Preface to second edition

In the 10 years since we published the first edition of this book, the area of emotion in general and affective neuroscience in particular has expanded rapidly and deservedly. However, there is always a risk that an area does move on, and that one's treasured views and theories have to be abandoned or substantially altered because of progress in relevant fields. It was with some trepidation, therefore, that we approached the writing of this second edition: Would the basic emotions approach around which we had built our SPAARS framework for emotion need to be revised? Would more recent developments in multi-level modelling of emotion require substantial changes to the processes outlined for SPAARS? Would the findings from cognitive neuroscience or anthropology or clinical interventions lead us back to the drawing board?

As we went through the more recent literature, it became clear that some of the debates we had assumed were done-and-dusted had in fact been refreshed from new work both in philosophy and in neuroscience, and that Plato and the modern "feeling theorists" were making a strong comeback. In our embracing of the basic emotions approach, we had also underplayed the importance of dimensional aspects of emotions, when in fact we believe that, like wave and particle physics, both approaches are necessary to describe the emotion system fully. However, we still firmly believe that a focus on basic emotions offers new insights and understandings into the emotional disorders. Therefore we have retained the structure of the first edition in which the second part of the book examines the five basic emotions of fear, sadness, anger, disgust, and happiness and their related disorders on a chapter-by-chapter basis. One thing that we do warn from the start, however, is that we have not written a book about affective neuroscience; we touch on issues from neuroscience, but another book in itself would be required to do justice to this rapidly expanding area.

We are also delighted to be able to overcome another significant deficit of the first edition; namely that in the first edition we did not offer a definition of what the term "SPAARS" actually stood for until page 178! Now we take the opportunity to present it regularly and often from the start of the book—Schematic, Propositional, Analogical, and Associative Representation Systems! The fact that we did not even index SPAARS as a term in the first edition very much reflects how the model emerged as we worked on the book, in addition to the uncertainty of whether or not it would survive beyond gestation. Well, we believe that we now have a healthy and thriving child that will soon be approaching adolescence—and all the excitement that stage of life brings.

Again we wish to thank the many people who have influenced us, argued with us, and at times lost patience with us in the writing of this second edition. First, we would like to thank the reviewers of the first edition, especially Andy Clark for his guidance on philosophy, Nico Frijda and Eamon Fulcher for their helpful comments on the overall text, and Arvid Kappas, Warren Mansell, and Naz Derakhshan who gave us invaluable comments on an earlier draft of this second edition. We would also like to thank our family, friends, and colleagues who include Phil Barnard, Chris Brewin, Lorna Champion, Steve Jones, Steve Joseph, Marc Lewis, Andy MacLeod, Tony Marcel, Andrew Mathews, Nicola Morant, Emmanuelle Peters, Charlie Sharp, John Teasdale, and Fraser Watts. We are also grateful to the many students who often through no fault of their own have had to struggle with and make sense of the ideas; we would especially like to thank Janis Abernathy, Alexandra Dima, John Fox, Nuno Ferreira, Katy Phillips, Kathryn Quinn, and Eleanor Sutton for sharing their struggles with SPAARS with us.

Chapter 1

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