References

PreviousNext

Because they attract visual attention, movement disorders have been described in both medical and nonmedical historical material for hundreds of years. Early etiological explanations reflected the knowledge and prejudices of their times, with various life forces and demonic possession being cited as common causes. Early clinical descriptions of these disorders, however, extend far beyond historical interest and are important documents rich in details of phenomenology and natural history. Gilles de la Tourette syndrome, although not named until the nineteenth century, was vividly described in the Malleus Maleficarum (1489), and Paracelsus described various forms of chorea in careful detail. Parkinson's disease, the prototypical movement disorder, was first reported by James Parkinson in 1817, and his succinct and vibrant description of the disease in the context of the pollution of London in the Industrial Revolution covered not only the major clinical features of the disease but also suggested the possibility of a causative role of environmental toxins. Specifically, in the United States, the country practitioner George Huntington extensively described Huntington's chorea in the 1800s, basing his description on his and his father's experiences with a large New York kindred. Clear phenomological descriptions occupied primary attention during the nineteenth century, largely steered by the supervision of Charcot and other European neurologists. In the first half of the twentieth century, a clearer focus was placed on the basal ganglia due to early histological and biochemical studies. The molecular, biological, and physiological bases of both hypokinetic and hyperkinetic disorders have received primary attention during the past "decade of the brain."

PreviousNext

Eliminating Stress and Anxiety From Your Life

Eliminating Stress and Anxiety From Your Life

It seems like you hear it all the time from nearly every one you know I'm SO stressed out!? Pressures abound in this world today. Those pressures cause stress and anxiety, and often we are ill-equipped to deal with those stressors that trigger anxiety and other feelings that can make us sick. Literally, sick.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment