Bowers network theory

The most influential network theory of emotion was proposed by Gordon Bower (Bower, 1981, 1992 Bower & Cohen, 1982 Bower & Forgas, 2000). Based on the earlier Anderson and Bower (1973) Human Associative Memory (HAM) model, Bower proposed that concepts, events, and emotions can all be represented as nodes within a network. In fact, the type of network originally chosen by Anderson and Bower consisted only of labelled links the nodes themselves had no semantic labels. However, for ease of...

Schachter and Singer

The basic proposal of the Schachter and Singer (1962) theory was that emotion involved the cognitive interpretation of a state of bodily arousal (see Figure 3.12). This state of arousal was considered to be a general one, in that the same arousal underpinned both positive and negative emotions the crucial determinant for the type of emotion experienced was how the individual explained the state of arousal. To quote from Schachter and Singer Precisely the same state of physiological arousal...

Disordered Fear And Anxiety

Fear and anxiety can become disordered in a variety of ways. We can experience excessive fear to relatively harmless objects or we can develop beliefs that certain things are threatening or harmful when they are not. In other situations fear or anxiety can seem appropriate but overgeneralised such as in post-traumatic reactions or chronic worry. The challenge for any theory that seeks to explain both fear order and fear disorder is to account for the varieties of abnormal fear without making...

The cognitive theory of Spinoza

The next significant emergence of the cognitive stream was provided by the Dutch-born philosopher Baruch Benedict Spinoza (1632-1677) in The Ethics (1677 1955). Scruton warns Spinoza's greatness and originality are hidden behind a remote, impassive, and often impenetrable style. Few have understood his arguments in their entirety. This seems to apply particularly to Spinoza's writing on emotions. He sets out in The Ethics to provide derivations from first principles of the essential properties...

Biases of reasoning and judgement

A number of earlier studies of judgement in depression showed that although depressed individuals were clearly more negative than their non-depressed counterparts (e.g., DeMonbreun & Craighead, 1977), nevertheless they were often found to be more realistic or accurate on such tasks (Lewinsohn, Mischel, Chaplin, & Barton, 1980). The classic statement of this position was by Alloy and Abramson (1979) who, from a series of judgement of contingency studies with depressed and normal students,...

Why do we have emotions

Although we introduced the idea of functionalism in our discussion of the work of Aristotle, we have given the question of why we have emotions little consideration. To recapitulate, the Aristotelian reply to the question, why do we have emotions is that the function of emotions is related to the propensity they allow for certain types of behaviour (cf. Dennett, 1991). So, the function of fear is to provide a propensity for Susan to run away from the bear. One might even add that the...

The Psychologising Of Feeling Theory William James

Despite the difficulties with feeling theory, it can rank among its proponents some of the greatest names in Western philosophy. John Locke's description of pain and pleasure and the emotions they give rise to is thoroughly Cartesian, though less fully articulated. He states that pain and pleasure cannot be described, nor their names defined the way of knowing them is, as of the simple ideas of the senses, only by experience (An Essay Concerning Human Understanding II, 20 see Kenny, 1963, for a...

Complex Emotions Derived From Disgust

The complex emotions of guilt, shame, and embarrassment are part of the group known as self-conscious emotions (e.g., Lewis, 1993) in that they require an internal evaluation of the self against a set of rules, standards, or goals and in which the self or some aspect of the self is seen to have failed (see Figure 9.2). There is now agreement that guilt refers in particular to specific aspects or acts which fall short of some standard, whereas in shame it is the self rather than some specific...

Obsessivecompulsive disorders

The obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCDs) have long been derived from anxiety in the main classification systems. This tradition follows in part the early analysis of OCD and other disorders by Freud who proposed, among many other things, that consciously experienced anxiety is a consequence of the transformation of repressed libido (e.g., Breuer & Freud, 1895). Thus, the most recent American (DSM-IV) and World Health Organization (ICD-10) classification systems both include obsessive-...

