In the excerpt from Pulp Fiction with which we began this chapter, Samuel L. Jackson's character becomes enraged through his recitation of the passage from Ezekiel. This contribution to the experience of anger is what Averill (1982) labels a "non-normative factor". Although we are using the emotion of anger as an illustrative
Table 8.3 A partial list of the rules and norms related to appraisals, events, and agents of anger
A. With respect to the events and appraisals
a. We have the right (duty) to become angry at intentional wrongdoing, including an affront to our honour, freedom, property, or other rights b. We have the right (duty) to become angry at the unintentional misdeeds of certain others if those misdeeds are due to negligence, carelessness, oversight and so forth
a. We should not become angry at events which are beyond our influence b. We should not become angry at events which can be remedied in more standard ways
B. With respect to the perceived agent
a. Anger should be directed only at persons, and by extension, other entities (the self, human institutions) that can be held responsible for their actions b. Anger is more appropriately directed at a peer or subordinate than at a superior c. Anger is more appropriately directed at someone who is well known than a stranger or mere acquaintance d. Among strangers, anger is more appropriately directed at men than at women
a. Anger should not be directed at those who cannot be held responsible for their actions (e.g., because of age or ignorance)
b. Anger should not be directed at those who cannot profit from the experience (e.g., because of infirmity)
Based on Averill, 1982.
case, the conclusions from this type of research can be extended to other basic emotions.
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