In infants and very young children, brain structures can be visualized and congenital anomalies thereby detected. Differences in transduction by tissue, fluid, and blood permit a differentiation of hydrocephalus, cysts, and hemorrhage. Various tumors and vascular disorders, especially vascular malformations, can also be detected with US. In newborns up to 6 months of age, spinal cord lesions can also be detected with US because the posterior elements are membranous rather than bony. In adults, US is used primarily for evaluation of vascular lesions of the head and neck, specifically, stenosis, obstruction, and dissection.
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