Socialcognitive theories of depression

The threads of various strands for current social-cognitive theories of depression can be seen first in the work on the vulnerability that arises for an individual who overinvests in one particular role (Becker, 1971) or goal (Arieti & Bemporad, 1978) and second in the work on life events and depression carried out by Brown and Harris (1978), in which a number of social vulnerability factors were highlighted because of their interaction with adversity to increase an individual's likelihood...

Sadness

CONSIDERATIONS 226 COMBINATIONS OF SADNESS AND OTHER FURTHER COMMENTS AND CONCLUSIONS 256 When sorrows come, they come not single spies, but in battalions. Sadness is little studied in psychology. This failure is surprising given its widespread portrayal in art, the cinema, music, and literature. Instead, the more extreme variants of sadness such as grief, bereavement, and mourning, or disorders derived from sadness such as depression have dominated psychological study (cf. Barr-Zisowitz,...

Individual differences at the schematic model level

It is important to elaborate on the types of models of self, world, and others which we propose that the individual holds at the schematic model level of meaning within SPAARS, and how they relate to the individual's prior emotional and developmental history, in order to try to understand the enormous range of individual differences in the way people respond to traumatic events. Dalgleish (2004) has proposed that there are five main types of pre-trauma personalities that interact with the...

Hopelessness theory

A number of the problems with the reformulated learned helplessness theory have led at least some of its proponents to offer a second reformulation which they have called hopelessness theory (Abramson et al., 1988, 1989). Both in terms of name and in terms of content, hopelessness theory has been placed squarely within the framework of Beck's cognitive therapy. Because we will deal with Beck's approach in the next section, the coverage of hopelessness theory will be brief and will focus on the...

Normal Fear And Anxiety

To review the conceptualisation of fear within the SPAARS framework it might be useful to consider a new example after all, Susan has been running from the bear for so long now that she is almost certainly exhausted. Let us consider a common example from the cognitive therapy literature (e.g., Beck et al., 1979). Imagine the event of a loud noise in your house (in which you are alone) in the middle of the night. There are a number of interpretations of such an event for example, one might...

Novacos cognitiveclinical approach to anger

Novaco's (e.g. 1975, 1979) model of anger is the most influential in the clinical context and has recently been adapted for working with anger problems in people with intellectual disabilities (Taylor & Novaco, 2005). A schematic flow diagram of Novaco's formulation is presented in Figure 8.3. In Novaco's model, external events are cognitively processed and may lead to a state of emotional arousal. This arousal is a general physiological response, which may be labelled differently by the...

The Cognitive Approach In Psychology

We have already touched on some characteristics of the cognitive approach to emotion in our initial remarks on Aristotle and his current functionalist influence on philosophy and psychology. However, before launching into detailed accounts of cognitive models of emotion and the emotional disorders, it is first necessary to provide some groundwork about the cognitive approach and what we see as its most useful characteristics. As with any approach, there are a number of distinct churches...

Fredricksons broadenandbuild theory of happiness

Barbara Fredrickson (1998, 2001) has proposed the so-called broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions. The broaden component of the theory refers to the current function of positive emotions whereas negative emotions are considered to restrict the available thought-action repertoires and increase the likelihood of specific action tendencies, positive emotions are considered to do the opposite. That is, positive emotions are considered to broaden the range of available thought-action...

Two routes revisited fast versus slow change processes in therapy

The evidence clearly shows that emotion responses can be learned and activated without benefit of neocortex and thought processes . . . This makes them difficult to access and treat through interventions that are strictly cognitive in nature. Emotions acquired through subcortical pathways are difficult to extinguish by any technique. (Izard, 1994, p. 151) In Izard's further advice to himself and other would-be therapists, he points to the danger of assuming that there is only one route to...

Summary Of The Aims Of This Book

In order to provide a guiding framework we will now offer a menu, with comments, of what is to be found in the remaining chapters in this book. This menu will, we hope, provide sufficient information for some selection of the dishes that individual readers might prefer to spend longer over, in addition to those that they might prefer to avoid or merely taste and pass quickly on to the next course. The book is divided into two main parts Part 1 is mainly theoretical and reviews a range of...

