretroviral Therapy. Management of HIV infections and their complications. In Sande MA, Volberding PA (eds): Medical Management of AIDS, 5th ed. W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, 1997, pp 113-1 24.

75. Schooley RT: Correlation between viral load measurements and outcome in clinical trial of antiviral drugs. aids, 1995.

76. Gelman BB, Guinto FC: Morphometry, histopathology, and tomography of cerebral atrophy in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Ann Neurol 1992;32:31-40

77. Kozlowski PB, Sher JH, Rao, et al: Central nervous system in pediatric AIDS registry. In Lyman WD, Rubinstein A (eds): Pediatric AIDS, Clinical, Pathologic and Basic Science Perspectives. Ann NY Acad Sci 1993;693:295-2 96.

78. Vazeux R, Lacroix-Ciaudo C, Blanche S, et al: Low levels of human immunodeficiency virus replication in the brain tissue of children with severe acquired immunodeficiency syndrome encephalopathy. Am J Pathol 1992;140:137-144

79. Glass JD, Wesselingh SL, Selnes OA, McArthur JC: Clinical-neuropathologic correlation in HIV-associated dementia. Neurology 1993;43:2230-2237

80. Budka H: Neuropathology of human immunodeficiency virus infection. Brain Pathol 1991;1:163-175

81. Wiley CA, Masliah E, Morey, et al: Neocortical damage during HIV infection. Ann Neurol 1991;29:651-657

82. Masliah E, Achim CL, Ge N, et al: Spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus-associated neocortical damage. Ann Neurol 1992; 32:321-329

83. Dickson DW, Lee SC, Hatch W, et al: Macrophages and Microglia in HIV-related CNS neuropathology. in Price rw, Perry s (eds): hiv; aids and the Brain. New York, Raven Press, 1993, pp 99-11 .

84. Kure K, Weidenheim KM, Lyman WD, Dickson DW: Morphology and distribution of HIV-1 qp 41-positive microglia in subacute AIDS encephalitis. acta Neuropathoi (Beri) 1990;80:393-400.

85. Wesselingh SL, Power C, Glass J, et al: Intracerebral cytokine messenger RNA expression in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome dementia. Ann Neuroi 1993;33:576-582

86. Moses AV, Bloom FE, Pauza CD, Nelson JA: Human immunodeficiency virus infection of human brain capillary endothelial cells occurs via a CD4/galactosylceramide-independent mechanism. Proc

Natl Acad Sci USA 1993;90:10474-10478

87. Blumberg BM, Gelbard HA, Epstein LE: HIV-1 infection of the developing nervous system central role of atrocytes in pathogenesis. Virus Res 1994;32:253-267

88. Tornatore C, Chandra R, Berger JR, Major EO: HIV infection of subcortical astrocytes in the pediatric central nervous system. Neurology 1994;44:482-487

89. Nuovo GJ, Gallery F, MacConnell P, Braun A: In situ detection of polymerase chain reaction-amplified HIV-1 nucleic acids and tumor necrosis factor-RNA in the central nervous system. Am J Pathol

1994;144:659-666

90. Johnson RT, McArthur JC, Narayan O: The neurobiology of human immunodeficiency virus infections. faseb j 1988;2:2970-2981

91. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report 1995;7:1-3 9.

92. Price RW, Brew BJ: The AIDS dementia complex. J Infect Dis 1988;158:1079-1083

93. Janssen RS, Nwanyanwu OC, Selik RM, Stehr-Green JK: Epidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus encephalopathy in the United States. Neurology 1992;14:289-297

94. McArthur JC: Neurologic manifestations of AIDS. Medicine (Baltimore) 1987;66:407-437

95. Navia BA, Price RW: The AIDS dementia complex is the presenting or sole manifestation of HIV infection. Arch Neurol 1987;44:65-69

96. Satz P, Morgenstern H, Miller EN, et al: Low education as a possible risk factor for cognitive abnormalities in HIV 1: findings from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort study (MACS). J aids 1993;6:503-511

97. Portegies P, de Gans J, Lange JM, et al: Declining incidence of AIDS dementia complex after introduction of zidovudine treatment [erratum in Br Med J 1989;299:1141] Br Med J 1989;299:819 -821.

