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Stanley Fahn

History and Definitions

Clinical History

Anatomy of the Basal Ganglia

Chapter 16 - Hypokinesia and Hyperkinesia

Basal Gangliar Connections

Intrastriatal Structure

Additional Brain Stem-Cortical Loops

Neurotransmitters

Dopamine

Acetylcholine

Gamma-aminobutyric Acid Glutamate Norepineprine Serotonin

Basal Gangliar Interactions with the Cerebellum

Anatomical and Physiological Hypotheses for Hypokinesia and Hyperkinesia Examination of Hypokinesia and Hyperkinesia

Directed Neurological Examination

Patient at Rest

Maintenance of a Posture

Execution of Tasks

Tone

Walking

Associated Neurological Findings Directed General Examination Evaluation Guidelines Clinical Syndromes

Hypokinesia Syndromes Parkinsonism

Parkinsonism-Plus Syndromes Hyperkinesia Syndromes Tremors

Chorea, Choreoathetosis, and Ballism

Tics and Stereotypies

Dystonia

Akathisia

Myoclonus

Hemifacial Spasms

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