Cognitive theories of emotional disorder

SELIGMAN'S LEARNED HELPLESSNESS THEORY 103 In the vast colony of our being there are many different kinds of people, all thinking and feeling differently. The cognitive theories presented in Chapter 3 took normal emotions as their starting point. However, there are a number of influential cognitive approaches to emotion that have taken their starting points to be disorders of emotion rather than normal emotions themselves. These theories will form the focus of the present chapter. In contrast...

The ambiguous sentence task

Interpretation biases in anxiety were investigated by Eysenck, Mogg, May, Richards, and Mathews (1991). They presented people with GAD, recovered anxious people, and control participants with a series of sentences. Some of the sentences were ambiguous, with both threatening and non-threatening interpretations (e.g., The two men watched as the chest was opened.). After presentation of the sentences, the participants were given an unexpected recognition memory test, in which they had to decide...

Overview and conclusions

SUMMARY OF THE SPAARS MODEL META-EMOTIONAL SKILLS AND REPRESENTATIONS THERAPEUTIC IMPLICATIONS FINAL COMMENTS ON SPAARS You miss 100 of the shots you never take. As in ice-hockey, so in real life. We have taken shots at most things throughout the previous chapters in this book on the principle that if you don't shoot you'll never hit the target, but at the same time we are mindful that many of the shots will inevitably miss. The aims of this final chapter are therefore to draw together the key...

Becks Cognitive Therapy

Therapists (e.g., Clark, 1986 Teasdale, 1983, 1999) have argued for a circular relationship between cognition and emotion rather than a simple linear one we will examine Clark's approach to panic in more detail in the next section and in Chapter 6. There are two main components to the theory from which the general therapeutic approach is derived (see Figure 4.3). The first of these focuses on the types of cognitive structures that underlie the emotional disorders and the second focuses on the...

Summary

In this final section we would like to replay some of the edited highlights from the theories presented in this chapter. These points, along with those from Chapters 2 and 4, will then be carried forward to Chapter 5 where we will attempt an integration of current theories. Each theory that we have examined, like all theories, has both strengths and weaknesses. Even some of the earlier theories that many now consider to be incorrect were influential enough to spawn empirical research that...

Disbelief dissociation and modularisation

The first thing I would do if I were returning to teaching and practising psychotherapy is remind myself that the modularity of emotions is central to understanding and treating a number of human problems. The principle of modularity means that each emotion exists as a relatively independent and dissociable module with powers for organising and motivating specific sorts of cognition and action. (Izard, 1994, p. 149, author's own italics) Izard's advice to himself is completely in tune with the...

Towards A Theoretical Account Of Happiness

As we have stated above, for the purposes of the present chapter, whether or not an individual is happy conflates across many goals in different domains and at different levels of the system. In the domain of positive emotion, experiences such as joy or exhilaration are responses to the achievement of or movement towards active goals and are more akin to the states of anger, fear, sadness, and disgust. We are not presenting anything new here this understanding of happiness has been around for...

Hypomania and mania

Mrs Evans had been diagnosed by the junior psychiatrist as suffering from mania. She had been brought into the emergency referral clinic by her son who had come home to find her sitting in the living room surrounded by new, expensive commodities she had purchased with her cheque book, even though there was not enough money in the bank to cover the outgoings. Mrs Evans was extremely happy about her new acquisitions but, when her son pointed out that she had done something wrong, she very quickly...

The arguments for basic emotions

A host of different writers and researchers have pledged to the cause of basic emotions (e.g., Arnold, 1960 Ekman, Friesen, & Ellsworth, 1982 Gray, 1982 Izard, 1971 James, 1884 Mowrer, 1960 Oatley & Johnson-Laird, 1987 Panksepp, 1982 Plutchik, 1980 Watson, 1930 see Table 3.1. While acknowledging a diversity among proponents of the basic emotion concept, Ekman, Friesen, and Ellsworth (1972) have pointed out that every investigator has obtained evidence for a central list of six basic...