98. Bacellar H, Munoz A, Miller EN, et al: Temporal trends in the incidence of HIV-1 related neurologic diseases: Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study, 1985-1992. Neurology 1994;44:1892-1900

99. McArthur JC, Hoover DR, Bacellar H, et al: Dementia in AIDS patients: incidence and risk factors. Neurology 1993;43:2245-2252

100. Grant I, Atkinson JH, Hesselink JR, et al: Evidence for early central nervous system involvement in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and other human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections: studies with neuropsychologic testing and magnetic resonance imaging [published erratum appears in Ann Intern Med 1988 Mar;108(3):496]. Ann Intern Med 1987;107:828-836

101. McArthur JC, Cohen BA, Selnes OA, et al: Low prevalence of neurological and neuropsychological abnormalities in otherwise healthy HIV-1-infected individuals: Results from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study. Ann Neurol 1989;26:601-611

102. Miller EN, Selnes OA, McArthur JC, et al: Neuropsychological performance in HIV-1-infected homosexual men: Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS). Neurology 1990;40:197-203

103. Bornstein RA, Nasrallah HA, Para MF, et al: Neuropsychological performance in symptomatic and asymptomatic HIV infection. aids 1993;7:519-524

104. Martin A, Heyes MP, Salazar AM, et al: Impaired motor skill learning, slowed reaction time, and elevated cerebrospinal fluid quinolinic acid in a subgroup of HIV-infected individuals. Neuropsychology 1993;7:149-157.

105. Stern Y, Marder K, Bell K, et al: Multidisciplinary baseline assessment of homosexual men with and without human immunodeficiency virus infection: neurological and neuropsychological findings.

Arch Gen Psychiatry 1991;48:131

106. Atkinson JH, Grant I: Neuropsychiatry of human immunodeficiency virus infection. In Berger JR, Levy RM (eds): AIDS and the Nervous System, 2nd ed. Philadelphia, Lippincott-Raven, 19' 6.

107. Marsh NV, McCall DW: Early neuropsychological change in HIV infection. Neuropsychology 1994;8:44-48

108. Levy RM, Rosenbloom ML, Perrett LV: Neuroradiologic findings in AIDS: a review of 200 cases. Amer J Roentgenol 1986;147:977-983

109. Dal Pan GJ, McArthur JH, Aylward E, et al: Patterns of cerebral atrophy in HIV-1 infected individuals: results of a quantitative MRI analysis. Neurology 1992;42:2125-2130

110. Aylward EH, Henderer JD, McArthur JC, et al: Reduced basal ganglia volume in HIV 1 associated dementia: results from quantitative neuroimaging. Neurology 1993;43:2099-2104

111. Rottenberg DA, Moeller JR, Strother SC, et al: The metabolic pathology of the AIDS dementia complex. Ann Neurol 1987;22:700- 706

112. van Gorp WG, Mandelkern MA, Gee M, et al: Cerebral metabolic dysfunction in AIDS: findings in a sample with and without dementia. J Neuropsychiatry 1992;4:280-287

113. Koralnik IJ, Beaumanoir A, Hausler R, et al: A controlled study of early neurologic abnormalities in men with asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus infection. n Engl J Med 1990;323:864-870

114. Nuwer MR, Miller EN, Visscher BR, et al: Asymptomatic HIV infection does not cause EEG abnormalities: results from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS). Neurology 199242:1214-1219

115. Hamilton JD, Hartigan PM, Simberkoff MS, et al: A controlled trial of early versus late treatment with zidovudine in symptomatic HIV- I infection. n Engl J Med 1992;326:437-443

116. Epstein LG, Sharer LR, Joshi VV, et al: Progressive encephalopathy in children with acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Ann Neurol 1985;17:488-496

117. Belman AL, Diamond G, Dickson D, et al: Pediatric AIDS: neurologic syndromes. Am J Dis Child 1988;142:29-35

118. Dickson DW, Belman AL, Kim TS, et al: Spinal cord pathology in pediatric acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Neurology 1989;39:227-235

