Clarks cognitive model of panic

Clark's elegantly simple model of panic owes much to the ideas of Beck (e.g., 1976) which are discussed in detail in Chapter 4. According to Clark's (1986, 1996) model of panic catastrophic misinterpretations of certain bodily sensations (1986, p. 461) are a necessary condition for the production of a panic attack. Thus, a panic attack may originate from the misinterpretation that an increase in heart rate is a signal for an impending heart attack, or that the onset of feeling slightly dizzy or...

Dual representation theory

Brewin et al. (1996) have applied Brewin's (1989) dual representation theory (DRT) to post-traumatic stress reactions in general and to PTSD in particular. This approach endeavours to circumvent some of the difficulties of single-level theories discussed above by proposing two levels in memory at which trauma-related information can be represented. The first level of representation is of the individual's conscious experience of the traumatic event. This forms what Brewin et al. have called...

Ehlers and Clarks cognitive theory

A cognitive-therapy-based model of PTSD has been presented by Ehlers and Clark (2000). The main core of the theory is centred on the proposal that there is a cyclical process that maintains a current and continuing sense of threat, analogous to the cycle that leads to panic in Clark's (1986) model of panic presented earlier in the chapter. The sense of threat is based on the past traumatic event, the nature of the trauma memory, and the negative appraisal of the trauma and its consequences. The...

Bowers network theory

The most influential network theory of emotion was proposed by Gordon Bower (Bower, 1981, 1992 Bower & Cohen, 1982 Bower & Forgas, 2000). Based on the earlier Anderson and Bower (1973) Human Associative Memory (HAM) model, Bower proposed that concepts, events, and emotions can all be represented as nodes within a network. In fact, the type of network originally chosen by Anderson and Bower consisted only of labelled links the nodes themselves had no semantic labels. However, for ease of...

Janoff Bulmans cognitive appraisal theory

Theory Cognitive Appraisal Lazarus

The cognitive appraisal model of Janoff-Bulman (1992 Janoff-Bulman & Frantz, 1997) focuses almost exclusively on the nature of the pre-existing beliefs about the world that the individual carries into a traumatic situation. Janoff-Bulman argues that PTSD is the result of certain basic assumptions about the world being shattered, as reflected in the title of her book which outlines the approach in detail Shattered Assumptions Towards a New Psychology of Trauma. The assumptions that...

Cognitive theoretical models of PTSD

A number of psychological paradigms provide frameworks for understanding PTSD, for example psychodynamic (e.g., Freud, 1919), learning theory (e.g., Keane, Zimmering, & Caddell, 1985), and cognitive (e.g., Horowitz, 1986). While all of these paradigms encompass theories that offer interesting insights into the nature of the disorder, it is the cognitive approach that we feel is the most fully developed and offers the greatest explanatory and predictive power. Cognitive theories of PTSD have...

Summary Of The Spaars Model

Mesoergonomics

The Schematic Propositional Analogical Associative Representation Systems (SPAARS) model of emotion that has been presented throughout this book is summarised in Figure 11.1. The model is multi-level and includes four different types of representation. The initial processing of stimuli occurs through a number of mode-specific or sensory-specific systems such as the visual, the auditory, the tactile, the propriocep-tive, and the olfactory that we have grouped together as the analogical...

Williams Watts Macleod And Mathews 1988 1997

The network theories of Bower (see Chapter 3) and the schema theory of Beck (see above) predicted that a wide range of cognitive biases should be found in emotional disorders such as anxiety and depression. The failure to find such global biases prompted Williams et al. (1988, 1997) to propose an empirically based model in which cognitive biases were specific to specific emotional disorders. Williams et al. (1988, 1997) took as their theoretical starting point the distinction made by Graf and...

Combinations Of Sadness And Other Basic Emotions

One of the possibilities that we suggested in Chapter 5 was that two or more basic emotions could, under certain circumstances, continuously activate each other. This coupling between emotion modules can be considered to work in a similar way to the within-module activation that was outlined in the previous section. The proposal does of course run counter to a number of emotion theories such as that of Oatley and Johnson-Laird (1987), in which it was argued that complex emotions were derived...

Teasdale And Barnard 1993

Interacting Cognitive Subsystems

The interacting cognitive subsystems (ICS) approach (Barnard, 1985, 2003 Barnard & Teasdale, 1991 Teasdale & Barnard, 1993) is a recent exemplar of one of a class of multi-level, multi-system approaches (see also Leventhal and Scherer's model in Chapter 3) that, in addition to their potential application to emotion, can provide accounts of a wide variety of cognitive skills and processes (cf. Newell, 1990). As we shall see therefore, the link between cognition and emotion is not easily...

Cognitive theories of emotional disorder

SELIGMAN'S LEARNED HELPLESSNESS THEORY 103 In the vast colony of our being there are many different kinds of people, all thinking and feeling differently. The cognitive theories presented in Chapter 3 took normal emotions as their starting point. However, there are a number of influential cognitive approaches to emotion that have taken their starting points to be disorders of emotion rather than normal emotions themselves. These theories will form the focus of the present chapter. In contrast...

Leventhal and Scherer

In 1987 Howard Leventhal and Klaus Scherer combined forces and produced a joint cognitive theory of emotion based on their previously separate ideas. Leventhal and Scherer argue that the operation of cognition and emotion is one of interdependence. They distinguish between emotion and other reflex-like responses, because although reflexes may play important roles as elements of emotional reactions Emotional processes decouple automatic, reflex responses from their eliciting stimuli and provide...