Werner

The attribution theory of emotion presented by Weiner (e.g., 1985, 1986) provides one of the transitional theories between the earlier undifferentiated arousal approaches and some of the more recent appraisal approaches that posit two or more differentiated states that are characteristic of emotions. For example, in relation to the Zajonc-initiated debate about the primacy of affect, Weiner sits on the fence It is entirely possible that in some instances feelings antedate causal thoughts. For...

Clarks adaptation of cognitive therapy for panic

So far the discussion of cognitive therapy has been dominated by reference to depression, but in order to illustrate how the approach can be modified and applied to other emotional disorders we will briefly mention David Clark's (1986) cognitive model of panic, which will be discussed in more detail in Chapter 6. The key theme in both Beck's general approach to anxiety (Beck & Emery, 1985) and in Clark's (1986) application of the approach to panic disorder is that the individual is...

Leventhal and Scherer

In 1987 Howard Leventhal and Klaus Scherer combined forces and produced a joint cognitive theory of emotion based on their previously separate ideas. Leventhal and Scherer argue that the operation of cognition and emotion is one of interdependence. They distinguish between emotion and other reflex-like responses, because although reflexes may play important roles as elements of emotional reactions Emotional processes decouple automatic, reflex responses from their eliciting stimuli and provide...

Combinations Of Sadness And Other Basic Emotions

One of the possibilities that we suggested in Chapter 5 was that two or more basic emotions could, under certain circumstances, continuously activate each other. This coupling between emotion modules can be considered to work in a similar way to the within-module activation that was outlined in the previous section. The proposal does of course run counter to a number of emotion theories such as that of Oatley and Johnson-Laird (1987), in which it was argued that complex emotions were derived...

Cognitive theoretical models of PTSD

A number of psychological paradigms provide frameworks for understanding PTSD, for example psychodynamic (e.g., Freud, 1919), learning theory (e.g., Keane, Zimmering, & Caddell, 1985), and cognitive (e.g., Horowitz, 1986). While all of these paradigms encompass theories that offer interesting insights into the nature of the disorder, it is the cognitive approach that we feel is the most fully developed and offers the greatest explanatory and predictive power. Cognitive theories of PTSD have...

PTSD within SPAARS

In this section we shall consider how the SPAARS model of emotion accounts for the processing of trauma-related information at the time of the traumatic event and also how that information and the individual's reactions to it are processed subsequent to the traumatic event. The SPAARS approach to PTSD has been spelled out in considerable detail elsewhere (Dalgleish, 1999, 2004a Dalgleish & Power, 2004b), so only a summary of the approach is presented here. At the time of the trauma, we...

Dual representation theory

Brewin et al. (1996) have applied Brewin's (1989) dual representation theory (DRT) to post-traumatic stress reactions in general and to PTSD in particular. This approach endeavours to circumvent some of the difficulties of single-level theories discussed above by proposing two levels in memory at which trauma-related information can be represented. The first level of representation is of the individual's conscious experience of the traumatic event. This forms what Brewin et al. have called...

Ehlers and Clarks cognitive theory

A cognitive-therapy-based model of PTSD has been presented by Ehlers and Clark (2000). The main core of the theory is centred on the proposal that there is a cyclical process that maintains a current and continuing sense of threat, analogous to the cycle that leads to panic in Clark's (1986) model of panic presented earlier in the chapter. The sense of threat is based on the past traumatic event, the nature of the trauma memory, and the negative appraisal of the trauma and its consequences. The...

Berkowitzs reformulation of his reformulation the neoassociationist model of anger

In more recent work, Berkowitz (1990, 1999) has taken the themes that run through his theoretical writings on anger in the 1960s and provided a new framework for understanding anger episodes. This neo-associationist model of anger is represented schematically in Figure 8.2. As can be seen from the figure, Berkowitz's reformulation begins with what he describes as an aversive event. This term is all-encompassing it includes people who feel bad because they have a toothache, are very hot, are...