119. Epstein LG, Sharer LR, Goudsmit J: Neurological and neuropathological features of HIV in children. Ann Neurol 1988;23[Suppl]:S19- S23

120. Belman AL: AIDS and pediatric neurology. Neurol Clin n Am 1990;8:571-603

121. Belman AL: AIDS and the child's central nervous system. Pediatr Clin North Am 1992;39:691-714

122. Belman AL, Taylor FL, Nachman S, Millazzo M: HIV-1 associated CNS disease syndromes in infants and children. Neurology 1994;44[Suppl 2]:A16i

123. Tovo PA, Demartino M, Gabiano C, et al: Prognostic factors and survival in children with perinatal HIV-I infection. Italian register for HIV infection in children. Lancet 1992;39:1249-1253

124. Ultmann MH, Diamond G, Ruff HA, Belman AL, et al: Developmental abnormalities in infants and children with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS): a follow-up study. Intern J Neurosci 1987;32:661-667

125. European Collaborative Study: Cogo P, Laverda AM, Ades AE, et al: Neurologic signs in young children with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1990;9:402-406

126. Lobato MN, Caldwell MB, Ng P, Oxtoby MJ: Encephalopathy in children with perinatally acquired immunodeficiency syndrome virus infection. Pediatric Spectrum of Disease Clinical Consortium. j

Pediatr 1995;126:170-175

127. Belman AL: Infants, children and adolescents. In Berger JR, Levy RM (eds): AIDS and the Nervous System, 2nd ed. Lippincott- Raven, New York, 1996, pp 223-25 4.

128. Belman AL, Calvelli T, Nozyce M, et al: Neurologic and immunologic correlates in infants with vertically transmitted HIV infection. Neurology 1990;[Suppl]40(1):40i

129. Davis SL, Halsted C, Levy N, Ellis W: Acquired immunodeficiency virus syndrome presenting as progressive infantile encephalopathy. j Pediatr 1987;110:884-888

130. Ultmann MH, Belman AL, Ruff HA, et al: Developmental abnormalities in infants and children with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and AIDS-related complex. Dev Med Child Neurol 1985;27:563-571

131. Belman AL, Diamond G, Park Y, et al: Perinatal HIV infection: a prospective longitudinal study of the initial CNS signs. Neurology 1989;39[Suppl]:278-279

132. Belman AL, Lantos G, Horoupian D, et al: AIDS: calcification of the basal ganglia in infants and children. Neurology 1986;36:1192-1199

133. Berger JR: Spinal cord syphilis associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection: a treatable myelopathy. Am j Med 1992;92:101-103

134. Britton DB, Mesa-Tejada R, Fenoglio CM, et al: A new complication of AIDS: thoracic myelitis caused by herpes simplex virus. Neurology 1985;35:1071-1074

135. Dal Pan G, Glass J, McArthur J: Clinicopathologic correlations of HIV-1 associated myelopathy. Neurology 1994;44:2159-2164

136. Petito CK, Navia BA, Cho ES, et al: Vacuolar myelopathy pathologically resembling subacute combined degeneration in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome. n Engl j Med 1985;

312:874-879.

137. Hall CD, Snyder CR, Messenheimer JA, et al: Peripheral neuropathy in a cohort of human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. Incidence and relationship to other nervous system dysfunction. Arch Neurol 1991;48:1273-1274

138. Cornblath DR, McArthur JC: Predominantly sensory neuropathy in patients with AIDS and AIDS-related complex. Neurology 1988;38:794-796

139. Vendrell J, Heredia C, Pujol M, et al: Guillain-Barre syndrome associated with seroconversion for anti-HTLV-III. Neurology 1987;37:544

140. Apostolski S, McAlarney J, Quattrini A, et al: The gp 120 glycoprotein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 binds to sensory ganglion neurons. Ann Neurol 1993;34:855-863 140. Bailey RO, Baltch AL, Benkatesh R, et al: Sensory motor neuropathy associated with AIDS. Neurology 1988;38:886-891

