Phonic ties and vocalization
Logoclonia speech organs. Defects in articulation may be subdivided into several types: flaccid, spastic, ataxic, hypo/hyperkinetic, and mixed. FLACCID DYSARTHRIA
Flaccid dysarthria is also called lower motor neuron dysarthria or bulbar paralysis. This is due to disease affecting motor neurons in the medulla and lower pons or their intramedullary or peripheral extensions. Speech becomes slurred and progressively less distinct. There is special difficulty in the enunciation of vibrative letters such as "R"; lingual and labial consonants may become impossible with advancing paralysis. Speech has a nasal quality with bilateral paralysis of the palate as may be seen with diphtheria and poliomyelitis and in progressive bulbar palsy. The voice may have a raspy quality because of vocal cord paralysis. Facial diplegia as in Guillain-Barre(c) syndrome affects the
_TABLE 6-3 -- LANGUAGE DISORDERS_
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