There are a number of studies which suggest that aspects of a person's appearance or the situation in which an event occurs can enhance an individual's experience of anger (see Averill, 1982) and again this basic thesis would apply to all emotions. For example, Berkowitz and Le Page (1967) found that participants who had been provoked to anger exhibited more intensive anger-related behaviour when a gun, rather than a neutral object such as a tennis racquet, was present in the room. The design of the study was such that the participants had no reason to relate the gun or neutral object to any events occurring in the experiment. This effect has been replicated in several other studies (e.g., Fraczek & Macaulay, 1971; Frodi, 1975). However, there have also been numerous failures to replicate (e.g., Page & Scheidt, 1971; Turner, Layton, & Simons, 1975). In discussing the difficulties in replicating this "weapons effect", Berkowitz (1999) has suggested that an extraneous stimulus such as a gun will only facilitate anger-related behaviour if the person has already been provoked to anger and if the weapon is not considered to be so dangerous as to have an inhibitory effect.
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