142. Rance NE, McArthur JC, Cornblath D, et al: Gracile tract degeneration in patients with sensory neuropathy and AIDS. Neurology 1988;38:265-271

143. Yoshioka M, Shapshak P, Srivasta AK, et al: Expression of HIV-1 and interleukin-6 in lumbosacral dorsal root ganglia of patients with AIDS. Neurology 1994;44:1120-1130

144. Lipkin WI, Parry G, Kiprov D, et al: Inflammatory neuropathy in homosexual men with lymphadenopathy. Neurology 1985;35:1479- 1483

145. Leger JM, Bouche P, Bolgert F, et al: The spectrum of polyneuropathies in patients infected with HIV. j Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1989;52:1369-1374

146. Leger JM, Henin D, Belic L, et al: Lymphoma-induced polyradiculopathy in AIDS: two cases. j Neurol 1992;239:132-134

147. Fuller GN, Jacobs JM, Guiloff RJ: Nature and incidence of peripheral nervous syndromes in HIV infections. j Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1993;56:372-38:

148. Barohn RJ, Gronseth GS, LeForce BR, et al: Peripheral nervous system involvement in a large cohort of human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals. Arch Neurol 1993;50:167-171

149. Kieburtz KD, Seidlin M, Lambert JS, et al: Extended follow-up of peripheral neuropathy in patients with AIDS and AIDS-related complex treated with dideoxyinosine. j aids 1992;5:60-64

150. Kieburtz KD, Ciang DW, Schiffer RB, et al: Abnormal vitamin B 12 metabolism in human immunodeficiency virus infection: Association with neurological dysfunction. Arch Neurol 1991;48:312-314

151. Hollander H: Cerebrospinal fluid normalities and abnormalities in individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus. jInfecDis 1988;158:855-858

152. So YT, Olney RK: The natural history of mononeuritis multiplex and simplex in HIV infection. Neurology 1991;41(Suppl 1):375

153. Said G, Lacroix-Ciando C, Fujimura H, et al: The peripheral neuropathy of necrotizing arteritis: a clinicopathological study. Ann Neurol 1988;23:461-465

154. Said G, Lacroix C, Chemouilli P, et al: Cytomegalovirus neuropathy in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: a clinical and pathological study. Ann Neurol 1991;29:139-146

155. Eidelberg D, Sotrel A, Vogel H, et al: Progressive polyradiculopathy in acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Neurology 1986;36:912- 916

156. Lanska MJ, Lanska DJ, Shmidley JW: Syphilitic polyradiculopathy in an HIV-positive man. Neurology 1988;38:1297-1301

157. Dalakas MC, Pezeshkpour GH, Gravell M, Sever JL: Polmyositis associated with AIDS retrovirus. jama 1986;256:2381-2383

158. Simpson DM, Bender AN: Human immunodeficiency virus- associated myopathy: Analysis of 11 patients. Ann Neurol 1988;24:79-84

159. Wrzolek MA, Sher JH, Kozlowski PB, Rao C: Skeletal muscle pathology in AIDS: an autopsy study. Muscle Nerve 1990;13:508-515

160. Arnaudo E, Dalakas M, Shanske S, et al: Depletion of muscle mitochondrial DNA in AIDS patients with zidovudine-induced myopathy. Lancet 1991;337:508-510

161. Gabbai A, Schmidt B, Castelo, A et al: Muscle biopsy in AIDS and ARC: analysis of 50 patients. Muscle Nerve 1990;13:541-544

162. Simpson DM, Citak KA, Godfrey E, et al: Myopathies associated with human immunodeficiency virus and zidovudine: Can their effects be distinguished? Neurology 1993;43:971-976

163. Mhiri C, Baudrimont M, Bonne G, et al: Zidovudine myopathy: a distinctive disorder associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. Ann Neurol 1991;29:606-614

164. Bessen LJ, Greene JB, Louie E, et al: Severe polymyositis-like syndrome associated with zidovudine therapy of AIDS and ARC. n Engl j Med 1988;318:708