Horowitzs theory

Horowitz's (e.g., 1976, 1997 Horowitz, Wilner, Kaltreider, & Alvarez, 1980) formulation of stress response syndromes offers perhaps the most far-reaching and influential social-cognitive model of reactions to trauma. Although inspired by classical psycho-dynamic psychology (notably Freud, 1920), Horowitz's theory is principally concerned with discussing such ideas in terms of the cognitive processing of traumatic information (i.e., ideas, thoughts, images, affects, and so on). Horowitz has...

Depression some theoretical comments

The main cognitive models of depression were presented earlier in Chapter 4 because Seligman's learned helplessness and Beck's cognitive therapy models have also been applied to other psychological disorders. Rather than repeat these presentations, therefore, we will simply highlight some of the conclusions that we reached. First, there is no convincing evidence that attributional style is a vulnerability factor for the onset of depression, whatever its role in maintenance and recovery might be...

Interoceptive biases in panic

Interoception is the perception of bodily cues, and Shands and Schor (1982) have suggested that panic patients are interoceptive experts, being able to describe significant changes in almost every organ system and region of the body (p. 108). This issue has been investigated in a series of studies by Ehlers and her colleagues. In the first two studies, Ehlers, Margraf, Davies, and Roth (1988) and Ehlers, Margraf, Roth, Taylor, and Birbaumer (1988) did not find that panic disorder patients were...

Summary Of The Spaars Model

Mesoergonomics

The Schematic Propositional Analogical Associative Representation Systems (SPAARS) model of emotion that has been presented throughout this book is summarised in Figure 11.1. The model is multi-level and includes four different types of representation. The initial processing of stimuli occurs through a number of mode-specific or sensory-specific systems such as the visual, the auditory, the tactile, the propriocep-tive, and the olfactory that we have grouped together as the analogical...

Skinners operant theory of emotions

Skinner (e.g., Holland & Skinner, 1961 Skinner, 1974) offers us another variety of behaviourist theories of emotions. Skinner discusses emotions within an operant conditioning framework. Within this model emotions serve to put the organism into states in which different sets of event contingencies define the reinforcers Under different emotional conditions, different events serve as reinforcers, and different groups of operants increase in probability of emission. By these predispositions we...

Janoff Bulmans cognitive appraisal theory

Theory Cognitive Appraisal Lazarus

The cognitive appraisal model of Janoff-Bulman (1992 Janoff-Bulman & Frantz, 1997) focuses almost exclusively on the nature of the pre-existing beliefs about the world that the individual carries into a traumatic situation. Janoff-Bulman argues that PTSD is the result of certain basic assumptions about the world being shattered, as reflected in the title of her book which outlines the approach in detail Shattered Assumptions Towards a New Psychology of Trauma. The assumptions that...

Clarks cognitive model of panic

Clark's elegantly simple model of panic owes much to the ideas of Beck (e.g., 1976) which are discussed in detail in Chapter 4. According to Clark's (1986, 1996) model of panic catastrophic misinterpretations of certain bodily sensations (1986, p. 461) are a necessary condition for the production of a panic attack. Thus, a panic attack may originate from the misinterpretation that an increase in heart rate is a signal for an impending heart attack, or that the onset of feeling slightly dizzy or...

Teasdale And Barnard 1993

The interacting cognitive subsystems (ICS) approach (Barnard, 1985, 2003 Barnard & Teasdale, 1991 Teasdale & Barnard, 1993) is a recent exemplar of one of a class of multi-level, multi-system approaches (see also Leventhal and Scherer's model in Chapter 3) that, in addition to their potential application to emotion, can provide accounts of a wide variety of cognitive skills and processes (cf. Newell, 1990). As we shall see therefore, the link between cognition and emotion is not easily...

Theoretical approaches to worry

The three theoreticians, Borkovec, Metzger, and Pruzinsky (1986), combined to propose a tripartite theory of worry and anxiety. The three tiers reflect their three predominant areas of interest learning theory, cognitive psychology, and self-theory. However, the foundation of the model is Borkovec's work on learning theory and we shall concentrate on that in our brief review of this approach. Borkovec et al. (1986 Borkovec & Miranda, 1999), inspired by Mowrer's (1947) two-stage theory of...

Foas theory

Applying Lang's (1977, 1985) concept of fear structures (see the introduction to the present chapter and Chapter 3), Foa and her colleagues (Foa & Kozak, 1986 Foa & Rothbaum, 1998 Foa, Steketee, & Rothbaum, 1989) have put forward an information-processing theory of PTSD which centres on the formation of a so-called fear network in long-term memory. This fear network (cf. Lang) encompasses stimulus information about the traumatic event information about cognitive, behavioural, and...

Richard Lazarus

Lazarus Cognitive Appraisal Theory

We will begin with a brief discussion of Lazarus' (1966) early theory before going on to consider his more recent revisions (Lazarus, 1991). In the influential 1966 version, emotion was considered to arise from how individuals construed or appraised their ongoing transactions with the world. Cognitive appraisal was considered to occur in two stages. Primary appraisal refers to an initial evaluation of whether an encounter is irrelevant, benign, positive, or stressful thus, the conclusion that...

Disorders Of Disgust Fears and phobias

It has long been the tradition to derive the anxiety disorders from the basic emotion of fear (see Chapter 6) and, of course, we do not dispute that many fears and phobias have their origins in fear-based responses. However, there are a number of early-onset specific phobias that do not conform to the original Mowrer (e.g., 1939) two-factor theory of phobias, as Rachman has argued for many years (see Rachman, 2004, for a recent summary). In an attempt to deal with some of these problems,...

Some remarks on passionate love

Hatfield and Rapson have defined passionate love as follows a state of intense longing for union with another. Reciprocated love (union with the other) is associated with fulfilment and ecstacy. Unrequited love (separation) is associated with emptiness, anxiety, or despair. Passionate love is a complex functional whole including appraisals or appreciations, subjective feelings, expressions, patterned physiological processes, action tendencies, and instrumental behaviours. (1993, p. 5) It is...

Williams Watts Macleod And Mathews 1988 1997

The network theories of Bower (see Chapter 3) and the schema theory of Beck (see above) predicted that a wide range of cognitive biases should be found in emotional disorders such as anxiety and depression. The failure to find such global biases prompted Williams et al. (1988, 1997) to propose an empirically based model in which cognitive biases were specific to specific emotional disorders. Williams et al. (1988, 1997) took as their theoretical starting point the distinction made by Graf and...

Disgust

SOME THEORETICAL COMMENTS COMPLEX EMOTIONS DERIVED FROM DISGUST DISORDERS OF DISGUST SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS I don't want to belong to any club that will accept me as a member. The temptation when beginning a chapter on disgust is to launch into a series of bathroom-style jokes in an attempt to induce sufficient levels of disgust in the reader. As a warning, Miller (2004) observes disgust has been shunned as a subject of serious enquiry, no doubt in part because its unsociable stink threatens...

Other aspects of anger within SPAARS

A further example of the associative generation of anger within SPAARS is when anger-related appraisals of an event at some time in the emotional history of the individual, through a process of repetition of that event (see Chapter 5), become associatively driven such that eventually there is no longer a need for access to the schematic model level of meaning for the emotion of anger to be generated following that event. The recent approach to anger developed by DiGiuseppe and Tafrate (2007)...

Metaemotional Skills And Representations

The publication of the book Emotional Intelligence by Daniel Goleman in 1995 led to the sudden popularisation of the earlier proposal for the concept of emotional intelligence by Salovey and Mayer (1990), which in turn was based on earlier proposals such as Gardner's (1983) concept of social intelligence. The popularisation has led to the assessment and teaching of emotional skills in the workplace and in schools, while academically it has remained surrounded by controversy. The main arguments...