165. Dalakas MC, Illa I, Pezeshkpour, GH, et al: Mitochondrial myopathy caused by long-term zidovudine therapy. n Engl j Med 1990;322:1098-1105

166. Panegyres PK, Tan M, Kakulas BA, et al: Necrotising myopathy and zidovudine. Lancet 1988;1:1050-1051

167. Simpson MV, Chin CD, Keilbough SA, et al: Studies on the inhibition of mitochondrial DNA replication of 3 -azido-3

-deoxythymidine and other deoxynucleoside analog which inhibit HIV-1 replication. Biochem Pharmacol 1989;38:1033-1036

168. Chariot P, Monnet I, Gherardi R: Cytochrome c reaction improves histopathological assessment of zidovudine myopathy. Ann Neurol 1993;34:561-565

169. Herzbert NH, Zorn I, Zwart R, et al: Major growth reduction and minor decrease in mitochondrial enzyme activity in culture human muscle cells after exposure to zidovudine. Muscle Nerve 1992;15:706-710

170. Miller RG, Carson PJ, Moussavi RS, et al: Fatigue and myalgia in AIDS patients. Neurology 1991;41:1603-1607

171. Grau JM, Masanes F, Pedro E, et al: Human immunodeficiency virus type infection and myopathy: clinical relevance of zidovudine therapy. Ann Neurol 1993;34:206-211

172. Chad DA, Smith TW, Blumenfeld DA, et al: HIV-associated myopathy: immunocytochemical identification of an HIV antigen (gp 41) in muscle macrophages. Ann Neurol 1990;28:579-582

173. Gherardi R, Florea-Strat A, Fromont G, et al: Cytokine expression in the muscle of HIV-infected patients: evidence for interleukin-1 alpha accumulation in mitochondria of AZT fibers. Ann Neurol 1994;36:752-758

174. Illa I, Nath A, Dalakas M: Immunocytochemical and virological characteristics of HIV-associated inflammatory myopathies/similarities with seronegative polymyositis. Ann Neurol 1991;29:474-481

175. Simpson DM, Bender AN, Farraye J, et al: Human immunodeficiency virus wasting syndrome may represent a treatable myopathy. Neurology 1990;40:535-538

176. Gherardi R, Baudrimont M, Lionnet F, et al: Skeletal muscle toxoplasmosis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: a clinical and pathological study. Ann Neurol 1992;32:535-542

177. Mahe A, Bruet A, Chabin E, Fendler J-P: Acute rhabdomyolysis coincident with primary HIV-1 infection. Lancet 1989;2:1454-1455

178. Rosenblum MK, Levy RM, Bredesen DE, et al: Primary central nervous system lymphoma in patients with AIDS. Ann Neurol 1988;23[Suppl]:S13-S16

179. DeAngelis L, Yaholom J, Heineman M: Primary CNS lymphoma: combined treatment with chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Neurology 1990;40:80

180. Baumgartner JE, Rachlin JR, Beckstead JH, et al: Primary central nervous system lymphomas: natural history and response to radiation therapy in 55 patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. J Neurosurg 1990;73:206-211

181. Goldstein J, Dickson DW, Rubinstein A, et al: Primary CNS lymphoma in a pediatric patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome treatment with radiation. Cancer 1990;66:2503-2508

182. Chamberlin MC: Pediatric AIDS: a longitudinal comparative MRI and CT brain imaging study. J Child Neurol 1993;8(2):175

183. Zeigler JL, Beckstead JA, Volberding PA, et al: Non-Hodgkin lymphoma in 90 homosexual men. n Engl J Med 1984;311:565-570

PreviousNext

Chapter 45 - Neurovascular Disorders

Was this article helpful?

0 0
Swine Influenza

Swine Influenza

SWINE INFLUENZA frightening you? CONCERNED about the health implications? Coughs and Sneezes Spread Diseases! Stop The Swine Flu from Spreading. Follow the advice to keep your family and friends safe from this virus and not become another victim. These simple cost free guidelines will help you to protect yourself from the swine flu.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment